Why don’t perpetual motion machines ever work? – Netta Schramm

Around 1159 A.D., a mathematician called
Bhaskara the Learned sketched a design for a wheel
containing curved reservoirs of mercury. He reasoned that as the wheels spun, the mercury would flow to the bottom
of each reservoir, leaving one side of the wheel
perpetually heavier than the other. The imbalance would keep
the wheel turning forever. Bhaskara’s drawing was one of
the earliest designs for a perpetual motion machine, a device that can do work indefinitely
without any external energy source. Imagine a windmill that produced
the breeze it needed to keep rotating. Or a lightbulb whose glow provided
its own electricity. These devices have captured many
inventors’ imaginations because they could transform
our relationship with energy. For example, if you could build
a perpetual motion machine that included humans as part of its
perfectly efficient system, it could sustain life indefinitely. There’s just one problem. They don’t work. Ideas for perpetual motion machines all violate one or more
fundamental laws of thermodynamics, the branch of physics that describes
the relationship between different forms of energy. The first law of thermodynamics says
that energy can’t be created or destroyed. You can’t get out more energy
than you put in. That rules out a useful
perpetual motion machine right away because a machine could only ever
produce as much energy as it consumed. There wouldn’t be any left over
to power a car or charge a phone. But what if you just wanted the machine
to keep itself moving? Inventors have proposed plenty of ideas. Several of these have been variations
on Bhaskara’s over-balanced wheel with rolling balls
or weights on swinging arms. None of them work. The moving parts that make one
side of the wheel heavier also shift its center of mass downward
below the axle. With a low center of mass, the wheel just swings back and forth
like a pendulum, then stops. What about a different approach? In the 17th century, Robert Boyle
came up with an idea for a self-watering pot. He theorized that capillary action, the attraction
between liquids and surfaces that pulls water through thin tubes, might keep the water cycling
around the bowl. But if the capillary action is strong
enough to overcome gravity and draw the water up, it would also prevent it from falling
back into the bowl. Then there are versions with magnets,
like this set of ramps. The ball is supposed to be pulled
upwards by the magnet at the top, fall back down through the hole, and repeat the cycle. This one fails because like
the self-watering pot, the magnet would simply hold
the ball at the top. Even if it somehow did keep moving, the magnet’s strength
would degrade over time and eventually stop working. For each of these machines to keep moving, they’d have to create some extra energy to nudge the system
past its stopping point, breaking the first law of thermodynamics. There are ones that seem to keep going, but in reality, they invariably turn out
to be drawing energy from some external source. Even if engineers could
somehow design a machine that didn’t violate the first law
of thermodynamics, it still wouldn’t work in the real world
because of the second law. The second law of thermodynamics tells us that energy tends to spread out
through processes like friction. Any real machine would have moving parts or interactions with air
or liquid molecules that would generate tiny amounts
of friction and heat, even in a vacuum. That heat is energy escaping, and it would keep leeching out, reducing the energy available
to move the system itself until the machine inevitably stopped. So far, these two laws of thermodynamics have stymied every idea
for perpetual motion and the dreams of perfectly efficient
energy generation they imply. Yet it’s hard to conclusively say we’ll
never discover a perpetual motion machine because there’s still so much we don’t
understand about the universe. Perhaps we’ll find
new exotic forms of matter that’ll force us to revisit the laws
of thermodynamics. Or maybe there’s perpetual motion
on tiny quantum scales. What we can be reasonably sure about
is that we’ll never stop looking. For now, the one thing that seems
truly perpetual is our search.

100 thoughts on “Why don’t perpetual motion machines ever work? – Netta Schramm”

1. Hoàng Phạm says:

hi

2. Buzz 054 says:

Till watching this video I was always thinking why couldn't the scientists use this kind of machines for infinite energy supply for us

3. Remi Lalaque says:

Chuck Norris is a never ending source of energy

4. Israel Morales says:

Doesnt the earth move in a perpetual motion?

5. Nisal Jay says:

How about the earths rotation on its own axis ?!?! Isn't that to be counted as perpetual motion

6. TECHNO GAMES says:

Perpetulerium

7. leonard bramhill says:

We have been told the earth has been spinning for billions of years. Is that not perpetual motion?

8. George John says:

Why is this so depressing?

9. brandon gamble says:

Dark matter completely trumps all of those cards..

