Science Bulletins: The Expanding Universe


The Expanding Universe When we talk about the expansion of the Universe,
it’s not that the galaxies and clusters of galaxies are like bullets zooming through
some preexisting space. Rather space itself, the space between galaxies
and clusters of galaxies, is expanding. In the past 10 or 15 years, we’ve discovered
that that expansion is currently speeding up with time, accelerating. Trying to figure out what’s causing the
acceleration of the Universe is perhaps the biggest unsolved problem in all of physics. Our perception of the evolution of the Universe
has certainly changed a lot with time. For example, Albert Einstein thought the Universe
is static, neither expanding nor collapsing, and so did many scientists of his time. But Edwin Hubble discovered in 1929 the Universe
is actually expanding. The Universe began its existence in a cataclysmic
event we call the Big Bang, in a sense like a gigantic explosion. The expansion of the Universe was the expansion
of all of space. That is all there was, and it was expanding. In 1998, there were two teams of astronomers
who were studying supernovae, exploding stars, at large distances from us. And they saw that these exploding stars appeared
to be somewhat fainter than we expected them to be. They realized that the simplest explanation
was that the expansion of the Universe has been speeding up over the last five billion
years or so. And this came as a real shock, because in
our conventional understanding of gravity and the behavior of matter, we would have
expected that over time the Universe would be slowing down, because all the matter in
the Universe is attracting all the other matter. Either there’s some new stuff out in the
Universe, that we call dark energy, which has the property that it’s gravitationally
repulsive so it would make the Universe speed up, or we have to admit that our understanding
of gravity has some holes in it. In order to determine what causes the Universe
to accelerate in its expansion, we need to measure more carefully the detailed expansion
history of the Universe. This can be done by looking at the expansion
as a function of time. To plot the history of the expansion rate,
we need to look at the distances of galaxies versus the speed with which they are going
away from us, or the red shift, as astronomers call it. Getting distances of galaxies is kind of like
estimating the distance of a car at night. You look at how bright its headlights appear
to be. You compare that with the known brightness
of headlights of a car of known distance, a nearby car, and in this way you get the
distance of the distant car, just by comparing the brightness of the headlights. So, in the case of astronomy, if we find stars
and galaxies whose true power, whose brightness we really know, and we measure the apparent
brightness, well, then we can determine the distance. The type of star that we use is called the
type 1a supernova. That looks good. Yeah. This to me looks like a pretty good supernova
candidate. We use KAIT, the Katzman Automatic Imaging
Telescope, to discover new supernovae. And we use the three-meter Shane reflecting
telescope to obtain spectra of those supernovae and study them in detail. This allows us to probe the extremes. I mean that’s what we need to do. That’s why I’m intrigued by this one. Right now, we know that the Universe is expanding
faster than it was four or five billion years ago, and we know that four or five billion
years ago it was expanding more slowly than another four or five billion years back before
that. So that’s sort of three data points. We’d like more measurements of the Universe. So we want to install S2 into position 30S,
which is right in the top center. O.K. The dark energy survey is a project aiming
at trying to understand what’s causing the expansion of the Universe to speed up. O.K., I have it now on this side. O.K., I’ll take it. We’re building a large camera with about
five hundred megapixels. And this is going to go on a four-meter telescope
in Chile that will study about 300 million galaxies over an area covering about 10 percent
of the sky. The reason we want to do this is to look at
the distribution of galaxies in the Universe, the large-scale structure. Galaxies are not just distributed smoothly
through space. They tend to be clumped together by gravity. Initially, the Universe was fairly homogenous,
had small lumps in it. But then over cosmic time, those lumps were
amplified by gravity. We think that that’s how large-scale structure
formed. Even though it’s been well tested on scales
of our Solar System, we haven’t been able to directly test gravity on cosmic scales. And it’s possible that gravity becomes weaker
when we get to very large distances in the Universe. So if we can measure the rate at which galaxies
and clusters of galaxies have formed, that tells us about this competition between expansion,
which is making things pull apart, and gravity, which is making them clump together. That can help us try to disentangle what’s
really causing the Universe to speed up. Is it gravity? Is it dark energy? It’s actually quite remarkable to me that
in one short decade, the reaction to the announcement of the accelerating Universe went from utter
disbelief to nearly uniform acceptance. That doesn’t mean that we understand what
dark energy is or how gravity might be wrong. And I don’t know that it’ll be resolved
in my lifetime. My hope is that as we get better data, as
we narrow down the theoretical possibilities, someone brilliant will come along and say,
“Aha! Here’s clearly what it’s gotta be.” Whether we get to that in the next 5 years,
or the next 50 or 100 years, I don’t know. But we have to keep going.

