Who Owns Antarctica? (Bizarre Borders Part 3)

Antarctica, home to the south pole(s), penguins, and about 5000 people during the summers, but less than 1000 during the ever dark winter. No one lives on the continent permanently, so, who owns Antarctica? Most stuff outside national borders, the sea floor, the moon, really all of space, is the common heritage of mankind. It belongs to none of us and all of us, held in trust for future generations. Which is nice, if perhaps a bit presumptive to say that the entire universe is ours, and maybe someone will have something to say about that eventually, story for another time, but still. Well done humanity. Except, it’s never that simple. Because the paperwork on Antarctica sort of says common heritage of mankind, but it doesn’t go all in. Here’s why. Explorers started landing in Antarctica in about the 1800’s, planting flags and making claims. But these claims were a bit hollow because on the civilization tech tree, Antarctica wasn’t colonizable. Nonetheless, like Monopoly, the optimal colonial strategy is claim everything you land on. In the early 1900’s, the UK toyed with claiming all of Antarctica before scaling back her ambitions to just the coastal parts she had explored to the south pole. France also claimed coastal explorations to the pole, followed by Norway followed by the Nazis. Mid-century, Argentina and Chile claimed slices overlapping with the UK, who they figured was rather too busy at the time to care, but later she and her now independent colonies totally did. This left Antarctica a mess of competing claims, at a bad time to have large territorial disputes. Complicating things, the United States and the Soviet Union gave themselves the right to make a claim on Antarctica, not now, but maybe later. Given this, quite remarkably in 1959 the US and USSR and ten other countries, Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, and the UK made a treaty to ease the tensions, saying that on Antarctica, there would be no military, no mining, and no nuclear exploding. The Antarctican paperwork is the first Cold War disarmament treaty, and set aside the continent for science and nature. By the way, because it’s a nature preserve, there’s a rule about garbage. Leave nothing behind. Nothing. Travel to Antarctica in the summer and you’ll fly back with your poo in the winter. So this looks pretty great. What’s the problem with the line about common heritage? Well, no one actually gave up their claims on Antarctica because the only way to get everyone to sign was to include this clause, which sidesteps the issue, basically saying countries will act as though Antarctica is the common heritage of mankind and as though they have no claims, but they aren’t legally for realsies giving up anything, which is why maps of Antarctica often include the current state of claim wedges. This blank spot, by the way, is nobody’s, leaving it the largest territory unclaimed on Earth by any nation. So far, anyway. Now unlike the colonial days, countries have the tech to build permanently staffed bases on Antarctica, and it just so happens that countries build their bases in their own claims, leaving no clear answer to this question. According to the treaty, Antarctica belongs to everyone, but the treaty itself has an intentional hole. So Antarctica exists in this quantum state where the claims are real and unreal. Some countries build within their “borders” and some countries without claims, like China, build their bases on the continent wherever because it belongs to everyone, right guys? These claims don’t really matter, until they do in the 2040’s when the mining ban comes up for review. Oh, and there’s possibly a lot of oil in Antarctica, not to mention 70% of the Earth’s fresh water, which could be the more valuable resource in the future. The US and the Soviet… er, Russia might just yet dust off those one free claim because I say so tickets. But for now, Antarctica is as the treaty intended. A continental nature preserve and scientific research haven. Squarespace is the easiest way to create a beautiful website, blog, or online store for you and your ideas. I’m very happy to have them as a sponsor because I personally use Squarespace to run cgpgrey.com and also hellointernet.com, the podcast I do with Brady. If you are looking to have your own website for just about anything, I personally recommend Squarespace. And if you click on the link or use the offer code “Grey”, you get 10% off at checkout. So if you have ever considered starting your own website, click on the link, go to Squarespace, give them a try. It helps Squarespace, and it helps this channel. Squarespace. Build it beautiful.

100 thoughts on “Who Owns Antarctica? (Bizarre Borders Part 3)”

  1. Soon, technically the world's ''largest economically strong'' (Britannia)(Britain) ones not only the UK/Argentina dispute but the whole of Antarctica

  2. What if no one is allowed to go there bevause its a wall of impenetrable ahield, marking the boundary of the Earth's dome? And the U.N. map is really how Earth is laid out? Which explains why nobody ever travels the world from north to south to circumnavigate.

  3. About that piece of the Antarctic 🥧 pie,
    It’s been claimed and I am enjoying my new reign of south central southern Antarctica 🇦🇶
    Also known as….. Mine

  4. Why no crowns for Belgium and Japan? They are monarchies. And the UK, Australia, and New Zealand share a monarch, shouldn't they wear identical crowns?

  5. Someone's should tell England whore Elizabeth about Antarctica , there's gold vs oil , maybe she want send some thief around Buckingham to that place , just like Australia

  6. Someone's should tell England whore Elizabeth about Antarctica , there's gold vs oil , maybe she want send some thief around Buckingham to that place , just like Australia

  7. It'll be incredibly useful to the British economy so expect us to have a referendum where we vote to leave it because we hate penguins.

  8. Belongs to US …. if you think Antartica has not an owner think again…. you cannot travel to Antartica, you cannot explore it unless you are a scientistic working for a country. You will send to prison if you decide to land in Antartica. Antartica belongs to the USA …. sadly Antartica has an owner….. try to buy land see if you can …

  9. Sorry to inform you but Antarctica belongs to me. I thought of renaming it 'Land of Kmangod', but figured Antarctica would suffice since everyone calls it that anyway.

  10. Should be Chile and Argentina!
    Get the russians out of there and all European countries false claiming.
    Chile and Argentina will also be claiming parts of the north pole in the Siberian and Alaska portions.

  11. "Which is nice, if perhaps a bit presumptive to say that the entire universe is ours and maybe someone will have something to say about that eventually."


  12. 0:32 How dare they?!! Haughty, entitled sheared primates! They can barely travel to other planets in its own stellar system! They don't even have phaser torpedoes to defend their claims – or even warp drive! Let's pull those round ears till they get like ours! The arrogance of those apes SHALL BE PUNISHED!

    Romulan Warbird Fleet decloaks between Earth and Moon orbit

  13. Hey that unclaimed part is mine! Step back US, Russia and Not very great Britian. It is mine. I am letting nature rule over my part. Penguins, wales, seals and walruses they are my people. they have set up colonies, military bases and free trade zones all over since I asked them to!

  14. jeez between Antarctica, Hong Kong, and Macau, the 2040s are going to be really interesting years…possibly full of conflict. Okay probably full of conflict

  15. I another war for Antarctica it most likely just be used for a cover for the us and China to duke it out Russia is eh now and japan has a dissolved military but they have one thing cultural influence and tons of it so if the us and japan went to war it wouldn’t be pretty culturally

  16. Ok hold up 1 Russia violated the treaty first so we need to remind them no mineing or…. we could quite literally put some troops in Antarctica if any Russians see dis can you comment and plz remove all mineing facilities from the ice nation thank you

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