What is CRITICAL THINKING? What does CRITICAL THINKING mean? CRITICAL THINKING meaning & explanation



critical thinking is described by Richard Paul as a movement in two waves 1994 the first wave of critical thinking is often referred to as a critical analysis that is clear rational thinking involving critique it's details vary amongst those who define it according to Barry K Bayer 1995 critical thinking means making clear reasoned judgments during the process of critical thinking ideas should be reasoned well-thought-out and judged the National Council for excellence and critical thinking defines critical thinking as the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing applying analyzing synthesizing and/or evaluating information gathered from or generated by observation experience reflection reasoning or communication as a guide to belief into action traditionally critical thinking has been variously defined as the process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing applying analyzing synthesizing and evaluating information to reach an answer or conclusion discipline thinking that is clear rational open minded and informed by evidence reasonable reflective thinking focused on deciding what to believe or do purposeful self regulatory judgment which results in interpretation analysis evaluation and inference as well as explanation of the evidential conceptual methodological criteria logical or contextual considerations upon which that judgment is based includes a commitment to using reason in the formulation of our belief in critical social theory it is the commitment to the social and political practice of participatory democracy willingness to imagine or to remain open to considering alternative perspective willingness to integrate new or revised perspectives into our ways of thinking and acting and willingness to foster criticality and others the skill and propensity to engage in an activity with reflective skepticism mcpeck 1981 disciplined self-directed thinking which exemplifies the perfection of thinking appropriate to a particular mode or domain of thinking Paul 1989 P 214 thinking about one's thinking in a manner designed to organize and clarify raise the efficiency of and recognize errors and biases in one's own thinking critical thinking is not hard thinking nor is is directed at solving problems others and improving one's own thinking critical thinking is inward directed with the intent of maximizing the rationality of the thinker one does not use critical thinking to solve problems one uses critical thinking to improve one's process of thinking an appraisal based on careful analytical evaluation contemporary critical thinking scholars have expanded these traditional definitions to include qualities concepts and processes such as creativity imagination discovery reflection empathy connecting knowing feminist theory subjectivity ambiguity and in conclusiveness previously critical thinking excluded these subjective practices the ability to reason logically is a fundamental skill of rational agents hence the study of the form of correct argumentation is relevant to the study of critical thinking first wave logical thinking consisted of understanding the connections between two concepts or points in thought it followed the philosophy where the thinker was removed from the train of thought and the connections and the analysis of the connect was devoid of any bias of the thinker Carrie Walters describes this ideology in her essay beyond Lotus ISM and critical thinking a logistic approach to critical thinking conveys a message to students the sinking is legitimate only when it conforms to the procedures of informal and to a lesser extent formal logic and that the good thinker necessarily aims for styles of examination and appraisal that are analytical abstract universal and objective this model of thinking has become so entrenched in conventional academic wisdom that many educators accepted as canon walters 1994 p1 the adoption of these principles parallel themselves with the increasing reliance on quantitative understanding of the world in the second wave of critical thinking as defined by carrie s walters rethinking reason 1994 p1 many authors moved away from the locus and treatment of critical thinking that the first wave privileged especially in institutions of higher learning walter summarizes logis ism as the unwarranted assumption that good thinking is reducible to logical thinking 1994 p1 a logistic approach to critical thinking conveys a message to students the thinking is legitimate only when it conforms to the procedures of informal and to a lesser extent formal logic and that the good thinker necessarily aims for styles of examination and appraisal that are analytical abstract universal and objective Walter's 1994 p1 as the second wave took hold scholars began to take a more inclusive view of what constituted as critical thinking rationality and logic are still widely accepted in many circles as the primary examples of critical thinking you

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