100 thoughts on “Science Bulletins: The Expanding Universe”

  1. Or current scientists extremely stupid or they have no idea how universe is functioning? The reason why it appears like everything is expanding because galaxies are getting larger & they are pushing each other away. As long as universe will produce energy galaxies will grow when universe stop producing energy galaxies will stop growing larger. Whatever is visible to us because of energy just like the life form we won't have existence with out of food which is our extension of life.

  2. @Levon9404 I'm pretty sure your statement is incorrect. I believe scientists think no new energy has been created since the big bang. It just gets recycled.

  3. @JG129 Only that single word recycle will make big bang wrong think about that!! That was my conclusion when I was able understand how atoms are functioning. The universe is lot more than just an empty space?

  4. @Levon9404 Dude admit that your incorrect. Every scientists knows that you cant just 'create' energy. energy itself requires an energy source. So the statement saying energy getting recycled is alot more correct than your answer. And when i say energy, i mean all the heat, light, kinetic, and potential energy's of our universe.

  5. Science is all about coming up with an idea and daring others to prove you wrong. And when someone has tested proof that your incorrect, to me having one of your own theories proved wrong and accepting that fact is the key to wisdom and knowledge of our universe.

  6. @bigmac575 To make me wrong you have to explain me from where all that energy adding up to make it galaxies to grow? I can prove you every passing seconds galaxies are growing in size there are plenty of evidence for it. Can you explain me how universe produce that energy? But don't tell me does are the left overs of big bang feeding galaxies to grow. I can show you evidence energy it doesn't stay long in one place specially 15 billion years to feed existing galaxies.

  7. @bigmac575 In your statement, here is what you quoted " energy itself requires energy source" that will make big bang wrong?

  8. All matter and energy in the universe condensed down to a super hot, super dense singularity the size of a proton is hard to understand yes, but you just have to research the findings of scientists. But the energy source for the big bang was that singularity. imagine 10^30 nucular explosions going off at one time in a space no larger than an atom.

  9. @Levon9404 i think your definition of "energy" is flawed. You know all matter and energy are interchangeable right?… As in matter can be transferred into energy.

  10. @bigmac575 I do respect all your knowledge & your research. But reality points out different direction!! Trust me I did lots of research 32 years of research. Here is where guys you are dead wrong "SINGULARITY" things never reach to that point. Let me give you little clue what universe is all about? Can you take block of metal 3" * 3" & squeeze into singularity? if you are able to than I will be wrong. But I know & you know it you never will be able to, is that simple!!

  11. @bigmac575 Can you imagine if universe had a endless energy the way the endless space is it self the whole universe could of been solid. I want to give you clue there is something in the universe you don't know it & is not dark matter or anti matter. There are plenty of facts & evidence exists on the earth already I can show you all.

  12. @Levon9404 ……..

    Do you know what a black hole is? And no you are wrong, if you had enough pressure and heat, yes you could turn a block of steel into a singularity, but the energy required to do that on the other hand is out of reach, but the idea is not.

  13. @bigmac575 I would encourage you for you watch my next video clips. I'm hoping it will be ready for this coming weekend & will load it this coming Saturday. You will see clearly how far it is my knowledge compare with yours. My explanations will be mostly for scientists but any body welcome to check it . You will see it doesn't matter how hot formation gets it never melts the same as earth's inner core or our suns inner core?

  14. @bigmac575 Trust me you won't be disappointed when you watch my video clips, smallest moon in the universe & the largest star in the universe they all formed the same way. It is all depend how much of energy concentration exists time of formation. You will find out truly what are does black holes & why they get so large.

  15. @bigmac575 i dont agree unless hawking radiation has a higher value than thought. one other thought the moon is moving away from earth! is it or could it be the space between the earth and moon expanding

  16. In the Holy Quran

    Allah says:

    وَالسَّمَاءَ بَنَيْنَاهَا بِأَيْدٍ وَإِنَّا لَمُوسِعُونَ

    With the power and skill did We construct the Firmament: for it is We Who create the vastness of Space.

