Vocational education | Wikipedia audio article


Vocational education is education that prepares
people to work in various jobs, such as a trade, a craft, or as a technician. Vocational education is sometimes referred
to as career education or technical education. A vocational school is a type of educational
institution specifically designed to provide vocational education. Vocational education can take place at the
post-secondary, further education, and higher education level; and can interact with the
apprenticeship system. At the post-secondary level, vocational education
is often provided by highly specialized trade, Technical schools, community colleges, colleges
of further education UK, universities, Institutes of technology / Polytechnic Institutes. Until recently, almost all vocational education
took place in the classroom, or on the job site, with students learning trade skills
and trade theory from accredited professors or established professionals. However, online vocational education has grown
in popularity, and made it easier than ever for students to learn various trade skills
and soft skills from established professionals in the industry. The World Bank’s 2019 World Development Report
on the future of work suggests that flexibility between general and vocational education particularly
in higher education is imperative to enable workers to compete in changing labor markets
where technology plays an increasingly important role.==Definition=====
Differentiation from TVET (Technical and Vocational Education and Training)===TVET (Technical and Vocational Education and
Training) is education and training that provides the necessary knowledge and skills for employment. It uses many forms of education including
formal, non-formal and informal learning, and is said to be important for social equity
and inclusion, as well as for the sustainability of development. TVET, literacy and higher education, is one
of three priority subsectors for UNESCO. Indeed, it is in line with its work to foster
inclusive and equitable quality education and lifelong learning opportunities for all.The
development and definition of TVET is one that parallels other types of education and
training, such as Vocational Education; however, TVET was officiated on an international level
as a better term to describe the field, and therefore is likewise used as an umbrella
term to encompass education and training activities such as Vocational Education.===Opinions and models===
Wilhelm von Humboldt’s educational model goes beyond vocational training. In a letter to the Prussian king, he wrote:
“There are undeniably certain kinds of knowledge that must be of a general nature and, more
importantly, a certain cultivation of the mind and character that nobody can afford
to be without. People obviously cannot be good craftworkers,
merchants, soldiers or businessmen unless, regardless of their occupation, they are good,
upstanding and – according to their condition – well-informed human beings and citizens. If this basis is laid through schooling, vocational
skills are easily acquired later on, and a person is always free to move from one occupation
to another, as so often happens in life.” The philosopher Julian Nida-Rümelin criticized
discrepancies between Humboldt’s ideals and the contemporary European education policy,
which narrowly understands education as a preparation for the labor market, and argued
that we need to decide between “McKinsey”, to describe vocational training, and Humboldt.==By country=====
Argentina===Argentina is one of the first countries in
Latin America to initially run apprenticeship and vocational programs, from 1903 to 1909
basic programs were delivered at main cities. The entity encharged of delivering these programs
was the General Workers’ Union (Spanish: Unión General de Trabajadores; abbreviated UGT)
an Argentine national labor confederation. The massive development of Vocational Education
in Argentina took place during the period between World War I and World War II, with
the large arrival of immigrants coming from Europe. During the presidency of Juan Perón, the
first formal apprenticeship and vocational training programs were offered free of charge
across the country, eventually becoming the National Workers’ University (Universidad
Obrera Nacional) under the National Vocational Programs Law 13229, implemented on August
19, 1948. These programs were created and supported
by the Federal Government and delivered by Provincial Governments at various technical
colleges and regional universities as well at industrial centers; initially created to
cover the lack of technical specialists in Argentina at that time of a rapid industrialization
expansion across the country. The degrees granted were that of Technician
and Factory Engineer in many specialties. Currently, the Vocational Education programs
are delivered by public and private learning organizations, supported by the Argentine
Ministry of Labour and the Ministry of Education, the leading providers of technical and vocational
education in the country are the National Technological University (UTN) (Universidad
Tecnológica Nacional, UTN) and the National University of the Arts (UNA) (Universidad
Nacional de las Artes, UNA).===Australia===In Australia vocational education and training
is mostly post-secondary and provided through the vocational education and training (VET)
system by registered training organisations. However some secondary schools do offer school-based
apprenticeships and traineeships for students in years 10, 11 and 12. There were 24 Technical Colleges in Australia
but now only 5 independent Trade Colleges remain with three in Queensland; one in Townsville
(Tec-NQ), one in Brisbane (Australian Trade College) and one on the Gold Coast (Australian
