Video games in education | Wikipedia audio article


This page includes some history of video games
being used as an additional or alternative method to education. It also goes over whether or not it may be
beneficial to use video games for educational purposes in the classroom and the limitations
that teachers have to using video games in the classroom. This page additionally discusses how learning
from video games outside the classroom is possible as well.==Compared to a classroom model==
Video games have been found to be more engaging; instead of providing information over an extended
class period, games provide small amounts of information at relevant stages. It is traditionally considered optimal for
a game to provide gameplay that is doable but challenging enough that the player must
work at its completion. Because games follow this model, they create
a certain degree of frustration in the player; however, this does not deter them from wanting
to play, instead giving them more motivation to continue playing. Whether this engagement facilitates learning
is still uncertain.==Educational setting==
As early as 1978, research was conducted relating video games to the motivational effects involved
in learning as well as their cognitive potential. As video games spread in the 1980s, the research
became more diversified. Its findings showed that the visual and motor
coordination of game players was better than that of non-players. Initial research also indicated the importance
of electronic games for children who proved to have difficulty learning basic subjects
and skills. It also found that: Video games helped students to identify and
attempt to correct their deficiencies. The adaptability of video games, and the control
that players have over them, motivate and stimulate learning. In cases where students have difficulty concentrating,
video games can be highly useful. The instant feedback given by video games
help arouse curiosity and in turn allows for greater chances of learning. Video games teach cooperation.One common argument
for the use of video games in education is that they enable learning from the simulation
while having no danger associated with mistakes. For instance, the Air Force uses piloting
simulations in order to teach their pilots how to fly the airplanes. These simulations are meant to prepare the
training pilot for real-world flight conditions while at the same time preventing any damage
or loss of life in the process. A pilot could crash in the simulation, learn
from their mistake and then reset and try again. This process leads to distinct levels of mastery
over the simulation and in turn the plane they will also be flying in the future. The military also utilizes games such as the
ARMA and Socom franchises in their training. Games like these immerse the gamer into the
realm of the game and will attempt to achieve whatever objective is set out for them using
their tactical skills. This allows for the military to show their
soldiers how to engage certain situations without the risk of injury.Games of all types
have been shown to increase a different array of skills for players. Attempts have been made to show that arcade-style
action and platforming games can be used to develop motor co-ordination, manual skills,
and reflexes. Many authors have noted the educational potential
of games like The Sims (for its social simulation) or the Civilization series (for its historical
and strategy elements), concluding that video games as a whole promote intellectual development,
and suggest that players can use them to develop knowledge strategies, practice problem-solving,
and can improve spatial skills.==Using video games in the classroom=====
Possible benefits===Some teachers have attempted to use video
games within a classroom setting. There is some evidence which shows that for
young children, educational video games promote student engagement.Video games are inherently
incentive-based systems with the player being rewarded for solving a problem or completing
a mission, while meeting certain criteria. As a result, video games train a systematic
way of thinking as well as an understanding for how different variables affect each other. Furthermore, video games can constantly and
automatically assess the learner’s ability at any given moment due to the software-based
nature of the medium; modular education structures tend to deliver assessments in large chunks
and present a relatively limited picture of student progress.Video games such as Minecraft
and Portal have been suggested as platforms for teachers to experiment with their educational
abilities. Minecraft is a sandbox game in which the user
can create objects using the crafting system, while Portal is a physics game: the player
uses the laws of physics, such as gravity and inertia, to advance through the game’s
series of test chambers. Critical thinking and problem solving are
inherent in the latter game’s design. Both Minecraft and Portal are adaptable to
some learning environments; for instance, Minecraft has been used for young children
while Portal has been used by high school physics teachers. Portal 2 has also been used to develop cognitive
skills in older undergraduate students, however. A 2017 study found that games including Portal
2, Borderlands 2, Gone Home and Papers, Please may be used to develop a range of skills in
undergraduate students, such as communication, resourcefulness and adaptability.One study
showed that using a video game as part of class discussions, as well as including timely