  17. Quran is the miracle of ISLAM. No human can write even a single verse of it. The non-Muslim Arabs were challenged, when Quran revelations started, to write a similar single verse of it and they failed.

  18. This is a science channel not a religious one so do us a favour and get you and your "Holy Quran" the fuck out of here.

  19. Exponential growth of space time! Space times expansion is pushing galaxies apart… Gravity is a consequence of spacetime's distortion – spacetime is less dense around mass.- and at the partition where spacetime delineates mass, time slows down to a standstill (Zeno's paradox) – at the subatomic level. Black holes are quite devoid of spacetime.

  20. My point is, there is a hell of a lot more spacetime than there is the absence of spacetime. As scientists, we need to consider the properties of spacetime in defining it's absence or variance in spacetime's densities (fluid-like, relativistic ether). The consequences of the absence of spacetime are what we detect as particles (interface tension creating "bubbles" in spacetime).

  21. can someone explaing me how is osible that universe is expanding, but the andromeda galaxy will colide wiht mikly way in furture?
    mean the 2 measures show they r right, whihc one is rigth?

  22. well, i heard that the expanding universe is stretching mass out so the galaxies move away from each other but dark matter is all around and makes up the vaccum of space so it's gravity pulls the galaxies together into things called superclusters, we currently are in the milky way, vergo super cluster. they can't know which on is winning, gravity or the expanding universe, because they cant pinpiont the expandtion rate, only it is getting faster. bottom line is we may be moving apart in time 🙂

  23. Thanks for ur answer, but i did read that astronomers, measure the expantion of galaxies formt he light wavelength, then, the andromeda wavelength it shows that is approaching to us?

  24. I really love space.<<< So you live in a cramp door room, like I do??.. !!IT SUCKS!!!.. Hopefully, someday I will have enough money to purchase MY OWN PLACE. So that I do not have experience strange odours(mostly feet )

  25. Asking a human to explain the universe is like asking a parrot to read a book. Maybe we're too stupid to understand it and we need a more advanced form of intelligence like an AI.

  26. The fact that Andromeda is speeding towards us is a 'local' observation. All matter is in some kind of motion in space-time relative to other matter. There is no absolute state of rest. So when they say that the universe is expanding, this is on an average universal scale which is massively bigger then 2 individual galaxies of course.

  27. Based on scientific observations by Mr. Hubble and other resent Scientists, "Universe is not expanding but, merging" exactly as the Gravity demands. Scientists are lost in alittle mistake that Mr. Hobble started, A mistake that has not been corrected yet. I think I am the only one to day that has recovered that mistake.

  28. " There's a hell of a universe next door, let's go " ( Author unknown. ). Why go to another universe when this one still has fantastic things to reveal ?

  29. "When the surrounding mass multiplies gravity, by a man casting a stone in the water, his senses see only eXpanding wave-ripples.
    They do not tell him that those ripples are locational rings series combination compressing+/-decompressing eXpanding spheres which are dissipating gravity dividing time same ratio information is being multiplied by the falling stone which is, in fact, the inward spherical wave-front's of future probability, multiplying time dilation relative to the surrounding mass."

  30. Energy can transform into matter, and we know the expansion came out of a dense point of energy. Energy, however, can't be created or destroyed according to physics. Only changes form. There was never 'nothing' in physics. There's always energy of some form. How planets and stars form isn't a mystery. It can even still be observed today thanks to technological advances.

  31. we know that mass plays know role on gravity and acceleration. If distance increases the velocity will will increase and so the acceleration is taking place the farthest particles are moving more fast and spreading out in all direction but if universe is infinite then the force with which the earth pulls the farthest particle is zero and so it will have infinite velocity which is impossible and it also says that maximum distance = speed of light/the hubble constant

  32. The reason i disagree with this is because if we look at the solar system we cant tell any expansion at all the things we notice are really far away millions of light years and the further you get away the faster the expansion gets, but the further you get away also the further back in time you are going. so the farther back in time we go the faster everything is expanding and is slower the more recent we get therefore in my humble opinion it is slowing down. feel free to share opinions of this.

  33. this video brought up some questions to me.
    a: if space itself is expanding, wouldn't that mean that every meter is expanding too? every meter is becoming a little longer, but it is still a meter, so can we even notic the expantion of space itself?
    b: maybe the space itself is expanding, but the gravity resists this effect, so the space inside gravitational wells is not expanding? so if speed is measured by the distance something travels through time, the speed of light is relative too?

  34. If the universe were a bubble-like structure, swimming in a sea of billions of other bubble-like universes, not unlike how our milky way galaxy is swimming in a sea of billions galaxies, then how would we know we were not seeing into other multi-verses, swimming away from us as opposed to the notion our universe is expanding.

  35. Surah Fussilat:

    "Soon We will show them our signs in the (farthest) regions (of the earth), and in their own souls, until it becomes manifest to them that this is the Truth. Is it not enough that thy Lord doth witness all things?"

    [Al-Quran 41:53]

  36. Do not the Unbelievers see That the heavens and the earth
    Were joined together (as one Unit of Creation), before We clove them
    asunder?” [Al-Qur’aan 21:30]
    The striking congruence between the Qur’aanic verse and the ‘Big Bang’ is
    inescapable! How could a book, which first appeared in the deserts of Arabia
    1400 years ago, contain this profound scientific truth?

  37. “And if ye are in doubtas to what We have revealedfrom time to time to Our servant,then produce a Surah likethereunto;
    and call your witnesses or helpers
    (if there are any) besides Allah,if your (doubts) are true.“But if ye cannot –and of a surety you cannot –then fear the Firewhose fuel is Men and Stones –which is prepared for thosewho reject Faith.”
    [Al-Qur’an 2:23-24]
    1

  38. “Do not the Unbelievers seethat the heavens and the earthwere joined together (as oneunit of Creation), beforeWe clove them asunder?”
    [Al-Qu’ran 21:30]

  39. The expansion of the universe as unknown as the black holes and dark matter. I don't think the expansion is making any sense. If the universe was expanding, the galaxies should've expanded as well.

  40. The galaxies does not expand, but the fabric itself. Gravity and centrifugal force keep them together. The space between galaxies and galactic clusters is turning larger and larger over time.

  41. Doesn't make any sense. if the space is expanding the galaxies should also grow larger. The clusters are also bound by the same forces as the stars in a galaxy.

  42. THE GRAVITY FROM A MUCH STRONGER AND DENSE UNIVERSE MAY HAVE ENTERED OUR COSMIC NEIGHBORHOOD 5 BILLION YEARS AGO AND IS PULLING OUR UNIVERSE INTO ITS ORBIT OR SPACE JUST LIKE GALAXIES DO ALL THE TIME. WE JUST CANT SEE IT YET CAUSE ITS TO FAR BEYOND OUR TELESCOPIC REACH. JUST A THEORY.

  43. everything is growing moving and expanding all the time that's the rule of life, even sacred geometry showed that decades ago.

  44. Dark energy/ matter makes up 90% of the Universe but we can not see or interact with it.
    I think this means we are very wrong about almost everything and where we are right it is for the wrong reason.

  45. Love your theory here, yours or not… HATE YOUR USE OF CAPS LOCK, HATE even more so your use of 'to' when you should have said 'TOO'!!!

  46. cant it because of the big bang? I mean after an explosion particles move away from the centre of the explosion?

  47. bro, that's just the thing. Imagine this, you start your car and speed up to about 70km/u. (the big bang) and you shut off the engine, at first all goes to plan. Your speed decraeses and slow down but at sertain point you start accelerating while your engine is still off. It's against all rules off what we know today.

  48. I have a question: Why does the gravity that pulls matter into orbit around larger matter make them orbit in the form of a disk? Shouldn't it be like an atom, where electrons orbit around all sides of the nucleus? just wondering 🙂

  49. Wouldn't the infinite expanding theory basically need infinite energy for the universe to grow? Doesn't that violate at least two laws of physics or am I missing something??

  50. Infinite energy = infinite mass = infinite gravity = non-expanding universe. There is no energy required to expand "nothing".

  51. I have no idea xD i'm an electrician :p I would like to know that detail too. But even though the speeding up is weird and the redshift doesn't ly.

  52. The conviction in his words is really amusing! Humans thinking/talking about whats going on in the universe is like an ant under a car to understand the principal of the internal combustion engine just by looking in that direction! Idiots!

  53. our? no. alber einstein impostor seems to understand it and so do i

  54. The same way it was believed the earth was the center of universe one time ago, I'm sure that in the future they will have proof that what we believe in nowadays its wrong. Your theory might be one of them.

  55. Allah mentioned this in Qura'an literally >> Al Thareyat 51| versus 47
    {وَالسَّمَاء بَنَيْنَاهَا بِأَيْدٍ وَإِنَّا لَمُوسِعُونَ} (سورة الذاريات:47)
    "And the heaven we constructed with strength and indeed we are its expanders"

  56. I thought Einstein already dealt with this by describing gravity as 'distorted-space-time' around stars etc. So gravity doesn't 'pull' or 'attract' objects it is expansion of space and compression of the space-time around objects which 'pushes' objects to each other. Like 'rocks'… in a all-surrounding 3-D 'stream'.

  57. I am giveng thought to this notion i've been pondering, that eventually our universe will expand to a point of multiple possibilitys. What I mean is that our universe will continue to expand and as it expands it gains speed; at some point I believe it/all might reach the speed of light. Nothing can exceed the speed of light. Therefore at this point this "inflation" reaches its peak, the universe is expanding at such a rate of speed (speed of light) it can't expand any faster. No matter the speed it dose continue to push outward.
    (Im still continuing my studies in physics so bear with me please, however I think this can all be very simple.)
    Maybe someone can help me with one part im trying to understand, which is the question of what will happen at the point at which our universe is expanding at the speed of light?
    I think one possibility is that it may eventually lead to the demise of our universe, ill explain (if you believe in the multi-verse theory). Eventually it our universe will collide with another "brain-wave universe" in our multi-verse; and it may spark another big bang in both universes, however in our universe. ? We will see the opposite, we might see our universe implode & all that we know will never be the same, dare I say erased casusing a new brain wave, thus the reason there is a balance (the beginning of the new universe means the end of the one which caused it). This new universe will take the place of something like our own, however it will be something new in an old brain-wave. Anything more I don't yet understand. Also I think this force we can't fully expain may be a result of the other brain-wave. Gravity, this mysterious force, may be the dark energy that is keeping our universe in check (the gravtional force of the universe isnt enough to keep it together so scientists came up with dark energy to expalin what might be keeping it all together). This gravity may simply be the gravtional pull of the other brain-wave universe's in our cosmic universe. I may be completely wrong, but why not explore the possibilities.

  58. I am giveng thought to this notion i've been pondering, that eventually our universe will expand to a point of multiple possibilitys. What I mean is that our universe will continue to expand and as it expands it gains speed; at some point I believe it/all might reach the speed of light. Nothing can exceed the speed of light. Therefore at this point this "inflation" reaches its peak, the universe is expanding at such a rate of speed (speed of light) it can't expand any faster. No matter the speed it dose continue to push outward.
    (Im still continuing my studies in physics so bear with me please, however I think this can all be very simple.)
    Maybe someone can help me with one part im trying to understand, which is the question of what will happen at the point at which our universe is expanding at the speed of light?
    I think one possibility is that it may eventually lead to the demise of our universe, ill explain (if you believe in the multi-verse theory). Eventually it our universe will collide with another "brain-wave universe" in our multi-verse; and it may spark another big bang in both universes, however in our universe. ? We will see the opposite, we might see our universe implode & all that we know will never be the same, dare I say erased casusing a new brain wave, thus the reason there is a balance (the beginning of the new universe means the end of the one which caused it). This new universe will take the place of something like our own, however it will be something new in an old brain-wave. Anything more I don't yet understand. Also I think this force we can't fully expain may be a result of the other brain-wave. Gravity, this mysterious force, may be the dark energy that is keeping our universe in check (the gravtional force of the universe isnt enough to keep it together so scientists came up with dark energy to expalin what might be keeping it all together). This gravity may simply be the gravtional pull of the other brain-wave universe's in our cosmic universe. I may be completely wrong, but why not explore the possibilities.

  59. “And the heaven We constructed with strength, and indeed, We are [its] expander.”
    Qur’ān 51: 47

    It was only after the development of the radio telescope in 1937 that the expansion of the universe was observed and established. While observing the sky with a telescope, Edwin Hubble, the American astronomer, discovered that the stars and galaxies were constantly moving away from each other. This discovery is regarded as one of the greatest in the history of astronomy. During these observations, Hubble established that the stars emit a light that turns redder according to their distance.
    That is because according to the known laws of physics, light heading towards a point of observa- tion turns violet, and light moving away from that point assumes a more reddish hue. During his observations, Hubble noted a tendency towards the colour red in the light emitted by stars. In short, the stars were moving further and further away, all the time. The stars and galaxies were not only moving away from us, but also from each other. A universe where everything constantly moves away from everything else implied a constantly expanding universe.

  60. When one talks about 'expansion' one must tell 'in what' is it expanding. Expansion implies something where the object is expanding in.

  61. "And the heaven We constructed with strength, and indeed, We are [its] expander" (Quran 51:47)

    "Have those who disbelieved not considered that the heavens and the earth were a joined entity, and We separated them and made from water every living thing? Then will they not believe?" (Quran 21:30)

  62. it can be compared loosely to a gun being fired,… the latest I've heard is that [1} the universe is still expanding, this was, I believe to be ascertained recently {just a couple of years} also,{2} the "big bang" started like an onion,… peeling from the outside layers moving to the inner layers,… not like an explosion which explodes from the inside which would be totally chaotic,… but from the outside,  propelling the matter on a controlled expansion as was needed for the expansion to properly take place, thus, the matter that is further away from the beginning will  be traveling faster and the matter we see "behind" us  or closer to the beginning will be traveling slower, like when a ball is hit , or a gun is fired both the ball and or the projectile has to accelerate past each each stage of speed to reach maximum speed .If you use FPS. {feet per second} and the projectile is used for example then when the "bullet" is fired it has to start at zero FPS, then it has to pass one FPS to reach two, five ,or three thousand feet per second… this is fact, so if we see the universe expanding as they believe, like an onion from the outside in, then  knowing that no matter what, all expansion has to graduate past each FPS of  speed to achieve the next {such as O to the speed of light even} then like a machine gun  being fired there is still ammo in the clip one is just being fired going past one FPS as the previous one is already going past one thousand FPS,and still accelerating {showing expansion} and the one before that nearing full velocity then the one before that {representing the outermost layers of the "onion which left first to be going the fastest and maybe yet the next slowing and maybe even further out some that has slowed to where they may be stopped and even retracting. so, we are still in the "barrel" still accelerating faster than the core ,but slower  than the outer "layers" which are going faster than we, showing that…. the "Big Bang" has only ..just .. begun…                    
                            
                                         Just thinking…..

  63. if  light from far away red shifted objects is billions of years old, how do we know the universe is still expanding today?

  64. WHO IS ALMIGHTY ALLAH!

    HE WHO CHALLENGED
    THE MANKIND 1400 YEARS AGO

    " O company of jinn and men,if ye have power to penetrate (all) regions of the heavens and the earth,then penetrate (them)!

    Ye will never penetrate them save with (Our) sanction".
    (Qur'an,55:33)

    سورہ الملک
    The Sovereignty

    تبارک الذی بیدہ الملک , و ھو علی کل شئ قدیر الذی خلق سبع سموات طباقا , ما تری فی خلق الرحمن من تفوت , فارجع البصر ھل تری من فتور . ثم ارجع البصر کرتین ینقلب الیک البصر خاسئا و ھو حسیر .
    67:1
    Blessed is He in Whose hands is Dominion; and He over all things hath Power;-
    67:2
    He Who created Death and Life, that He may try which of you is best in deed: and He is the Exalted in Might, Oft-Forgiving;-
    67:3
    He Who created the seven heavens one above another: No want of proportion wilt thou see in the Creation of (Allah) Most Gracious. So turn thy vision again: seest thou any flaw?
    67:4
    Again turn thy vision a second time: (thy) vision will come back to thee dull and discomfited, in a state worn out.
    67:5
    And we have, (from of old), adorned the lowest heaven with Lamps, and We have made such (Lamps) (as) missiles to drive away the Evil Ones, and have prepared for them the Penalty of the Blazing Fire.
    67:6
    For those who reject their Lord (and Cherisher) is the Penalty of Hell: and evil is (such), Destination.

    We are asked to observe, study and research the cosmos again and again, and as minutely as our powers will allow. However closely we observe the cosmos
    we shall find no flaw in creation of Almighty Allah.

    The universe is so vast and stretches so far beyond our ken,that our eyes aided with most powerful telescopes will confess themselves defeated in trying to penetrate to the ultimate6 mystries.

    We shall find no defect in Allah's handiwork: it is our own powers that we shall find fail to go beyond a certain compass.

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