10. Ahmed Atif Abrar says:

I don't get anyway why English speakers can't utter an Indian or a Bangladeshi name, though they can pronounce the French, Latin or Greek name well!

11. Waluigi says:

I know one that does work.

12. Ending Times says:

Perpetual motion machines are used in boats . Lifting up and down using only water displacement .

13. Thijmer says:

I have a concept that works: An observer that observes another observer that observes the first observer.

14. santi04091 says:

There is one way…. use LOVE and it will work forever

15. Mein Feish says:

y’all better know a redstone block can power anything without losing energy

or if you are lazy then a lever would work

16. jdoe says:

Basic. Gravity

17. zukarin chan says:

The self pouring liquid

18. Hoang Quan Le says:

4:01 In short, this one is mechanical energy being converted into thermal energy via friction.

19. 7519 says:

The globe at the start and end has no Sri Lanka.

20. Hellbent706 says:

Human reproduction is perpetual motion on a world wide scale. That wheel started cranking out kids since Adam and Eve thousands of years ago and I see no sign of stopping. Crime is perpetual motion. Every since Cain bopped Abel in the head, crime was set into motion and it will never stop completely. Remember perpetual motion does not have to be a single unit. It can be a collective series of units working together to perform a single task powered by a primary energy sources….the sun. Propetual motion need only last for your lifetime which makes it prepetual to you because after you're dead, you won't know if it ever stopped. The last rule of Thermodynamics is (you can't make a device that works forever on its own power) because "no machine made by man can last forever in the first place… prepetual or not."

21. Liam Julien says:

Arent waterfalls technically this

22. Alistair Kaname says:

This video just crushed my dream of designing a power that is self-sufficient

23. Gaming With Noah says:

Idea: Build a slight slope around the entire world and place a ball on it.

24. Savitha Sridhar says:

I came here to see what is perpetual motion machine☺️☺️

25. Andrew says:

Um what about the planet or any planet for that matter. Its always moving. Someone EXPLAIN!

26. H.AmZ.A says:

We conclude from this… because the universe is moving forawrd in time and not diying mean it needs an external source of energie to keep it the way it is

27. Remys Alberto Carvajal says:

Si aplicamos las mismas reglas de termodinámica de las máquinas de movimiento perpetuo, al universo, llegaremos a la conclusión de que el universo, como energía, está en expansión, y al estar en expansión, quiere decir que eventualmente esta energía se agotará y por ende se acabará la existencia. Lo que significa un universo finito. Sin embargo, si demostramos que el universo no está en expansión, sino que existen niveles de dimensiones superiores al que conocemos, y que el universo se encuentra en un eterno ciclo, entonces, cabe la posibilidad de crear estas máquina de movimiento perpetuo, y si descubrimos la forma de crear estas máquinas, quiere decir que los humanos podrán crear sus propios universos convirtiéndose en dioses.

28. Christian Guerra says:

u are a perpetual motion machine with the ability to accomplish anything u set your mind on

29. HavocTV says:

Universe : No, Im gonna patch that,
Ain't nobody be happy 😡

30. Owen Marshall says:

31. Colemilo Tanner says:

Just make a red stone repeater lol easy

32. Rudy Cornejo says:

So a watermill doesn't count?

33. bigwestside says:

Is the orbit and rotation of the earth not perpetual motion ?

34. Someone Someone says:

Nice oxford university press book about working pepeetum engines from 1995 https://www.amazon.com/Permanent-Magnet-MONOGRAPHS-ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC-ENGINEERING/dp/0198593899/ref=mp_s_a_1_27?keywords=magnet+motor&qid=1567671873&s=gateway&sprefix=magnet+motor&sr=8-27

35. Somebody says:

I got a reply for those who say nothing is impossible 😂

36. Preetham Shetty says:

No . See this video ..there is experiment on thiz….https://youtu.be/2V2i2H7VbsY

37. ReeceB speed up says:

Hey my last name is boyle

38. Bill Allen says:

one has to eliminate all 11 other fields of physics to applied object…leaving the one field…switching on and off… yeah its that easy sweetie!

39. Jeff Olsen, CPA says:

How awesomely ironic the video presentation ends with a brief segment of the earth spinning!