and engaging exercises relating the game to class material, can improve student performance
and engagement. Instructors assigned groups of students to
play the video game SPORE in a freshman undergraduate biology course on evolution. The group of students that was assigned to
play SPORE and complete related exercises, in a total of five sessions throughout the
semester, had average class scores about 4% higher than the non-gaming group. The game’s inaccuracies helped to stimulate
critical thinking in students; one student said it helped her understand “the fine parts
of natural selection, artificial selection, survival of the fittest, and genetic diversity
because of the errors within the game. It was like a puzzle.” However, because the game was accompanied
by additional exercises and instructor attention, this study is not overwhelming evidence for
the hypothesis that video games in isolation increase student engagement. Students who have played Europa Barbarorum
had knowledge of historical geography beyond the scope taught during the basic ancient
history course. They were able to identify the most important
stages of civilization development in the case of states of the Hellenistic era and
were very knowledgeable about military history and history of art. This knowledge was in large part derived from
the comprehensive descriptions included in the game; students also admitted that after
playing the game they were much more eager to turn to books dealing with the given historical
period. However, Whether or not this intention materialized
into more reading of historical periods is not clear.Another source studied teachers
using Civilization III in high school history classrooms, both during and after school. In this study, not all students were in favor
of using the game. Many students found it too difficult and tedious. Some students, particularly high-performing
students, were concerned about how it could affect their studies; they felt that “Civilization
III was insufficient preparation for the ‘game’ of higher education.” However, students who were failing in the
traditional school setting often did significantly better in the game-based unit, and the game
seemed to get their attention where traditional schooling did not. According to an article on interactive video
games in physical education, many of these types of games are not just animated exercise. Many have different assessments and scores
based on performance of skills. Some have heart rate monitors and estimate
caloric expenditure. Others are designed with enhancing motor abilities
in mind. Abilities such as balance, hand-eye coordination,
agility and core strength are a few of the motor skills enhanced. These engaging and interactive games have
the ability to teach kids about the some physiological functions of the body. One example is that these games can help show
kids how their heart reacts to different activities by using the heart rate monitor within the
game.One study took the game Semideus to see if it could help to improve performance on
rational number tasks, the understanding of whole numbers and mathematical thinking in
general. The study concluded if kids were introduced
to games that have math well integrated into the gameplay then it kids then it will help
them with their skills. the study recommended that the teacher be
involved the game based learning to improve its effectiveness in the students learning.According
to journal article, simulation video games makes the player to learn to think critically
while gaining knowledge of the environment. The player learns to solve problems through
trial and error. Players are able to learn by doing. They learn by experiencing things first-hand
and role-playing. These virtual environments enable better learning,
collaboration, and enhanced practical reasoning skills.===Possible negative effects===
One argument for possible negative effects explains how kids are already spending too
much time with technology outside the classroom. It explains that over seven and a half hours
a day are being used by children eight to eighteen on media outside of school. With the large amount of time technology is
being used by children, this argument claims that the time spent on screens may be replacing
critical face to face communication may be negatively affecting children’s face to face
communication skills. To find out if this was true or not an experiment
was done where two groups were taken from the same school. One group had many different bonding activities
without access to a screen throughout the course of five days. While the second group was allowed to use
their screens how they normally do. To test their face to face communication skills
both groups took pre and post tests for comparison. The results suggested that those who were
went away for the five days did much better in reading facial emotion than the control
group.===Barriers to the use of games===
Many teachers have reservations about using video games. One study asked teachers who had some experience
using games in class why they didn’t do it more often. Six general categories of factors were identified
as problem areas: Inflexibility of curriculum: Teachers find
it difficult to integrate games with the already-set curriculum present in classrooms. It can be difficult to locate a game that
is educational as well as fun. And many teachers have no experience in using
games to teach. Learning with games may not be accepted by
