The Internet: How Search Works


Hi! My name is Paola,and I am a software engineer at Microsoft. Let’s talk about how the internet works. My job relies on networks being able to talk with one another, but back in the 1970s there was no standard method for this. It took the work of Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn to invent the internetworking protocol, to make communication possible. This invention laid the groundwork for what we now call the internet. The internet is a network of networks. It links billions of devices together all around the globe. So maybe you’re connected with a laptop or a phone through wifi, then that wifi connection connects to an internet service provider (or ISP), and that ISP connects you to billions and billions of devices around the world through hundreds of thousands of networks that are all interconnected. One thing that most people do not appreciate is that the internet is really
a design philosophy and an architecture expressed in a set of protocols. A protocol is a well known set of rules and standards, that if all parties agree to use it will allow them to communicate without trouble. How the internet actually physically works is less important than the fact that this design philosophy has allowed the internet to adapt and absorb new communication technologies. This is because in order for a new technology to use the internet in some fashion, it just needs to know which protocols to work with. All the different devices on the internet have unique addresses. An address on the internet is just a number, similar to a phone number or a sort of street address, that’s unique to each computer or device at the edge of the network. This is similar to how most homes and businesses have a mailing address. You don’t need to know a person to send them a letter in the mail, but you do need to know their address and how to write the address properly so the letter can be carried by a mail system to its destination. The addressing system for computers on the internet is similar and it forms part of one of the most important protocols used in internet communication simply called the internet protocol or IP. A computer’s address then is called its IP address. Visiting a website is really just your computer asking another computer for information. Your computer sends a message to the other computer’s IP address and it also sends along its origin address, so the other computer knows where to send its response. You may have seen an IP address.It’s just a bunch of numbers! These numbers are organized in a hierarchy. Just like a home address has a country, a city, a street, and a house number, an IP address has many parts. Just like all digital data, each of these numbers is represented in bits. Traditional IP addresses are 32 bits long, with 8 bits for each part of the address. The earlier numbers usually identify the country and regional network of the device. Then come the subnetworks, and then finally the address of the specific device. This version of IP addressing is called IPv4. It was designed in 1973 and was widely adopted in the early 80s, and provides for more than 4 billion unique addresses for devices connecting to the internet. But the internet has turned out to be much more popular than even Vint
Cerf imagined and 4 billion unique addresses won’t be enough. We’re now in the middle of a multi-year transition to a longer IP address format called IPv6, which uses 128 bits per address and provides over 340 undecillion unique addresses. That’s more than enough for every grain of sand on Earth to have its own IP address. Most users never see or care about internet addresses. A system called the domain name system or DNS associates names like www.example.com with the corresponding addresses. Your computer uses the DNS to look up domain names and get the associated IP address which is used to connect your computer to the destination on the internet. And it goes a little something like this: (voice1) “Hey, hi there, I want to go to www.code.org.” (voice 2) “Mm.. yeah I don’t know the IP address for that domain let me ask around.
Hey, do you know how to get to code.org?” (voice 3) “Yeah, I got it right here it’s 174.129.14.120.” (voice 2) “Oh okay, great, thanks. I’m gonna write that down and save it for later in case I need it again. Hey here’s that address you wanted.” (voice 1) “Awesome! Thank you.” So how do we design a system for billions of devices to find any one of billions of different websites? There is no way one DNS server can handle all the requests from all devices. The answer is that DNS servers are connected in a distributed hierarchy, and are divided into zones, splitting up responsibility for the major domains such as .org, .com, .net, etc. DNS was originally created to be an open and public communication protocol for government and educational institutions. Because of its openness, DNS is susceptible to cyber attacks. An example attack is DNS spoofing. That’s when a hacker taps into a DNS server and changes it to match a domain name with the wrong IP address. This lets the attacker send people to an imposter website. If this happens to you, you are vulnerable for more problems because you are using that fake website as if it’s real. The internet is huge and getting bigger everyday. But the domain name system and internet protocol are designed to scale, no matter how much the internet grows.