40. Nootaboot says:

Bruh just put down a redstone block

The oceans are good enough for a perpetual motion machine. They "do work indefinitely". I haven't noticed them stopping their motion lately.

42. The Banana Overlord says:

lol just make an afk pool

43. Milan Kostić says:

That is invented already, it is all around us. It could be called PW4R machine (poor works for rich) 🤣
To ensure working, machine is protected by varios invented laws and making revolutions to stop it is usually prohibited 😂

44. no u says:

omg why

45. no u says:

5:03 no, the moon going around the earth and the earth going around the sun we can be sure about. (I know someone is going to say in a billion years the planets will stop orbiting or something like that )

46. Brooke Orlov says:

im trying to make one of these in school

47. ch an says:

This is so wrong and low IQ thinking.

48. Mikael Games says:

Video: *Shows multiple examples of perpetual motion machines*

Me: *Thinking of charging powerbank with itself*

49. ChristianRico Gaming says:

i can make unlimited coblestone using water and lava

50. jieyanni says:

Minecraft afk pools be like

Lol it worked before it got patched in universe v0.013

52. commander sus Gunner says:

Y u bully me?

53. The Boot of Doot says:

I might of made one that works.

54. LBSK Media says:

Isn't the earth spinning around the sun perpetual motion?

55. umr khayam says:

but why is it a law?
Why does it work and can never be any way around it?
I mean humans came up with 'em.. right?

56. konstantin604 says:

Перельман "Занимательная физика"

Our search isn't perpetual Earth will be uninhabitable soon enough.

58. Darius NoName says:

Well… if you could isolate this machine from outside, theoretically perpetual machine would be possible. But we wouldn't see it, touch it, or in any way affect it.
Also, I read some interesting article that talked about beginning of this universe. It hypothesized that by adding all mass of this universe to a single point and as gravity affects that point, energy would build up. It would build up till enough energy is gathered for it to "explode" outwards. I don't know how realistic it is, but given that it is possible that total energy of universe is 0 and in closed systems amount of energy is unchanging, it could be that our universe is perpetual motion machine.

59. Justin Hutchinson says:

Because…

60. gypsy1959 says:

Yes. You can. There are two ways to make it.
1-Direct way. You give X amount and you get out more than what you put in. Not a huge amount, but more than you put in. It is not a huge amount, but you get more and It is expensive. I have tried and I can prove it.
2-Indirect way. It is very easy, a huge difference between what you put in and what you get out. It is very simple and very inexpensive. This is the answer to the energy problem. You can get out unlimited energy.
Exp.Say We put 5 MW energy. We can create whatever you need, say 10 million MW or 5 Trillion MW energy.
Just one source can provide enough energy for the whole world.I call this "Multiplying Energy ".
E4aBW- Energy 4 a Better World. It is simple, clean, green, safe, unlimited and FREE ENERGY>
E4aBW. We should bring Electricity and clean water to every house in the world. My question is.
Are you going to support this energy ?. No oil,gas,nuke,sun,wind,water, coal,biofuel/gas.,etc…

61. james wu says:

electrons inside super conductor

62. Majaz Husain Lyrics of Sufi song & Naat says:

This is proof for god…

63. Brian James says:

to bet perpetual to work you have to break the conservation laws. in perpetual the definition is to break the conservation of energy law. think about this. the machines' definition is that the conversation laws are broken. the question is all about the conservation laws but in the human quality of believing in something because of hope and/or ego massaging.

64. Michael Bramlett says:

The reason why they don't work is because not enough people believe in them.

65. Andrew Ashman says:

Lol what if you just spin a ball in space, I mean an object in motion stays in motion

66. Nodashai Gaming says:

Technically there is one devise that uses perpetual motion and it is the metronome because it can start and never stop.

67. F A Z Z Y says:

Who else is doing a science task and is trying to figure out info on these things

68. Charles Roberts says:

BEFORE I watch the video, let me state this; NO, because of 1.- Gravity, 2.- The laws about how energy is regulated, 3.- ENTROPY! (friction) If such a thing as a "perpetual motion machine" was at ALL possible, the Universe would accelerate, faster and faster and faster, careening OUT OF CONTROL! Entropy and it's twin brother, Time, are the Universal regulators, that's why things happen in sequence and not all at once! Entropy and Time are NOT our bane, they're our friends!