skeptical parents who personally learned with more conventional techniques. Psychological issues: Gaming can promote student
addiction as well as physical problems. Students may also lose their desire to learn
in the traditional setting. It can also remove teacher control and result
in “excessive competition”. Students’ lack of readiness: Students have
varying levels of skill and computer literacy, which may be affected by their socioeconomic
status. It takes time to teach them the rules of games,
and games are harder for them to understand than traditional audiovisuals. Lack of supporting materials: Teachers do
not have access to supporting text or work for students to do alongside games. Fixed class schedules: Teachers have time
constraints and their school may not allow them to use games. More sophisticated games, often yielding the
most learning content, often take hours to learn, and more time to play. The tutorials for Civilization V take an hour
to finish, and complete games can take 10s of hours. Limited budgets: Computer equipment, software,
and fast Internet connections are expensive and difficult for teachers to obtain. Relevance to Common Core: The educational
systems is increasingly driven by standardized testing focused on assessment of common core
topics. Games exist for these topics (glasslabgames.org)
but gameplay is generally not competitive with commercial video games.Some teachers
were more concerned about some problems than others. Male teachers were less concerned about limited
budgets, fixed class hours, and the lack of supporting materials than were female teachers. Inexperienced teachers were more worried about
fixed class schedules and the lack of supporting materials than were experienced teachers.==Learning from video games outside the classroom
==Commercial video games in general, referred
to as commercial off the shelf (COTS) games, have been suggested as having a potentially
important role to assist learning in a range of crucial transferable skills. One example of this would be in first-person
shooter games such as the Call of Duty franchise (although these games are violent by nature,
and they have been subject to massive negative reception by parents with varying justification). While the Call of Duty franchise itself falls
short of actual tactical strategy or realism in depth, there are many games in the same
genre (first-person shooters) from which one can learn key skills from the games: they
stimulate the player at the cognitive level as they move through the level, mission, or
game as a whole. They also teach strategy, as players need
to come up with ways to penetrate enemy lines, stealthily avoid the enemy, minimize casualties,
and so on. Players can test their usage of these skills
using the multiplayer aspect of these games. These games also allow players to enhance
their peripheral vision, because they need to watch for movement on the screen and make
quick decisions about whether it is a threat, to avoid wasting ammunition or harming allied
players. Other games, such as the Guitar Hero and Rock
Band franchises, have been used to provide insight to the basic nature of education in
video games. Success at these games requires the player
to first fail multiple times – this is the only way to learn the proper actions. These games also provide real-time feedback
on how well the player is doing, an area in which traditional educational systems are
lacking. The main advantage with video games is that
there is nothing to lose from failing, unlike in real life, where failing usually results
in negative consequences.A research project involving positive use of video games is outlined
in an article that focuses on studies that suggest there are health benefits to playing
video games. This article presents information from studies
from the University of Utah, Deakin University in Melbourne, Australia, 2009’s Annual Review
of Cybertherapy and Telemedicine, University of Washington, Visual Development Lab of Ontario’s
McMaster University, University of Rochester in New York, and North Carolina State University. The researchers from these universities found
that video games are therapeutic for children with chronic illnesses, can improve preschoolers’
motor skills, reduce stress and depression, provide relief from pain, improve vision,
improve decision making skills, and maintain happiness in old age as well.One study suggests
that commercial video games can help players to improve in certain skills such as communication,
resourcefulness, and adaptability. In this study undergraduate students were
assigned at random to be in either an intervention or a control group. To measure adaptability, resourcefulness and
communication, there were self-report instruments given to both groups.===Video Games for Educational Enrichment
===As noted above games are potentially a useful
learning tool, but there are significant barriers to the use of video games in the classroom,
including the time to learn and play, teacher and parent support, relevance to the Common
Core (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_Core_State_Standards_Initiative), and uncertain overall educational benefits
of the medium as a whole. While video games have been found to promote
student engagement, whether video games also promote subject learning or other benefits
over the traditional classroom model is uncertain.==See also==
Games and learning Serious game
Video game controversies

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *