Hello! This is a summary of an article written by Kirkwood and Price from 2013, entitled Technology-enhanced learning and teaching in higher education Iit was published in the journal Learning media and technology, volume 39, issue 1 My name is Kent Lofgren. The focus in this article is the term technology enhanced learning in higher education. Now, this concept is abbreviated TL and the problem according to Kirkwood and Price is that this concept of te l it is only vaguely defined its exact meaning is not clear so there’s a need for more research on clarifying what this concept stands for so it’s not clear what is enhanced or how it is done neither is it clear how the enhancement is determined in other words what kind of proofs are put forward to verify that some sort of learning has actually taken place in what way can we prove that technology enhanced learning actually has some sort of effect so what Kirkwood and prize did was a literature review of 47 scientific articles with empirical studies and they use the keywords technology university higher education teaching learning evidence and empirical to browse through a couple of databases to find the piece of scientific articles and in the end they found 47 articles in total now what all these 47 articles had in common was that they reported some sort of results from interventions in other words the article authors intervened into regular courses and perform something they did something and what they all wanted was some sort of enhancement they wanted to have some effect of the students learning or the teaching experience and methods were also used to evaluate the effects of these interventions and there were also different types of evidence is used to prove or verify that the enhancement had actually taken place Kirkwood and prize performed a so-called automatic analysis and they had three specific questions in mind what types of Technology interventions were used in the articles and how is this enhancement conceptualized by the article offers in other words how is the term enhancement defined and what was used as evidence to demonstrate the achievements of these enhancements in other words how they go about to actually prove that the intervention had some sort of effect now according to the results there are three types of interventions some articles are written where the authors replicate existing teaching practices in other words they focus on course and they replace some sort of element within that course with a technical solution they replicate what is already being done within the course a second type of intervention is the so-called supplementary dimension in other words Kirkwood and price found that some of the interventions where the type where the authors are supplemented existing teaching practices with new technologies and finally there were also interventions where the officers try to transform or change existing teaching practices Kirkwood and price state that the intervention types 1 & 2 were aimed at doing things better where’s the third intervention type were aimed at doing better things let’s pause here for a second what do Kirkwood and price mean I want you to contemplate this what does it mean to do things better or doing better things ok moving on they also showed that the enhancement is conceptualized in basically three different ways it could be seen as an operational improvement in other words new technologies introduced to increase flexibility for the students or to improve student retention secondly and hazman can be conceptualized as a quantitative change in terms of learning in other words improved engagement or time on task or improved test scores thirdly enhancement could also be seen as a qualitative change in learning in other words aiming for deeper learning or increased critical awareness Kirkwood and prize also showed that there were many different forms of evidence collected by the article authors to demonstrate that enhancement had actually taken place interviews questionnaires student self-report surveys etc etc you can force the video and read the list if you want moving on possible limitations well Kirkwood and price identifies a couple of potential problems in general it is rather difficult to attribute the enhancements solely to some sort of new technology in other words we don’t always know what causes some sort of enhancement effect secondly there were also problems with limited and sometimes unreliable empirical data they also mentioned that there were some limitations in terms of inconsistent reporting’s of definitions methods results in other words these things weren’t clearly described in the articles so some of the descriptions left a lot to be desired the ending remarks given by kirkwood price can be summarized as follows new technology can be used in multiple ways in higher education and can be adapted to different context different courses however it’s often used for refusing and reinforcing already existing practices in higher education in other words university teachers such as myself introduces new technologies without a clear thought about what we should these technologies be used to improve education new technologies not enough per se to enhance teaching and learning it is important to reconsider for teaching and learning actually means before implementing new technologies and towards the end in their article Kirkwood and Price speaks directly to future offers when they say that in future technology enhanced learning intervention study’s authors should remember to clearly specify the methodologies and definitions in other words clearly stipulate what technology and has learning means in your study and also mentioned the limitations of your study and the generalizability of your findings Wise words, from Kirkwood and Price. OK, that concludes my summary of the article Thanks for watching! Bye!