62 thoughts on “The Internet: How Search Works”

  1. lol, google's infamous algorithm to determine which page to show you first: check if they have paid for a higher spot than the other results. And bing? Bing's search algorithm is to take google's results and show them in their css. You can prove this by doing an image search for "american inventors"- some months ago, google, to appear "more diverse", altered image results for this particular query to show only "black american inventors". being black, means you are diverse. so there is no need to show you east asian, south east asian, middle eastern, native american, or white inventors combined, no, black inventors would suffice. Go and look it up. Now do the same search on any other search engine you can think of. Bing, yahoo, duckduckgo, presearch, yandex, weibo, ecosia, anyone of them, and each will give you only black american inventors. You see, there is no agreement among search engines to all be diverse, so rest of these didn't modify their results too to show you only black american inventors. All they do now, as they always did, is show you google's results, in their own css. and you have to find ways to work around the native bias of google if you wanna see real results. Problem here is, you can see right away that results for "american inventors" were skewed in certain way, but what happens when you search for political, medical, or scientific information? If google decided to go vegan, you'd search "health benefits of hflc diet" and get only results that are telling you to eat more grains, despite the fact you are gluten intolerant, cause gluten intolerance is not a thing anymore. so you end up poisoning your self and dying early death, because google knows best, and no other search engine does anything to fight them.

  2. We are totally confused and so is many Google users looking for NEUROMASTER Music. What a mess you have created and clearly approve. Try search NEUROMASTER Music – now bulletproof overrides any chance of finding our music – Apparently Bulletproof now sell pills under the NEUROMASTER Brand on the same site they create music and music apps. We suggest you look into the keyword stuffing and paid 3rd party mega Spam coming from Dave Asprey Owner of Bulletproof. Mark our words you have impacted the NEUROMASTER brand in a negative way. It is time you secure equal opportunity for those who spend nothing on your advertising. We are not interested in fake traffic and products that listed as Scams etc. Our music is free to all fans and it will stay that way. If we accept the Documentary Offer we have received it may impact Google in a negative way we wait your action before we act. Fix the fake NEUROMASTERS restore hacked accounts and support our fans they love free music.

  3. Hi, could someone tell me where does this video fit in the Code.org 18-19 Computer Science Principles Course? I do not see it as part of any of the lessons. Thank you.

  4. @1:21 He said "….to make your search faster search engines are constantly scanning the web in advance to record informations that may help with your search later" what in God name is this means? how the fuck the Google knows what i'm going to do tomorrow if i didn't GOOGLE IT??????

  5. Awesome Graphic design, presentation honestly, you guys ask exactly what most people would to think to ask …… BUT your answers for the questions are far away from the truth!!

  6. Nice explanation on how search engine works. I have made an attempt to explain the same thing in hindi. So if you want to understand it in hindi then please do check the video: https://youtu.be/api88dGrvjc

  7. Awesome Information.
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  8. The video was effective and it works somehow by spider… And another thing i found that the girl was beautiful… When i see her its like love at first side <3 <3

  9. We need to make some other
    Technology which will change the way we are browsing data by images or some Quicker way to get what we need.

  10. Just a little correction, at @1:37 "The Internet is NOT a web of pages connected with each other". The correct explanation should be "The World Wide Web is a web of pages connected with each other" because the Internet is a web of computers connected with each other. Using the terms Internet & Web interchangeably has created so much confusion that the people think they both are the same.

  11. interesting but I thought Google took advantage of a node system much like Dijkstra's algorithm of nodes used for gps directional systems in cars, that way each node has data associated with it or a dataset associated with it which can make the process of a search smaller and faster and then by ranking nodes you get a list of data back that is ordered for each search…having a data set about a dataset about a dataset seems quite like a very sad sql database with a lot of foreign keys and normalisation, when nosql datasets like Mongo just get straight to the data and increases speed…

    In terms of machine learning how do you make a machine always associate the word pitcher to a sports player and not a jub? Without using word combinations? So for example an array of words and if word[0] and word[1] are in a sentence then it is dataset A that is selected maybe? I always think the fast and stupid ways work best; which means a neural network isn't necessary unless maybe each word is a is an input to a neuron maybe…although it is easier to make each website a node (OOP) and if similar cluster them together and monitor each cluster and have a dataset that searches are referred to and that is updated buy the search engine…that way the data is prepared and exist before a search is made…,

    oh wait google does do this and charges us the get better rankings on their databases lol gosh im such a pathetic fool!

  12. I Like you, But, Sorry. The Internet is not a bunch of hyperlinks. It's an infrastructure, and a shit load servers. Links only point to thng, please get your facts straight

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