Industry Trade College) and one in Adelaide and Perth. This system encompasses both public, TAFE,
and private providers in a national training framework consisting of the Australian Quality
Training Framework, Australian Qualifications Framework and Industry Training Packages which
define the competency standards for the different vocational qualifications. Australia’s apprenticeship system includes
both apprenticeships in “traditional” trades and “traineeships” in other more service-oriented
occupations. Both involve a legal contract between the
employer and the apprentice or trainee and provide a combination of school-based and
workplace training. Apprenticeships typically last three to four
years, traineeships only one to two years. Apprentices and trainees receive a wage which
increases as they progress through the training scheme.The states and territories are responsible
for providing funding for government subsidised delivery in their jurisidiction and the Commonwealth
Government, through the Australian Quality Skills Authority, provides regulation of registered
training organisations except in Victoria and Western Australia. A central concept of the VET system is “national
recognition”, whereby the assessments and awards of any one registered training organisation
must be recognised by all others, and the decisions of any VET regulatory authority
must be recognised by the all states and territories. This allows national portability of qualifications
and units of competency. A crucial feature of the training package
(which accounts for about 60% of publicly funded training and almost all apprenticeship
training) is that the content of the vocational qualifications is theoretically defined by
industry and not by government or training providers. A Training Package is endorsed by the Australian
Industry and Skills Committee before it can be used by RTOs to deliver Nationally Accredited
Training. The National Centre for Vocational Education
Research or NCVER is a not-for-profit company owned by the federal, state and territory
ministries responsible for training. It is responsible for collecting, managing,
analysing, evaluating and communicating research and statistics about vocational education
and training (VET). The boundaries between vocational education
and tertiary education are becoming more blurred. A number of vocational training providers
such as Melbourne Polytechnic, BHI and WAI are now offering specialised bachelor’s degrees
in specific areas not being adequately provided by universities. Such applied courses include equine studies,
winemaking and viticulture, aquaculture, information technology, music, illustration, culinary
management and many more.===Commonwealth of Independent States===
The largest and the most unified system of vocational education was created in the Soviet
Union with the professional`no-tehnicheskoye uchilische and Tehnikum. But it became less effective with the transition
of the economies of post-Soviet countries to a market economy.===European Union===
Education and training is the responsibility of member states, but the single European
labour market makes some cooperation on education imperative, including on vocational education
and training. The ‘Copenhagen process’, based on the open
method of cooperation between Member States, was launched in 2002 in order to help make
vocational education and training better and more attractive to learners throughout Europe. The process is based on mutually agreed priorities
that are reviewed periodically. Much of the activity is monitored by Cedefop,
the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training. There is strong support, particularly in northern
Europe, for a shift of resources from university education to vocational training. This is due to the perception that an oversupply
of university graduates in many fields of study has aggravated graduate unemployment
and underemployment. At the same time, employers are experiencing
a shortage of skilled tradespeople.===Finland===
In Finland, vocational education belongs to secondary education. After the nine-year comprehensive school,
almost all students choose to go to either a lukio (high school), which is an institution
preparing students for tertiary education, or to a vocational school. Both forms of secondary education last three
years, and give a formal qualification to enter university or ammattikorkeakoulu, i.e.,
Finnish polytechnics. In certain fields (e.g., the police school,
air traffic control personnel training), the entrance requirements of vocational schools
include completion of the lukio, thus causing the students to complete their secondary education
twice. The education in vocational school is free,
and students from low-income families are eligible for a state student grant. The curriculum is primarily vocational, and
the academic part of the curriculum is adapted to the needs of a given course. The vocational schools are mostly maintained
by municipalities. After completing secondary education, one
can enter higher vocational schools (ammattikorkeakoulu, or AMK) or universities. It is also possible for a student to choose
both lukio and vocational schooling. The education in such cases lasts usually
from three to four years.===Germany===
Vocational education in Germany is based on the German model. A law (the Berufsausbildungsgesetz) was passed
in 1969 which regulated and unified the vocational training system and codified the shared responsibility
of the state, the unions, associations and Industrie- und Handelskammer (chambers of
trade and industry). The system is very popular in modern Germany:
in 2001, two-thirds of young people aged under 22 began an apprenticeship, and 78% of them
completed it, meaning that approximately 51% of all young people under 22 have completed
an apprenticeship. One in three companies offered apprenticeships
in 2003; in 2004 the government signed a pledge with industrial unions that all companies
except very small ones must take on apprentices.===Hong Kong===
In Hong Kong, vocational education is usually for post-secondary 6 students. The Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education
(IVE) provides training in nine different vocational fields, namely: applied science,
business administration, child education and community services, construction, design,
printing, textiles and clothing, hotel service and tourism studies, information technology,
electrical and electronic engineering, and mechanical, manufacturing and industrial engineering.===Hungary===
Normally at the end of elementary school (at age 14) students are directed to one of three
types of upper secondary education: one academic track (gymnasium) and two vocational tracks. Vocational secondary schools (szakközépiskola)
provide four years of general education and also prepare students for the maturata (school
leaving certificate). These schools combine general education with
some specific subjects, referred to as pre-vocational education and career orientation. At that point many students enrol in a post-secondary
VET programme often at the same institution a vocational qualification, although they
may also seek entry to tertiary education. Vocational training schools (szakiskola) initially
provide two years of general education, combined with some pre-vocational education and career
orientation, they then choose an occupation, and then receive two or three years of vocational
education and training focusing on that occupation—such as bricklayer. Students do not obtain the maturata but a
vocational qualification at the end of a successfully completed programme. Demand for vocational training, both from
the labour market and among students, has declined while it has increased for upper
secondary schools delivering the maturata.===India===
Vocational training historically has been a subject handled by the Ministry of Labour,
other central ministries and various state-level organizations. To harmonize the variations and multiplicity
in terms of standards and costs, the National Skills Qualification Framework was launched
in December 2013. The National Skills Qualifications Framework
(NSQF) is a competency-based framework that organizes all qualifications according to
a series of levels of knowledge, skills and aptitude. These levels, graded from one to ten, are
defined in terms of learning outcomes which the learner must possess regardless of whether
they are obtained through formal, non-formal or informal learning. NSQF in India was notified on 27 December
2013. All other frameworks, including the NVEQF
(National Vocational Educational Qualification Framework) released by the Ministry of HRD,
stand superseded by the NSQF. In November 2014 the new Government in India
formed the Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship. Articulating the need for such a Ministry,
the Prime Minister said, [1], “A separate Ministry, which will look after promoting
entrepreneurship and skill development, would be created. Even developed countries have accorded priority
to promoting skilled manpower”. As a continuation of its efforts to harmonize
and consolidate skill development activities across the country, the Government launched
the 1st Skill India Development Mission (NSDM) on 15 July 2015. Also launched on the day was the National
Policy for Skill Development & Entrepreneurship.Today all skill development efforts through the
Government (Directorate General of Training) and through the Public Private Partnership
arm (National Skill Development Corporation) are carried out under the Ministry, through
the Skill India Mission. The Ministry works with various central ministries
and departments and the State government in implementing the NSQF across all Government
funded projects, based on a five-year implementation schedule for complete convergence. The involvement of the private sector in various
aspects of skill development has enhanced access, quality, and innovative financing
models leading to sustainable skill development organizations on the ground. The short-term skill development programs
(largely offered by private organizations) combined with the long-term programs offered
by the Indian technical institutes (ITIs) complement each other under the larger framework. Credit equivalency, transnational standards,
quality assurance and standards are being managed by the Ministry through the National
Skill Development Agency (an autonomous body under the Ministry) in close partnership with
industry-led sector-specific bodies (Sector Skill Councils) and various line ministries. India has bilateral collaboration with governments
including those of the UK, Australia, Germany, Canada, and the UAE, with the intention of
implementing globally acceptable standards and providing the Indian workforce with overseas
job mobility.===Japan===
Japanese vocational schools are known as senmon gakkō. They are part of Japan’s higher education
system. They are two-year schools that many students
study at after finishing high school (although it is not always required that students graduate
from high school). Some have a wide range of majors, others only
a few majors. Some examples are computer technology, fashion,
and English.===South Korea===
Vocational high schools offer programmes in five fields: agriculture, technology/engineering,
commerce/business, maritime/fishery, and home economics. In principle, all students in the first year
of high school (10th grade) follow a common national curriculum, In the second and third
years (11th and 12th grades) students are offered courses relevant to their specialisation. In some programmes, students may participate
in workplace training through co-operation between schools and local employers. The government is now piloting Vocational
Meister Schools in which workplace training is an important part of the programme. Around half of all vocational high schools
are private. Private and public schools operate according
to similar rules; for example, they charge the same fees for high school education, with
an exemption for poorer families. The number of students in vocational high
schools has decreased, from about half of students in 1995 down to about one-quarter
today. To make vocational high schools more attractive,
in April 2007 the Korean government changed the name of vocational high schools into professional
high schools. With the change of the name the government
also facilitated the entry of vocational high school graduates to colleges and universities. Most vocational high school students continue
into tertiary education; in 2007 43% transferred to junior colleges and 25% to university. At tertiary level, vocational education and
training is provided in junior colleges (two- and three-year programmes) and at polytechnic
colleges. Education at junior colleges and in two-year
programmes in polytechnic colleges leads to an Industrial associate degree. Polytechnics also provide one-year programmes
for craftsmen and master craftsmen and short programmes for employed workers. The requirements for admission to these institutions
are in principle the same as those in the rest of tertiary sector (on the basis of the
College Scholastic Aptitude Test) but candidates with vocational qualifications are given priority
in the admission process. Junior colleges have expanded rapidly in response
to demand and in 2006 enrolled around 27% of all tertiary students. 95% of junior college students are in private
institutions. Fees charged by private colleges are approximately
twice those of public institutions. Polytechnic colleges are state-run institutions
under the responsibility of the Ministry of Labour; government funding keeps student fees
much lower than those charged by other tertiary institutions. Around 5% of students are enrolled in polytechnic
colleges.===Malaysia===
Skills training are no longer depicted as second-class education in Malaysia. There are numerous vocational education centres
here including vocational schools (high schools to train skilled students), technic schools
(high schools to train future engineers) and vocational colleges all of them under the
Ministry of Education. Then there are 33 polytechnics and 86 community
colleges under the Ministry of Higher Education; 10 MARA Advanced Skills Colleges, 13 MARA
Skills Institutes, 286 GIATMARAs under Majlis Amanah Rakyat (MARA) and 15 National Youth
Skills Institutes under Ministry of Youth and Sports. The first vocational institute in Malaysia
is the Industrial Training Institute of Kuala Lumpur established in 1964 under the Manpower
Department. Other institutes under the same department
including 8 Advanced Technology Training Centres, one Centre for Instructor and Advanced Skill
Training, one Japan-Malaysia Technical Institute and the other 21 ITIs.===Mexico===
In Mexico, both federal and state governments are responsible for the administration of
vocational education. Federal schools are funded by the federal
budget, in addition to their own funding sources. The state governments are responsible for
the management of decentralised institutions, such as the State Centres for Scientific and
Technological Studies (CECyTE) and Institutes of Training for Work (ICAT). These institutions are funded 50% from the
federal budget and 50% from the state budget. The state governments also manage and fund
“decentralised institutions of the federation”, such as CONALEP schools. Compulsory education (including primary and
lower secondary education) finishes at the age of 15 and about half of those aged 15-to-19
are enrolled full-time or part-time in education. All programmes at upper secondary level require
the payment of a tuition fee. The upper secondary vocational education system
in Mexico includes over a dozen subsystems (administrative units within the Upper Secondary
Education Undersecretariat of the Ministry of Public Education, responsible for vocational
programmes) which differ from each other to varying degrees in content, administration,
and target group. The large number of school types and corresponding
administrative units within the Ministry of Public Education makes the institutional landscape
of vocational education and training complex by international standards. Vocational education and training provided
under the Upper Secondary Education Undersecretariat includes three main types of programme: “Training for work” (formación para el trabajo)
courses at ISCED 2 level are short training programmes, taking typically three to six
months to complete. The curriculum includes 50% theory and 50%
practice. After completing the programme, students may
enter the labour market. This programme does not provide direct access
to tertiary education. Those who complete lower secondary education
may choose between two broad options of vocational upper secondary education at ISCED 3 level. Both programmes normally take three years
to complete and offer a vocational degree as well as the baccalaureate, which is required
for entry into tertiary education. The title “technical professional – baccalaureate”
(profesional técnico — bachiller) is offered by various subsystems though one subsystem
(CONALEP) includes two thirds of the students. The programme involves 35% general subjects
and 65% vocational subjects. Students are required to complete 360 hours
of practical training. The programme awarding the “technological
baccalaureate” (bachillerato tecnológico) and the title “professional technician” (técnico
professional) is offered by various subsystems. It includes more general and less vocational
