Wormholes Explained – Breaking Spacetime


If you saw a wormhole in reality, it would appear round, spherical, a bit like a black hole. Light from the other side passes through and gives you a window to a faraway place. Once crossed, the other side comes fully into view with your old home now receding into that shimmering spherical window. But are wormholes real, or are they just magic disguised as physics and maths? If they are real, how do they work and where can we find them? [Kurzgesagt Intro] For most of human history, we thought space was pretty simple; a big flat stage where the events of the universe unfold. Even if you take down the set of planets and stars, there’s still something left. That empty stage is space and it exists, unchanging and eternal. Einstein’s theory of relativity changed that. It says that space and time make up that stage together, and they aren’t the same everywhere. The things on the stage can affect the stage itself, stretching and warping it. If the old stage was like unmoving hardwood, Einstein’s stage is more like a waterbed. This kind of elastic space can be bent and maybe even torn and patched together, which could make wormholes possible. Let’s see what that would look like in 2D. Our universe is like a big flat sheet, bent in just the right way, wormholes could connect two very, very distant spots with a short bridge that you could cross almost instantaneously. Enabling you to travel the universe even faster than the speed of light. So, where can we find a wormhole? Presently, only on paper. General relativity says they might be possible, but that doesn’t mean they have to exist. General relativity is a mathematical theory. It’s a set of equations that have many possible answers, but not all maths describes reality. But they are theoretically possible and there are different kinds. EINSTEIN ROSEN BRIDGES The first kind of wormholes to be theorized were Einstein Rosen Bridges. They describe every black hole as a sort of portal to an infinite parallel universe. Let’s try to picture them in 2D again. Empty space time is flat, but curved by objects on it. If we compress that object, space-time gets more curved around it. Eventually, space-time becomes so warped that it has no choice but to collapse into a black hole. A one-way barrier forms: the event horizon, which anything can enter but nothing can escape; trapped forever at the singularity at its core. But maybe there is no singularity here. One possibility is that the other side of the event horizon looks a bit like our universe again but mirrored upside down, where time runs backwards. In our universe things fall into the black hole. In the parallel universe, with backwards time, the mirror black hole is spewing things out a bit like a big bang. This is called a white hole. Unfortunately, Einstein-rosen bridges can’t actually be crossed. It takes an infinite amount of time to cross over to the opposite universe and they crimp shut in the middle. If you go into a black hole, you won’t become the stuff coming out of the white hole. You’ll only become dead. So, to travel the cosmos in the blink of an eye, humans need a different kind of wormhole; a Traversable Wormhole. VERY OLD STRING THEORY WORMHOLES If string theory or one of its variations is the correct description of our universe, then we could be lucky and our universe might even have a tangled web of countless wormholes already. Shortly after the Big Bang, Quantum fluctuations in the universe at the smallest scales far far smaller than an atom may have created many, many traversable wormholes. Threaded through them are strings, called cosmic strings. In the first billionth of a trillionth of a second after the Big Bang, the ends of these tiny, tiny wormholes were pulled light-years apart; scattering them through the universe. If wormholes were made in the early universe, whether with cosmic strings or some other way, they could be all over; just waiting to be discovered. One might even be closer than we realize. From the outside, black holes and wormholes can look very similar; leading some physicists to suggest the supermassive black holes in the center of galaxies are actually wormholes. It will be very hard to go all the way to the center of the Milky Way to find out though, but that’s okay. There might be an equally extremely hard way to get our hands on a wormhole, we could try to make one. MANMADE WORMHOLES To be traversable and useful, there are a few properties we want a wormhole to have. First, it must obviously connect to distant parts of space-time. Like your bedroom and the bathroom, or Earth and Jupiter. Second, it should not contain any event horizons, which would block two-way travel. Third, it should be sufficiently sized so that the gravitational forces don’t kill human travelers. The biggest problem we have to solve, is keeping our wormholes open. No matter how we make wormholes, gravity tries to close them. Gravity wants to pinch it closed and cut the bridge; leaving only black holes at the ends. Whether it’s a traversable wormhole with both ends in ours, or a wormhole to another universe, it will try to close unless we have something propping it open. For very old string theory wormholes, that’s the cosmic strings job. For man-made wormholes, We need a new ingredient. Exotic matter. This isn’t anything like we find on earth, or even antimatter. It’s something totally new and different and exciting, with crazy properties like nothing that’s ever been seen before. Exotic matter is stuff that has a negative mass. Positive mass like people and planets and everything else in the universe, is attractive because of gravity. But negative mass would be repulsive; it would push you away. This makes a kind of anti-gravity the props open our wormholes. And exotic matter must exert enormous pressure to push space-time open, greater even than the pressure of the centers of neutron stars. With exotic matter, we could weave space-time however we see fit. We may even have a candidate for this exotic matter, the vacuum of space itself. Quantum fluctuations in empty space are constantly creating pairs of particles and antiparticles, only for them to be annihilated an instant later. The vacuum of space is boiling with them, and we can already manipulate them to produce an effect similar to the negative mass we’re looking for. We could use this to stabilize our wormholes. Once we’re keeping it open, the ends would start together. So, we’d have to move them around to interesting places. We could start by wiring the solar system; leaving one end of each wormhole in orbit around the earth. We could flick others into deep space. The earth could be a wormhole hub for a vast interstellar human civilization spread over light-years, but only a wormhole away. However, wormholes have a dark side. Even opening a single wormhole, kind-of breaks the universe in fundamental ways, potentially creating time travel paradoxes, and violating the causal structure of the universe. Many scientists think that this not only means they should be impossible to make, but that it’s impossible for them to exist at all. So, for now, we only know that wormholes exist in our hearts, and on paper in the form of equations. We know you want to know more about universe stuff, so, we’re trying something new. Kurzgesagt and Brilliant are collaborating on a six-part video series about our favorite science and space things. Thanks to their help, there will be more videos on this channel in the next six months. Kurzgesagt has worked with Brilliant for a while now, and we love what they’re doing. In a nutshell, Brilliant helps you to get ahead by mastering maths and science skills through actively solving challenging and fascinating problems. To support our collaboration with them, visit brilliant.org/nutshell and sign up for free today. The first 688 people that use the link will get 20% off their annual premium subscription. –FINAL SUBTITLE EDIT/READ BY: WinterPyro