69. deer hunter says:

why should anything move … the most stable and energy efficient is .. being in rest . nature knows this . humans don't … because of ego that wants to experience trough its senses …

Here in the philippines we have countryman invented a fan no need electricity or battery https://news.abs-cbn.com/video/life/01/14/18/taga-kumpuni-ng-relo-nakaimbento-ng-bentilador-na-hindi-kailangan-ng-kuryente-o-baterya

71. 1 4 says:

Perpetual motion: keeps on moving, acting, …
Hmmmmmmmm

Perpetual motion irl: Your mom that keeps scolding you 😉

72. 1 4 says:

Perpetual motion: the solar system that rotates

73. Alluric Inc says:

Bcus this is agains the nature’s law

74. Ren Hood says:

Then explain the minecraft redstone clock

75. Common Atheist says:

Flat-Earthers, Chem Trail believers, and other conspiracy nuts: "This video is yet another attempt by greedy governments and oil corporations to stop technological progress and destroy hope in perpetual motion machines. When (not if) we finally achieve perpetual motion, those greedy corporations and governments will lose all their power and money. It's all about power and money, like always. So to keep it they ridicule, suppress, and will even kill anyone who invents a working perpetual motion machine. That's the only reason we don't already have it as an every-day thing like cars and smart phones."

77. Baby Whale Crypto says:

Intuitively, these 'perpetual motion' machines don't seem to make any sense because you get an infinite supply of free energy – eventually you will use up all the energy in the universe if you try to power a 'perpetual motion' machine forever it would seem.

78. Mr.CoolBoi says:

Minecraft Redstone Engineers: Observe.

79. B K says:

Dis is common sense tho ;p

80. Lakshana V P says:

Earth keeps on rotating

81. peayas24 y-vlog says:

It can not be created without some source of infinity

82. Ömer Y says:

@4:49 half-life 1 sound at first experiment 🧐

83. hongchuan wang says:

1:12

Wait isn't that kurzgesagt's Dyson sphere?

84. Screw Ball says:

Perpetual motion : Chain smoker !!!

85. Kushagra Bajpai says:

86. STER Gaming says:

87. John Galanakis says:

Somewhere nikola tesla sits in his chair laughing so hard on us

88. Boss Boomer says:

Me: creates redstone clock

Laws of thermodynamics:

Accually, quantum physics forbids this

89. Sherryl Keith says:

I did something very similar, new plans from Avasva helped me with this.

90. absoftitanium says:

Magnet's strength does not decline over time.

91. Walter Black says:

A great way to teach physics to kids in school. So interesting!

92. linnen_elm says:

[incubator intensifies]

93. Jeremy Mettler says:

You don't know vacuum float density sink lbs if the in one became two of three the WHOLE complete circle without ends returned to the ALL in the WHOLE of the ONE threw I AM ALL in the WHOLE of the FATHER SON HOLY SPIRIT in eye of fire purified HOLY SPIRIT out eye a dying sun bore the FATHER I AM ALL the FATHER SON HOLY SPIRIT in all out all of the ALL the FATHER out in return to the WHOLE of the ALL in the ONE of the WHOLE complete circle of life without ends as of the WHOLE ends meet beginnings of no ends of the WHOLE complete on the LIFE of the WHOLE age will meet beginnings will see ends out in true just eyes of beauty return WHOLE of the ALL in the ONE .

94. John Cedrick Maglinao says:

You never know, someday someone will be able to create a machine that runs perpetually, "Imagination is more important that knowledge" as what Albert Einstein quoted.And maybe that "imagination" will bring some of us "insane" hhahahahhahahahahah lol.

95. sumit sharma says:

u guys say perpectual motion is impossible , but you are wrong .
The earth is moving on its same motion for millions/billions of years in the same speed and same motion .

96. Waldo says:

– Nothing can rotate for ever.
Earth: – Hold my ocean.

97. Who is Sammy? says:

4:30 CHAOS REIGNS

98. TNG trollin' noob gamer says:

Before these laws people must have had unlimited energy

99. Bepiscat44 says:

ive always wondered, would something count as a perpetual motion machine if it was a magnet powered one that generated energy, then used that excess energy to find another magnet by the time the first one degraded? i feel like it just wouldnt produce enough energy to find another magnet, or maybe it wouldnt count because the second magnet is an "external source of energy"