education: 60% general subjects and 40% vocational subjects.===Netherlands===
Nearly all of those leaving lower secondary school enter upper secondary education, and
around 50% of them follow one of four vocational programmes; technology, economics, agricultural,
personal/social services & health care. These programmes vary from 1 to 4 years (by
level; only level 2, 3 and 4 diplomas are considered formal ‘start qualifications’
for successfully entering the labour market). The programmes can be attended in either of
two pathways. One either involving a minimum of 20% of school
time (apprenticeship pathway; BBL-BeroepsBegeleidende Leerweg) or the other, involving a maximum
of 80% schooltime (BOL -BeroepsOpleidende Leerweg). The remaining time in both cases is apprenticeship/work
in a company. So in effect, students have a choice out of
32 trajectories, leading to over 600 professional qualifications. BBL-Apprentices usually receive a wage negotiated
in collective agreements. Employers taking on these apprentices receive
a subsidy in the form of a tax reduction on the wages of the apprentice. (WVA-Wet vermindering afdracht). Level 4 graduates of senior secondary VET
may go directly to institutes for Higher Profession Education and Training (HBO-Hoger beroepsonderwijs),
after which entering university is a possibility. The social partners participate actively in
the development of policy. As of January 1, 2012 they formed a foundation
for Co operation Vocational Education and Entrepreneurship (St. SBB – stichting Samenwerking
Beroepsonderwijs Bedrijfsleven; www.s-bb.nl). Its responsibility is to advise the Minister
on the development of the national vocational education and training system, based on the
full consensus of the constituent members (the representative organisations of schools
and of entrepreneurship and their centres of expertise). Special topics are Qualification & Examination,
Apprenticeships (BPV-Beroepspraktijkvorming) and (labourmarket) Efficiency of VET. The Centres of Expertices are linked to the
four vocational education programmes provided in senior secondary VET on the content of
VET programmes and on trends and future skill needs. The Local County Vocational Training (MBO
Raad www.mboraad.nl) represents the VET schools in this foundation and advise on the quality,
operations and provision of VET.===New Zealand===
New Zealand is served by 11 Industry Training Organisations (ITO). The unique element is that ITOs purchase training
as well as set standards and aggregate industry opinion about skills in the labour market. Industry Training, as organised by ITOs, has
expanded from apprenticeships to a more true lifelong learning situation with, for example,
over 10% of trainees aged 50 or over. Moreover, much of the training is generic. This challenges the prevailing idea of vocational
education and the standard layperson view that it focuses on apprenticeships. One source for information in New Zealand
is the Industry Training Federation. Another is the Ministry of Education.Polytechnics,
Private Training Establishments, Wananga and others also deliver vocational training, amongst
other areas.===Norway===
Nearly all those leaving lower secondary school enter upper secondary education, and around
half follow one of nine vocational programmes. These programmes typically involve two years
in school followed by two years of apprenticeship in a company. The first year provides general education
alongside introductory knowledge of the vocational area. During the second year, courses become more
trade-specific. Apprentices receive a wage negotiated in collective
agreements ranging between 30% and 80% of the wage of a qualified worker; the percentage
increase over the apprenticeship period. Employers taking on apprentices receive a
subsidy, equivalent to the cost of one year in school. After the two years vocational school programme
some students opt for a third year in the ‘general’ programme as an alternative
to an apprenticeship. Both apprenticeship and a third year of practical
training in school lead to the same vocational qualifications. Upper secondary VET graduates may go directly
to Vocational Technical Colleges, while those who wish to enter university need to take
a supplementary year of education. The social partners participate actively in
the development of policy. The National Council for Vocational Education
and Training advises the Minister on the development of the national vocational education and training
system. The Advisory Councils for Vocational Education
and Training are linked to the nine vocational education programmes provided in upper secondary
education and advise on the content of VET programmes and on trends and future skill
needs. The National Curriculum groups assist in deciding
the contents of the vocational training within the specific occupations. The Local County Vocational Training Committees
advise on the quality, provision of VET and career guidance.===Paraguay===
In Paraguay, vocational education is known as Bachillerato Técnico and is part of the
secondary education system. These schools combine general education with
some specific subjects, referred to as pre-vocational education and career orientation. After nine years of Educación Escolar Básica
(Primary School), the student can choose to go to either a Bachillerato Técnico (Vocational
School) or a Bachillerato Científico (High School). Both forms of secondary education last three
years, and are usually located in the same campus called Colegio. After completing secondary education, one
can enter to the universities. It is also possible for a student to choose
both Técnico and Científico schooling.===Russia======Sri Lanka===
Vocational training from Agricultural subjects to ICT related subjects are available in Sri