100 thoughts on “Wormholes Explained – Breaking Spacetime”

  1. I think negative mass can only exist in an anti-universe. Imagine what mess it would have made in our universe since the big bang … maybe no one star would have appeared 'til yet.

  2. If exotic matter repels to hold a wormhole open, it would repel us from ever entering it unless we had a force propelling us into the hole greater than that of the repelling matter.

  3. So you basically need temporal or what you call time-freezing science to hold wormholes in a fixed space time continuum and for use, what if parts of us are trapped in the wormhole’s?

  4. So I wonder who will be the brave soul that will step up to be the first wormhole traveler. Any volunteers out there? 😉 lol!

  5. While I do have some faith in our fellow man I don't think we have evolved enough to start meddling with this type of science yet. We can barely resolve our own issues mutch less start fabling with the makings of the universe. God help us! lol!

  6. hmm could be true we can enter the wormholes, but they mentioned as physically…what about spiritually ….. there's dimensions for that 😮

  7. in the future (if there is one) People will say wow how they were traveling without teleports back in the old days? it must be hard

  8. Black matter help you slow it down to time, for example GPS passageway your destination is 20 minutes black matter slow down and kill switch otherwise you pass your destination traveling at that speed, figure how to use both matter systematically,

  9. Time is for asteroid and meteor wont ever collide, longitude and altitude, within space to make passageway threw the universal solar system

  10. Enstine theory is systematically, I'm a system expert in some what, present a project like this I can fill in the blanks , we could have been a hellaofateam

  11. From earth to moon mars Jupiters Saturn every planet habitable and non inhabitable, we set up each with its own natural elements and combinations of natural elements, avatar and enstine theory finally gonna be completed, imma invest in it we make onle big enough x weight and matter

  12. Space wormhole has to have signal GPS,passageway so wont crash meteor because time, every thing has time, were able to keep faster than time, gravity winds 7000 miles to per hour to start earth is 200, time that in our worm holes it's not strong enough, passageway white space matter the black space matter, white matter rips a hole in space, black matter slow down control time time going and stopping in a scientific way, plus sound motion waves for passageway, black space matter stop time and 1 travel spacetime

  13. If you don't add black space matter you will past your destination your traveling the speed of light, black matter slow down and sound waves motion, for time travel and stopping time

  14. Wow had a huge star turn small imagine shrinking it the size of an autom, the mass would still be the same shinked, inter the black hole, it gets crushed, into another planet universe, so its measured the speed of sound motion waves its like a tunnel it closes it's in , we should have been wormholes obviously it's not the future tell we have wormholes, the start of it

  15. my momma sayz time travel aint gonna work
    She also says that people should stop calling BLACK HOLES black holes.
    She says that on the basis of The theory of general relativity which predicts that a sufficiently compact mass can deform spacetime to form what people refer to as a black fucking hole (even tho it aint a fucking hole! Allow me to continue in my elaborative effort here on this point..)_
    The quantum field theory in curved spacetime predicts that event horizons emit Hawking radiation, with the same spectrum as a black body of a temperature inversely proportional to its mass (temperature on the order of billionths of a kelvin for black holes of stellar mass) making it essentially impossible to observe.
    In layman's terms, black hole, is an superdense object and not a hole…you only perceive it as a hole (similiar as when you look at material made from black nano tubes that don't allow light to reflect – for easy reference check "vantablack").
    Momma sayz Hi to ya'll and sweet dreamz.
    Sleep now in the fire, the planet is burning. (blackholes aint gonna do shit for you when the ecosystems collapse and Earth becomes hostile to human life, just saying)

  16. acually we might be close to creating wormholes the only problom is detecting exotic mater compresing it until it opens the wormhole

  17. We asctualy do not know a fucking thing.. and after all why all this life and universe? Where all came from what was the big bang

  18. I got some serious stranger things vibes from this episode! The psychedelic colours and editing is even better than normal in this one, so good to watch while stoned

  19. If you traveled through a wormhole 1 light year away then went back home and then traveled for one year to where the wormhole was you would meet your past self.

  20. Parallel universe, wormholes… or how to make a bench of people pay a bench of scientists who play with others' money and make it appear as they are doing scientific research.
    Amazing!

  21. I believe that whatever happens in a black hole, we will never travel through it. The immense forces that practically go near infinity would eventually crush everything we throw at it

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