Rhetorical Reading Review (CA Dept of Education)


My
name is Leisa Machado. I teach seventh graders
language arts and world history. And the lesson you are going to see today
is a lesson template that I put together to help my students review some of the critical
reading skills that our new common core standards want us to develop in students. It would work for a science classroom, a foreign
language classroom, a chemistry classroom; it would work in a math classroom. It would
work in any classroom where you want to have kids be in the driver seat, in charge of their
own learning, collaborating, and using academic language to explain concepts that they�ve
learned. When I begin my lesson I like to start with
a clarification of my expectations and a brief review of the materials the kids will be using. Ok, so would you please tell me, do you think
you can analyze for tone or mood and to what degree? Show me. Excellent. So after I go over the language objectives
and content objectives and review the materials students will be using, I then send them into
the reading task. This is done independently. And again, you want to have a one page wonder
for this. You don�t want it to be a long article. You want it to be a powerful, short
read that is rigorous and is engaging for students. We want them to make meaning and sense of
what they�re reading on their own and I ask them to do this by annotating as they
read. So for the next five minutes, I know it�s
not very much time. If you need more, I�ll ask you, but let�s go with five. Please
carefully read independently and annotate as you do. Today you will see us using a set list of
symbols so they can use that to facilitate their individual group tasks. So for example
they�ll put stars next to ideas and concepts that they feel are very significant and important,
and they�ll put hearts next to ideas, words, phrases, that may be words that carry a loaded
message, show bias, or that make them feel a strong emotion or feeling. That will help
them determine what the author�s mood or author�s tone is in the article. So Nancy, explain. Would you just paraphrase
briefly, when are we going to put a heart on our paper?
When we feel any kind of emotion, whether it�s anger, sadness, happiness, we would
put a heart to indicate that we felt something. Very good. After I have gone over the annotations and
the kids have had a chance to read and annotate their article, at that time you send them
immediately to their group task area, I call them the four corners. And so I simplify this
by color coding. It saves a lot of time talking. I just use different colored paper and I have
that colored paper in the corner and they know that they go to the corner that matches
what they have. In that corner they�ll see their task. They will work together, they get one pen,
they read the task, and they discuss what it is they were supposed to write about and
teach the rest of the kids about. For example if their job was to find the author�s
central message, they�ll discuss what they think the central message is and the evidence,
the textual evidence that supports that. When they have a group consensus, they take turns
using the one marker and write that information down. We thought it was biased because they�re
only focusing on the harmful video games but there could be good ones that are good for
you like sport video games. Educational. So you�re seeing an author�s
point of view that seems to show a? Toward a negative or positive bias? A negative bias. In this corner, this activity is called jigsaw
by some people because it represents a puzzle. Each group is one piece of the puzzle and
when they finish their task you�ve put together a puzzle in its entirety. So each group takes on one facet of the learning
objective and at the end, every group benefits from the entire product. I have told my students that as they finish
at an activity, if it�s not time to move to the next station yet, they can reflect
on their learning and start to fill in their exit ticket. So although it is called an exit ticket, the
task is a reflective tool. And this reflective tool is for them to reflect all along the
way in their learning through today�s activities. There are 5 different stations and they can
reflect at each station. And should they have some down time with nothing to do, they should
be writing on their reflective tool. And this is actually something they enjoy
doing, so you will see students writing on their gold paper. That half sheet gold paper
is what I use for their exit ticket and you will see that some groups are doing that while
other groups are doing other things. And this is a way for students to keep track of their
thoughts and their ideas and they don�t balk at this at all, it seems to be something
that I have incorporated that they enjoy doing. Please rotate Once they finish their task in their expert
group, the second thing you�ll see us have the kids do is a rotation from group to group.
I call this, and it is called this by others, carousel. So I set the time limit purposefully to be
pretty short. They need more time to do their task, but they need less time to be on task
and focused so that they read the comments of their peers and they provide appropriate
feedback. You don�t want this time to be too lengthy or you get off task behavior. So text graffiti is when you have students
write like graffiti on a text. And when they are writing on top of their peer�s text
that�s called text on text graffiti. Kids love this; they love to write all over each
other�s work. Normally we would be very upset if someone wrote on top of our work.
In fact the kids when they get back to their original posters don�t like it very much,
but as long as the feedback is intended to be purposeful and helpful, that is the goal
of this activity and it ups the engagement level for students. And skipping chores, that�s negative, so
you can really emphasize those things. Do you have any feedback for this group? Do you
think they did a good job? I think they did pretty good. And then you ring the bell and they go to
the next corner and they do the same thing again. You�ll find that as they go around the room
they have more to read because they are reading the other students� text on text graffiti. After they have jigsawed and carouseled around
the entire room they will end back up at their own expert group corner, and this is really
the telling piece of the lesson. This is where we bring the learning to a full
close. They get to see what everybody else in the room thinks of the task they performed;
they get to read the feedback. I always remind them to take it with a grain of salt, but
that in every piece of feedback we get, somebody had a reason for writing it. So at the end of the cycle of these activities,
students like to have an opportunity to wrap it all up and to say what their final takeaway
was. So I ask them to select or volunteer in their group to be the spokesperson for
their group and so one person will stay behind, sometimes two people stay behind if they want
to have a friend with them and I ask them to just briefly tell us what their group learned
from the feedback left behind by the other students. And at this time they get to reflect on the
text on text graffiti activity, they get to reflect on the learning goal itself, and they
get to articulate their takeaway from the lesson. We didn�t have a very challenging time finding
them together, we had pretty good teamwork, and we communicated well. We didn�t get
that many positive ones because we felt that the author was bias against video games, like
he explained them only in a negative way instead of the ones that could be educational. Again this is part of the interpreting the
evidence and it also provides the teacher and the students with actionable feedback
so that when we think about what are the skills that we feel solid about and what are the
skills that we need to work further on, by having them articulate this, it gives me the
information I need for planning for future lessons. So when we think about the formative assessment
process, this entire lesson is designed with the 4 concepts in mind. I start by clarifying
the lesson objective, the whole lesson is involved with gathering evidence, and then
I interpret that evidence and so do the students. I interpret the evidence as I�m watching
the students work. I go and give them just in time feedback as I see they need it. At the very end of the day when I read their
exit tickets. I can again ascertain if there is more that I need to do to build in that
knowledge and I can plan my next day�s lesson that way. The students give each other feedback and
they interpret the evidence of their peers, so everyone�s engaged in the interpreting
of the evidence and it builds knowledge on many, many levels. That�s the power of this
lesson. It�s not giving information from one person,
the teacher, to the students. It�s involving everybody in the role of playing the part
of the teacher and a student in the classroom simultaneously.

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