Lanka. In 2005 the Ministry of Vocational and Technical
Training (MVTT) introduced the National Vocational Qualifications (NVQ) framework which was an
important milestone for the education, economic and social development of Sri Lanka. The NVQ framework consists of seven levels
of instruction. NVQ levels 1 to 4 are for craftsmen designation
and successful candidates are issued with National certificates. NVQ levels 5 and 6 are Diploma level, whereas
Level 7 is for degree equivalent qualification. Training courses are provided by many institutions
island wide. All training providers (public and private)
must obtain institutional registration and course accreditation from the Tertiary and
Vocational Education Commission (TVEC).In order to obtain registration institutions
must satisfy specific criteria: infrastructure, basic services, tools and equipment, quality
of instruction and staff, based on curriculum and syllabus, and quality of management and
monitoring systems. Government Ministries and Agencies involved
in Vocational Training are The Ministry of Vocational and Technical Training (MVTT),
The Tertiary and Vocational Education Commission (TVEC), The National Apprentice and Industrial
Training Authority (NAITA), The Department of Technical Education and Training (DTET),
The Vocational Training Authority (VTA) and the National Youth Services Council (NYSC).===Sweden===
Nearly all of those leaving compulsory schooling immediately enter upper secondary schools,
and most complete their upper secondary education in three years. Upper secondary education is divided into
13 vocationally oriented and 4 academic national programmes. Slightly more than half of all students follow
vocational programmes. All programmes offer broad general education
and basic eligibility to continue studies at the post-secondary level. In addition, there are local programmes specially
designed to meet local needs and ‘individual’ programmes. A 1992 school reform extended vocational upper
secondary programmes by one year, aligning them with three years of general upper secondary
education, increasing their general education content, and making core subjects compulsory
in all programmes. The core subjects (which occupy around one-third
of total teaching time in both vocational and academic programmes) include English,
artistic activities, physical education and health, mathematics, natural science, social
studies, Swedish or Swedish as a second language, and religious studies. In addition to the core subjects, students
pursue optional courses, subjects which are specific to each programme and a special project. Vocational programmes include 15 weeks of
workplace training (Arbetsplatsförlagd utbildning – APU) over the three-year period. Schools are responsible for arranging workplace
training and verifying its quality. Most municipalities have advisory bodies:
programme councils (programmråd) and vocational councils (yrkesråd) composed of employers’
and employees’ representatives from the locality. The councils advise schools on matters such
as provision of workplace training courses, equipment purchase and training of supervisors
in APU.===Switzerland===The Swiss vocational education and training
system (VET) is regarded by many international experts as the strongest in Europe. It is the mainstream upper secondary program
serving 65-70% of Swiss young people. It results in one of the lowest youth unemployment
rates in Europe. Managers and the staff take pride in their
young apprentices. Several Swiss CEO’s of big multinational companies
and government members have started their own careers as VET-apprentices, for example
Sergio Ermotti, CEO of UBS. At this level, vocational education and training
is mainly provided through the ‘dual system’. Apprentices rotate between workplace, vocational
school and industry training centers where they develop complementary practical skills
relating to the occupation. They spend the biggest amount of time at the
workplace emphasizing the importance of on-the-job training. Rotation can be organised in different ways
– either by switching places during the week or by allocating entire weeks to one place
and form of learning. The program can also start with most of the
time devoted to in-school education and then gradually increase the share of in-company
training. Besides the three- or four-year VET programme
with Federal VET Diploma, there is also the option of two-year vocational education and
training VET programme with Federal VET Certificate for adolescents with lower learning performance. Switzerland draws a distinction between vocational
education and training programmes at upper-secondary level, and professional education and training
(PET) programmes, which take place at tertiary B level. In 2007, more than half of the population
aged 25–64 had a VET or PET qualification as their highest level of education. In addition, universities of applied sciences
(Fachhochschulen) offer vocational education at tertiary A level. Pathways enable people to shift from one part
of the education system to another.===Turkey===
Students in Turkey may choose vocational high schools after completing the 8-year-long compulsory
primary and secondary education. Vocational high school graduates may pursue
two year-long polytechnics or may continue with a related tertiary degree. According to a survey by OECD, 38% of 15-year-old
students attend vocational study programmes that are offered by Anatolian vocational,
Anatolian technical, and technical high schools.Municipalities in Turkey also offer vocational training. The metropolitan municipality of Istanbul,
the most populous city in Turkey, offers year long free vocational programs in a wide range
of topics through ISMEK, an umbrella organization formed under the municipality.===United Kingdom===
The first “Trades School” in the UK was Stanley Technical Trades School (now Harris Academy
South Norwood) which was designed, built and set up by William Stanley. The initial idea was thought of in 1901, and
the school opened in 1907.The system of vocational education in the UK initially developed independently
of the state, with bodies such as the RSA and City & Guilds setting examinations for
technical subjects. The Education Act 1944 made provision for
a Tripartite System of grammar schools, secondary technical schools and secondary modern schools,
but by 1975 only 0.5% of British senior pupils were in technical schools, compared to two-thirds
of the equivalent German age group.Successive recent British Governments have made attempts
to promote and expand vocational education. In the 1970s, the Business And Technology
Education Council was founded to confer further and higher education awards, particularly
to further education colleges in the United Kingdom. In the 1980s and 1990s, the Conservative Government
promoted the Youth Training Scheme, National Vocational Qualifications and General National
Vocational Qualifications. However, youth training was marginalised as
the proportion of young people staying on in full-time education increased.In 1994,
publicly funded Modern Apprenticeships were introduced to provide “quality training on
a work-based (educational) route”. Numbers of apprentices have grown in recent
years and the Department for Children, Schools and Families has stated its intention to make
apprenticeships a “mainstream” part of England’s education system.In the UK some higher engineering-technician
positions that require 4–5 years’ apprenticeship require academic study to HNC / HND or higher
City & Guilds level. Apprenticeships are increasingly recognised
as the gold standard for work-based training. There are four levels of apprenticeship available
for those aged 16 and over: 1 – Intermediate-level apprenticeshipsApprentices
work towards work-based learning qualifications such as a Level 2 Competence Qualification,
Functional Skills and, in most cases, a relevant knowledge-based qualification. 2 – Advanced-level apprenticeshipsApprentices
work towards work-based learning such as a Level 3 Competence Qualification, Functional
Skills and, in most cases, a relevant knowledgebased qualification. They can take four years to complete. 3 – Higher apprenticeshipsApprentices work
towards work-based learning qualifications such as a Level 4 and 5 Competence Qualification,
Functional Skills and, in some cases, a knowledge-based qualification such as a Foundation Degree. They can take between four and five years
to complete, depending on the level at which an apprentice enrolls. 4 – Degree and professional apprenticeshipsThey
are similar to higher apprenticeships, but differ in that they provide an opportunity
to gain a full bachelor’s (Level 6) or master’s degree (Level 7). The courses are designed in partnership with
employers, with part-time study taking place at a university. They can take between four and six years to
complete, depending on the level of the course, and the level of entry. “There is also a perception, deriving from
centuries of social stratification and selectivity in the status and provision of different kinds
of education in England, that vocational education is inevitably more narrowly utilitarian, less
influential and less important than its more academic cousin: advanced (‘A’) levels. This divide between the sectors of ‘vocational’
and ‘higher’ education, in many ways peculiarly English, is also reflected in higher education
institutions and occupations (regarding academic credentials and some related provisions). These academic-vocational divisions in the
‘English model’, together with negative social and political perceptions, have to
some extent stymied the debate regarding the significance and relevance of vocational education
provision to learning, work and the economy” (Loo and Jameson, 2017, p. 1). The authors suggest that the divisions between
further and higher education sectors in England be reconsidered. They (Loo and Jameson, 2017) call for an opening
up of new pathways of ‘occupation-related’ provisions that offer greater parity, progression
and enhanced social mobility in vocational education across the academic levels of England’s
educational provision. Loo (2018) uses the term, technical and vocational
education and training (TVET) by UNESCO (2012) as in the section below, to offer a more rational
term than ‘vocational’ in England, and to reach out to like-minded users in the global
educational community. He offers insights into the study of the pedagogy
of teachers of work-related programmes. Especially, he investigates the complex issue
of how teachers use their know-how in their delivery of work-related programmes. This complexity surrounds the need for these
deliverers to have the disciplinary and wider elements relating to knowledge of the relevant
work practices, which involves the learning of the type of know-how and its application
in their work practices. The combination of these work know-how (e.g.
knowledge, experiences, dispositions and values) are then used to enable them to deliver to
the learners. These pedagogic activities rely on different
types of knowledge and experiences – pedagogic and work-related. The theoretical framework uses, initially,
a dual professionalism concept to review the literature sources of knowledge concerning
the occupational pedagogy of teachers. From a pedagogic delineation of knowledge,
teaching knowledge may include knowledge of the relevant disciplines (Becher 1994; Bernstein
1996; Smeby 1996) such as psychology and sociology (e.g. learning theories) for the education
field. Teaching knowledge may be explicit or tacit
(Shulman 1987; Polanyi 1966; Nonaka and Takeuchi 1995; Verloop et al. 2001; Loughran et al.
2003; Collins 2010), and may include a teacher’s wider life experiences (Clandinin 1985) and
occupational or work-related practices (Loo 2012). Knowledge concerning occupational practices
(i.e. non-teaching) also requires a base of disciplinary or theoretical know-how that
may be explicit and a process of application to specific work contexts and the environment
it operates in (Bernstein 1996; Loo 2012). This occupational knowledge base also includes
knowledge of procedures, skills (e.g. interpersonal and intrapersonal ones which are usually tacit),
techniques, transversal abilities, project management abilities, personal capabilities
and occupational capacity/awareness (Eraut 2004; Winch 2014). This knowledge base is a wider spectrum than
a pedagogic one. These two forms of knowledge – pedagogic
and occupational – may be applied through the processes of recontextualization (Bernstein
1996; van Oers 1998; Barnett 2006, Evans et al. 2010, Loo 2012, 2014). The knowledge forms can be changed through
selecting, relocating and refocusing aspects when used in another setting. In particular, the recontextualization processes
regarding content (relating to specifications of a programme), pedagogic (relating to teaching
activities), occupational (relating to working activities), and work (relating to the systems
and processes that are specific to a workplace or organisation). From the initial teaching and occupational
dimensions, the final modified know-how of Occupational Pedagogic Knowledge or Occupational
Teachers’ Capacities is formed via content recontextualization, pedagogic recontextualization,
occupational recontextualization, and integrated applied recontextualization (IAR). There are also relevant concepts that offer
insights to the application of teaching and occupational know-how. These include knowledgeable practice (Evans
2016), practice architecture (Kemmis and Green 2013), and Systems 1 and 2 (Kahneman 2012). For a detailed description of the theoretical
framework, please refer to Chapter 4 in Teachers and Teaching in Vocational and Professional
Education (Loo, 2018). The conceptual framework of the occupational
pedagogy of teachers is illustrated on page 50 (Loo 2018). The analysed empirical data is discussed in
the separate sections of TVET, higher and professional education courses, five case
studies of fashion and textiles, airline industry, dental hygiene, clinical training in emergency
medicine and doctors, and a comparison chapter. These chapters offer critical understandings
of how pedagogic and occupational know-how are acquired and applied in highly contextualized
pedagogic and occupational contexts culminating in the use of teaching strategies/approaches
in teaching sessions. The observations from this investigation include
(Loo 2018): 1. there are programme pathways to occupational
work 2. occupational pathways are more direct for
work-related provisions at higher academic levels than those at the TVET level
3. two strands of practices exist at the outset: teaching and occupational where ‘basic’
disciplinary or theoretical knowledge is used to provide occupational relevance to pedagogic
and work-related areas 4. IAR process provides a critical understanding
of how the modified teaching, occupational and work capacities are combined to inform
the application of appropriate teaching strategies to specific pedagogic settings
5. users acquire the occupational capacities
over the course duration, and they include abilities, capabilities, dispositions, experiences,
judgement, knowledge, protocols, skill sets and techniques
6. deliverers require the relevant occupational
experiences to teach on work-related programmes, and continuous professional development is
needed for deliverers to maintain their ongoing professionalism in the two practice strands
of teaching and work Finally, this investigation has implications
for teachers, managers and policymakers of occupational courses. For teachers, these include insights of the
sources and types of knowledge that are acquired, recontextualized and applied for teaching
and working in the related occupational areas. Managers need to empathise with the deliverers
and support their professional needs, and policymakers need to acknowledge the complexities
of teaching in occupational programmes and that the curriculum, professional staff and
institution are adequately supported (Loo 2018).===United States=====
See also==Tradesman
Agricultural education Apprenticeship
Capacity building – Process by which individual and organizations obtain, improve, and retain
the skills and knowledge needed to do their jobs competently
Internship European Centre for the Development of Vocational
Training Community college
Constructivism (learning theory) Dual education system
Employability Environmental education
Family and consumer science Finishing school
Further education Institute of technology
Polytechnic Life skills
Renewable energy Technical and Further Education (Australia)
Training – Acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of teaching
Retraining Vocational school
Vocational university Widening participation (UK)
Washington County Closed-Circuit Educational Television Project
Liberty Christian School

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