The Immune System Explained I – Bacteria Infection


Every second of your life, you are under attack. Billions of bacteria, viruses, and fungi are trying to make you their home. So our bodies have developed a super complex little army with guards, soldiers, intelligence, weapons factories, and communicators to protect you from…well…dying For this video, let’s assume the immune system has 12 different jobs. For example, kill enemies, communicate, etc. And it has 21 different cells and 2 protein forces These cells have up to 4 different jobs. Let’s assign them. Here are the interactions. Now, let’s make this understandable. First of all, let’s add colors to the jobs. Now let’s illustrate the cells. The central color represents the main job of the cell. While the surrounding ones represent secondary duties. Now the immune system looks like this. Now the interactions. Isn’t this complexity just awesome? For this video we will only talk about these cells and ignore the rest. So, what happens in the case of an infection? It’s a beautiful day, when suddenly, a wild rusty nail appears and you cut yourself. The first barrier of the immune system is breached: your skin. Nearby bacteria seize on the opportunity and enter your wound. They start using up the body’s resources and double their numbers about every 20 minutes. At first, they fly under the radar, but when a certain bacteria population is reached They change their behavior and start to damage the body by changing the environment around them. The immune system has to stop them as fast as possible. First of all, your guard cells, known as macrophages, intervene. They are huge cells that guard every border region of the body. Most of the time, they alone can suffocate an attack because they can devour up to 100 intruders each. They swallow the intruder whole and trap it inside a membrane. Then the enemy gets broken down by enzymes and is killed. On top of that, they cause inflammation by ordering the blood vessels to release water into the battlefield so fighting becomes easier. You notice this as a very mild swelling. When the macrophages fight for too long, they call in heavy backup by releasing messenger proteins that communicate location and urgency. Neutrophils leave their patrol routes in the blood and move to the battlefield. The neutrophils fight so furiously that they kill healthy cells in the process. On top of that, they generate barriers that trap and kill the bacteria. They are, indeed, so deadly that they evolved to commit suicide after five days to prevent them from causing too much damage. If this is not enough to stop the invasion, the brain of the immune system kicks in. The dendritic cell gets active, it reacts to the signals of the soldiers and starts collecting samples from the enemies. They rip them into pieces and present the parts on their outer layer. Now the dendritic cell makes a crucial decision. Should they call for anti-virus forces that eradicate infected body cells… or an army of bacteria killers? In this case, anti-bacteria forces are necessary. It then travels to the closest lymph node in about a day. Here, billion of helper and killer T cells are waiting to be activated. When T cells are born they go trough a difficult and complicated training process and only a quarter survives. The surviving cells are equipped with a specific set-up. And the denditric cell is on its way looking for a helper T cell with the set-up that’s just right. It’s looking for a helper T cell that can bind the parts of the intruders which the dendritic cell has presented on its membrane. When it finally finds one, a chain reaction takes place. The helper T cell is activated, it quickly duplicates thousands of times. Some become memory T cells that stay in the lymph node and will make you practically immune against this enemy, Some travel to the field of battle to help out. And the third group goes on to travel to the center of the lymph node to activate a very powerful weapons factory. Like the T cells, they are born with a specific set-up and when a B cell and a T cell with the same set-up meet, hell breaks loose. The B cell duplicates rapidly and starts producing millions of little weapons. They work so hard that they will literally die from exhaustion very fast. Here helper T cells play another important role, they stimulate the hard working factories and tell them: “Don’t die yet, we still need you, keep going!” This also ensures that the factories die if the infection is over so the body doesn’t waste energy or hurt itself. But what is produced by the B cells? You’ve heard of them of course, antibodies, Little proteins that are engineered to bind to the surface of the specific intruder. There are even different kinds of antibodies that have slightly different jobs. The helper T cells tell the plasma cells which type is needed the most in this particular invasion. Millions of them flood the blood and saturate the body. Meanwhile, at the site of infection, the situation is getting dire. The intruders have multiplied in number and start hurting the body. Guard and attack cells fight hard, but also die in the process. Helper T cells support them by ordering them to be more aggressive and to stay alive longer. But without help they can’t overwhelm the bacteria. But now, the second line of defense arrives. Billions of antibodies flood the battlefield and disable lots of the intruders, rendering them helpless or killing them in the process. They also stun the bacteria and make them an easy target. Their back is built to connect to killer cells, so they can connect and kill the enemy more easily, Macrophages are especially good at nomming up the bacteria which antibodies have attached to. Now the balance shifts, in a team effort, the infection is wiped out. At this point, millions of body cells have already died, no big deal, the losses are quickly replenished. Most immune cells are now useless and without the constant signals they commit suicide, so as not to waste any resources. But some stay behind: the memory cells. If this enemy is encountered ever again in the future, they will be ready for it and probably kill it before you even notice. This was a very, very simplified explanation of parts of the immune system at work. Can you imagine how complex this system is, even at this level, when we ignore so many players and all the chemistry. Life is awfully complicated, but if we take the time to understand it, we’ll encounter endless wonders and great beauty.

100 thoughts on “The Immune System Explained I – Bacteria Infection”

  1. Bacteria: Prepare to be infected!

    Me: I’m gonna stop you!

    Bacteria: Yeah? You and what army?

    Me: I AM AN ARMY

    Bacteria: What?

    Me: Your dead already

    Bacteria: dead

  2. Our bodies are guilty of more warcrimes imaginable…

    But hey, if you kill all the witnesses and your army self destructs… was it really a biological attack?…

  3. That Pokémon battle illustration is just so awesome! Made my day. Truly becoming a fan of kurzgesagt because of these anime references

  4. So there is one anime that i watch long time ago… Its called Hataraku saibo or cells at work.. so its really similar to this! I mean i never been interest in such thing like human body but this video explained in a cute way.. just like the anime i watch.. oh god you dont know how chaotic your body when u get cold

  5. Such an amazing system… and to think that it all evolved randomly from evolution is even more mindblowing.

  6. Studying for 2 hours < almost a 7 minute video of Kurzgesagt. Course book = 0 , Kurzgesagt = 100. THE BEST EDUCATIONAL VIDEO I'VE EVER SEEN!!! I LOVE YOU MAN!!!!!!!

  7. Currently in sick and I’m horrified but proud cause my cells are soldiers and the bacteria and virus fungi are enemy’s

  8. Hmm, i've gotten some conflicting information from this. Crash course said that the first to arrive is usually the neutrophils who squeeze into tissues to begin the counter attack, monocytes usually turn up next from the blood stream and they turn into macrophages and act as like tanks to support the neutrophils. Which is right?

  9. Is there a video about how immune system fight against worms? I am curious about it. If there alr have a video about it can i have the link?

  10. 6:22 – if we take the time to understand it, we always encounter endless wonders and-…
    Anti-vaxx mothers: "NO U"

  11. Bacteria: (invades body)
    Cell: oh no you don’t (defeat bacteria and memorize bacteria)
    Cell: oh no… (cell has Vietnam flashback)
    I am Vietnamese btw

  12. You guys are the BEST! And I ALWAYS get my knowledge from you after a long hard day of work and no time to snope the internet for answers. Thank you for the visualizations!

  13. I’m sick again. You know what that means.

    I’ll be in my room urging on my cells to fight. Fight harder! Take them down!!

  14. Man your immune system cant carry overpowered viruses just like ebola. Ya need a bacteriophage to make sure your life get protected from viruses and bacteria

  15. Thanks Kurtzgesagt , you made me love my body . Our body fight so hard to protect us and we dont even realized it . I fell a little guilty for making things hard for the body 😭

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