Rawalpindi | Wikipedia audio article

Rawalpindi (Punjabi, Urdu: راولپِنڈى‬‎,
Rāwalpiṇḍī), commonly known as Pindi (Punjabi: پِنڈی‬), is a city in the
Punjab province of Pakistan. Rawalpindi is adjacent to Pakistan’s capital
of Islamabad, and the two are jointly known as the “twin cities” on account strong social
and economic links between the cities. Rawalpindi is the fourth-largest city in Pakistan
by population, while the larger Islamabad Rawalpindi metropolitan area is the country’s
third-largest metropolitan area. Rawalpindi is located on the Pothohar Plateau,
known for its ancient Buddhist heritage, especially in the neighbouring town of Taxila – a UNESCO
World Heritage Site. The city was destroyed during the invasion
of Mahmud of Ghazni before being taken over by Gakhars in 1493. In 1765, the ruling Gakhars were defeated
as the city came under Sikh rule, and eventually became a major city within the Sikh Empire
based in Lahore. The city fell to the British Raj in 1849,
and in 1851 became the largest garrison town for the British Indian Army. Following the partition of British India in
1947, the city became home to the headquarters of Pakistan Army hence retaining its status
as a major military city.Construction of Pakistan’s new purpose-built national capital city of
Islamabad in 1961 led to greater investment in the city, as well as a brief stint as the
country’s capital immediately before completion of Islamabad. Modern Rawalpindi is socially and economically
intertwined with Islamabad, and the greater metropolitan area. The city is also home to numerous suburban
housing developments that serve as bedroom-communities for workers in Islamabad. As home of Benazir Bhutto International Airport,
and with connections to the M-1 and M-2 motorways, Rawalpindi is a major logistics and transportation
centre for northern Pakistan. The city is also home to historic havelis
and temples, and serves as a hub for tourists visiting Rohtas Fort, Azad Kashmir, Taxila
and Gilgit-Baltistan.==Etymology==
The word “Rawalpindi” consists of two Punjabi words; Rawal, and Pindi. The origin of the name may derive from the
combination of two words: Rawal, meaning “lake” in Punjabi, and Pind, meaning “village.” The combination of the two words thus means
“The village of lake”. Other sources have posited a Sanskrit origin
of the city’s name.==History=====
Origins===The region around Rawalpindi has been inhabited
for thousands of years. Rawalpindi falls within the ancient boundaries
of Gandhara, and is in a region littered with Buddhist ruins. In the region north-west of Rawalpindi, traces
have been found of at least 55 stupas, 28 Buddhist monasteries, 9 temples, and various
artifacts in the Kharoshthi script. To the southeast are the ruins of the Mankiala
stupa – a 2nd-century stupa where, according to the Jataka tales, a previous incarnation
of the Buddha leapt off a cliff in order to offer his corpse to seven hungry tiger cubs. The nearby town of Taxila is thought to have
been home to the world’s first university. Sir Alexander Cunningham identified ruins
on the site of the Rawalpindi Cantonment as the ancient city of Ganjipur (or Gajnipur),
the capital of the Bhatti tribe in the ages preceding the Christian era.===Medieval===
The first mention of Rawalpindi’s earliest settlement dates from when Mahmud of Ghazni
destoyed Rawalpindi and the town was restored by Gakhar chief Kai Gohar in the early 11th
century. The town fell into decay again after Mongol
invasions in the 14th century. Situated along an invasion route, the settlement
did not prosper and remained deserted until 1493, when Jhanda Khan re-established the
ruined town, and named it Rawal.===Mughal===During the Mughal era, Rawalpindi remained
under the rule of the Ghakhar clan, who in turn pledged allegiance to the Mughal Empire. The city was developed as an important outpost
in order to guard the frontiers of the Mughal realm. Gakhars fortified a nearby caravanserai, in
the 16th century, transforming it into the Rawat Fort in order to defend the Pothohar
plateau from Sher Shah Suri’s forces. Construction of the Attock Fort in 1581 after
Akbar led a campaign against his brother Mirza Muhammad Hakim, further securing Rawalpindi’s
environs. In December 1585, the Emperor Akbar arrived
in Rawalpindi, and remained in and around Rawalpindi for 13 years as he extended the
frontiers of the empire, in an era described as a “glorious period” in his career as Emperor.With
the onset of chaos and rivalry between Gakhar chiefs after the death of Kamal Khan in 1559,
Rawalpindi was awarded to Said Khan by the Mughal Emperor. The Emperor Jehangir visited the royal camp
in Rawalpindi in 1622, where he first learned of Shah Abbas I of Persia’s plan to invade
Rawalpindi declined in importance after the fall of the Mughals, until the town was captured
in the mid 1760s from Muqarrab Khan by the Sikhs under Sardar Gujjar Singh and his son
Sahib Singh. The city’s administration was handed to Sardar
Milkha Singh, who then invited traders from the neighboring commercial centers of Jhelum
and Shahpur to settle in the territory in 1766. The city then began to prosper, although the
population in 1770 is estimated to have been only about 300 families. Rawalpindi became for a time the refuge of
Shah Shuja, the exiled king of Afghanistan, and of his brother Shah Zaman in the early
19th century.====Empire====
Sikh ruler Maharaja Ranjit Singh allowed the son of Sardar Milkha Singh to continue as
Governor of Rawalpindi, after Ranjit Singh seized the district in 1810. Sikh rule over Rawalpindi was consolidated
by defeat of the Afghans at Haidaran in July 1813. The Sikh rulers allied themselves with some
of the local Gakhar tribes, and jointly defeated Syed Ahmad Barelvi at Akora Khattak in 1827,
and again in 1831 in Balakot. Jews first arrived in Rawalpindi’s Babu Mohallah
neighbourhood from Mashhad, Persia in 1839, in order to flee from anti-Jewish laws instituted
by the Qajar dynasty. In 1841, Diwan Kishan Kaur was appointed Sardar
of Rawalpindi.On 14 March 1849, Sardar Chattar Singh and Raja Sher Singh of the Sikh Empire
surrendered to General Gilbert near Rawalpindi, ceding the city to the British. The Sikh Empire then came to an end on 29
March 1849.===British===Following Rawalpindi’s capture by the British
Indian Empire, Her Majesty’s 53 Regiment took quarters in the newly captured city. The decision to man a permanent military cantonment
in the city was made in 1851 by the Marquess of Dalhousie. The city saw its first telegraph office in
the early 1850s. The city’s Garrison Church was built shortly
after in 1854, and is the site where Robert Milman, Bishop of Calcutta, was buried following
his death in Rawalpindi in 1876. The city was home to 15,913 people in the
1855 census. During the 1857 Sepoy Mutiny, the area’s Gakhars
and Janjua tribes remained loyal to the British.Numerous civil and military buildings were built during
the British era, and the Municipality of Rawalpindi was constituted in 1867, while the city’s
population as per the 1868 census was 19,228, with another 9,358 people residing in the
city’s cantonment. The city was also connected to railways that
offered connection to India and the northwest frontier in Peshawar in the 1880s. The Commissariat Steam Flour Mills were the
first such mills in Punjab, and supplied most of the needs of British cantonments throughout
Punjab. Rawalpindi’s cantonment served as a feeder
to other cantonments throughout the region.Rawalpindi flourished as a commercial centre, though
the city remained largely devoid of an industrial base during the British era. A large portion of Kashmir’s external trade
passing through the city; in 1885, 14% of Kashmir’s exports, and 27% of its imports
passed through the city. A large market was opened in central Rawalpindi
in 1883 by Sardar Sujan Singh, while the British further developed a shopping district for
the city’s elite known as Saddar with an archway built to commemorate Brigadier General Massey.Rawalpindi’s
cantonment became a major center of military power of the Raj after an arsenal was established
in 1883. Britain’s army elevated the city from a small
town, to the third largest city in Punjab by 1921. In 1868, 9,358 people lived in the city’s
cantonment – by 1891, the number rose to 37,870. In 1891, the city’s population excluding the
Cantonment was 34,153. The city was considered to be a favourite
first posting for newly arrived soldiers from England, owing to the city’s agreeable climate,
and nearby hill station at nearby Murree. In 1901, Rawalpindi was made the winter headquarters
of the Northern Command and of the Rawalpindi military division. Riots broke out against British rule in 1905,
following a famine in Punjab that peasants were led to believe was a deliberate act.During
World War 1, Rawalpindi District “stood first” among districts in recruiting for the British
war effort, with greater financial assistance from the British government channeled into
the area in return. By 1921, Rawalpindi’s cantonment had overshadowed
the city – Rawalpindi was one of seven cities of Punjab in which over half the population
lived in the cantonment district. Communal riots erupted between Rawalpindi’s
Sikh and Muslim communities in 1926 after Sikhs refused to silence music from a procession
that was passing in front of a mosque.HMS Rawalpindi was launched as an ocean liner
in 1925 by Harland and Wolff, the same company which built RMS Titanic. The ship was converted into an armed vessel,
and was sunk in October 1939. The British colonialist government also tested
poison gas on native troops during the Rawalpindi experiments over the course of more than a
decade beginning in the 1930s.===Partition===
On 5 March 1947, members of Rawalpindi’s Sikh and Hindu communities took out a procession
against the formation of a Muslim ministry within the Government of Punjab. Policemen fired upon protestors, while Hindus
and Sikhs fought against weaker Muslim counter-protestors. The area’s first Partition riots erupted the
next day on 6 March 1947, when the city’s Muslims, angered by the actions of Hindus
and Sikhs and encouraged by the Pir of Golra Sharif, raided nearby villages after they
were unable to do so in the city on account of Rawalpindi’s heavily armed Sikhs.At the
dawn of Pakistan’s independence in 1947, Rawalpindi was a 43.79% Muslim, while Rawalpindi District
as a whole was 80% Muslim. The region, on account of its large Muslim
majority, was thus awarded to Rawalpindi’s Hindu and Sikh population, who had made up
33.72% and 17.32% of the city, migrated en masse to the newly independent Dominion of
India after communal riots in western Punjab, while Muslim refugees from India settled in
the city following anti-Muslim pogroms in eastern Punjab and northern India.===Modern===
In the years following independence, Rawalpindi saw an influx of Muhajir, Pashtun and Kashmiri
settlers. Having been the largest British Cantonment
in the region at the dawn of Pakistan’s independence, Rawalpindi was chosen as headquarters for
the Pakistani Army, despite the fact that Karachi had been selected as the first capital.In
1951, the Rawalpindi conspiracy took place in which leftist army officers conspired to
depose the first elected Prime Minister of Pakistan, Liaquat Ali Khan. Rawalpindi later became the site of the Liaquat
Ali Khan’s assassination, in what is now known as Liaquat Bagh Park. In 1958, Field Marshal Ayub Khan launched
his coup d’etat from Rawalpindi. In 1959, the city became the interim capital
of the country under Ayub Khan, who had sought the creation of a new planned capital of Islamabad
in the vicinity of Rawalpindi. As a result, Rawalpindi saw most major central
government offices and institutions relocate to nearby territory, and its population rapidly
expand. Construction of Pakistan’s new capital city
of Islamabad in 1961 led to greater investment in Rawalpindi. Rawalpindi remained the headquarters of the
Pakistani Army after the capital shifted to Islamabad in 1969, while the Pakistan Air
Force continues to maintain an airbase in the Chaklala district of Rawalpindi. The military dictatorship of General Zia ul
Haq hanged Pakistan’s deposed Prime Minister, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, in Rawalpindi in 1979.In
1980, tens of thousands of Shia protestors led by Mufti Jaffar Hussain marched on Rawalpindi
to protest a provision of Zia ul Haqs Islamization programme. A spate of bombings in September 1987 took
place in the city killing 5 people, in attacks that are believed to have been orchestrated
by agents of Afghanistan’s communist government. On 10 April 1988, Rawalpindi’s Ojhri Camp,
an ammunition depot for Afghan mujahideen fighting against Soviet forces in Afghanistan,
exploded and killed many in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. At the time, the New York Times reported more
than 93 were killed and another 1,100 wounded; many believe that the toll was much higher.Riots
erupted in Rawalpindi in 1992 as mobs attacked Hindu temples in retaliation for the destruction
of the Babri Masjid in India by Hindu extremists. In March 2003, Pakistani authorities captured
Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, mastermind of the September 11th attacks in New York City. On 27 December 2007, Rawalpindi was the site
of the assassination of former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto.Modern Rawalpindi is socially
and economically intertwined with Islamabad, and the greater metropolitan area. The city is also home to numerous suburban
housing developments that serve as bedroom-communities for workers in Islamabad. In June 2015, the Rawalpindi-Islamabad Metrobus,
a new bus rapid transit line with various points in Islamabad, opened for service.==Geography=====Climate===
Rawalpindi features a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cwa) with hot and wet summers, a
cooler and drier winter. Rawalpindi and its twin city Islamabad, during
the year experiences an average of 91 thunderstorms, which is the highest frequency of any plain
elevation city in the country. Strong windstorms are frequent in the summer
during which wind gusts have been reported by Pakistan Meteorological Department to have
reached 176 km/h (109 mph). In such thunder/wind storms, which results
in some damage of infrastructure. The weather is highly variable due to the
proximity of the city to the foothills of Himalayas. The average annual rainfall is 1,200 mm (47
in), most of which falls in the summer monsoon season. However, westerly disturbances also bring
quite significant rainfall in the winter. In summer, the record maximum temperature
has soared to 48.4 °C (119 °F) recorded in June 1954, while it has dropped to a minimum
of −3.9 °C (25 °F) several occasions, though the last of which was in January 1967.===Cityscape===
Social structures in Rawalpindi’s historic core centre around neighbourhoods, each known
as a Mohallah. Each neighbourhood is served by a nearby bazaar
and mosque, which in turn serve as a place with diverse people can gather for trade and
manufacturing. Each Mohallah has narrow and short roads that
are often unnamed. The grouping of houses around short lanes
and cul-de-sacs lends a sense of privacy and security to residents of each neighbourhood. Major intersections in the neighbourhood are
each referred to as a chowk. South of Rawalpindi’s historic core, and across
the Lai Nullah, are the verdant and wide lanes of the Rawalpindi Cantonment. With tree-lined avenues and historic architecture,
the cantonment was the main European area developed during British colonial rule. British colonialists also built the Saddar
Bazaar south of the historic core, which served as a retail centre geared towards Europeans
in the city. Beyond the cantonment are the large suburban
housing developments that serve as bedroom communities for Islamabad’s commuter population.==Demographics==
The population of Rawalpindi is 2,098,231 in 2017. 84% of the population is Punjabi, 9% is Pashtun,
and 7% is from other ethnic groups.===Religion===96.8% of Rawalpindi’s population is Muslim,
2.47% is Christian, 0.73% belong to other religious groups. The city’s Kohaati Bazaar is site of large
Shia mourning-processions for Ashura. The neighbourhoods of Waris Shah Mohallah
and Pir Harra Mohallah form the core of Muslim settlement in Rawalpindi’s old city. Rawalpindi was a majority Hindu and Sikh city
prior to the Partition of British India in 1947, while Muslims made up 43.79% of the
population. The Baba Dyal Singh Gurdwara in Rawalpindi
was where the reformist Nirankari movement of Sikhism originated. The city’s Sikh population is small, but has
been bolstered by the arrival of Sikhs fleeing political instability in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.The
city is still home to a few hundred Hindu families. Despite the fact that the vast majority of
the city’s Hindus fled en masse to India after Partition, most Hindu temples in the old city
remain standing, although in disrepair and often abandoned. Many of the old city’s neighbourhoods continue
to bear Hindu and Sikh names, such as Krishanpura, Arya Mohallah, Akaal Garh, Mohanpura, Amarpura,
Kartarpura, Bagh Sardaraan, Angatpura. Rawalpindi’s Krishna Temple, built in the
Kabarri Bazaar in 1897, and the Guru Balmik Swamiji Temple in Rawalpindi Cantonment, remain
open to the public. Other temples are abandoned or were repurposed. Rawalpindi’s large Kalyan Das Temple from
1880 has been used as the “Gov’t. Qandeel Secondary School for the Blind” since
1973. The Ram Leela Temple in Kanak Mandi, and the
Kaanji Mal Ujagar Mal Ram Richpal Temple in the Kabarri Bazaar, are both currently used
to house Kashmiri refugees. Mohan Temple in the Lunda Bazaar remains standing,
but is abandoned and the building no longer used for any purpose. The city’s “Shamshan Ghat” serves as the city’s
cremation grounds, and was partly renovated in 2012.The city’s Babu Mohallah neighbourhood
was once home to a community of Jewish traders that had fled Mashhad, Persia in the 1830s. The community had entirely emigrated to Israel
by the 1960s.==Transportation=====
Public transportation===The Rawalpindi-Islamabad Metrobus is a 22.5
km (14.0 mi) bus rapid transit service that connects Rawalpindi to Islamabad. The Metrobus network was opened on 4 June
2015, and connects the Pak Secretariat in Islamabad to Saddar in Rawalpindi. A second stage is currently under construction
from Peshawar Morr Interchange to the New Islamabad International Airport. The system uses e-ticketing and Intelligent
Transportation System wand and is managed by the Punjab Mass Transit Authority.===Road===
Rawalpindi is situated along the historic Grand Trunk Road that connects Peshawar to
Islamabad and Lahore. The road is roughly paralleled by the M-1
Motorway between Peshawar and Rawalpindi, while the M-2 Motorway provides an alternate
route to Lahore via the Salt Range. The Grand Trunk Road also provides access
to the Afghan border via the Khyber Pass, with onwards connections to Kabul and Central
Asia via the Salang Pass. The Karakoram Highway provides access between
Islamabad and western China, and an alternate route to Central Asia via Kashgar in the Chinese
region of Xinjiang. The Islamabad Expressway connects Rawalpindi’s
eastern portions with the Rawal Lake and heart of Islamabad. The IJP Road separates Rawalpindi’s northern
edge from Islamabad.====Motorways====Rawalpindi is connected to Peshawar by the
M-1 Motorway. The motorway also links Rawalpindi to major
cities in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, such as Charsadda and Mardan. The M-2 motorway offers high speed access
to Lahore via the Potohar Plateau and Salt Range. The M-3 Motorway branches off from the M-2
at the city of Pindi Bhattian, where the M-3 offers onward connections to Faisalabad, and
connects to the M-4 Motorway which continues onward to Multan. A new motorway network is under construction
to connect Multan and Karachi as part of the China Pakistan Economic Corridor. The Hazara Motorway is also under construction
as part of CPEC, and will provide control-access motorway travel all the way to Mansehra via
the M-1 or Grand Trunk Road.===Rail===
Rawalpindi railway station in the Saddar neighbourhood serves as a stop along Pakistan’s 1,687 kilometres
(1,048 mi)-long Main Line-1 railway that connects the city to the port city of Karachi to Peshawar. The stations is served by the Awam Express,
Hazara Express, Islamabad Express, Jaffar Express, Khyber Mail trains, and serves as
the terminus for the Margalla Express, Mehr Express, Rawal Express, Pakistan Express,
Subak Raftar Express, Subak Kharam Express, and Tezgam trains. The entire Main Line-1 railway track between
Karachi and Peshawar is to be overhauled at a cost of $3.65 billion for the first phase
of the project, with completion by 2021. Upgrading of the railway line will permit
train travel at speeds of 160 kilometres per hour, versus the average 60 to 105 km per
hour speed currently possible on existing track.===Air===
Rawalpindi is served by the Islamabad International Airport. The airport is located in Fateh Jang, Attock. It offers non-stop flights throughout Pakistan,
as well as to the Middle East, Europe, North America, Cenral Asia, East Asia, and Southeast
Asia.==Administrative divisions==The City-District of Rawalpindi is sub-divided
into one Municipal Corporation Two Cantonment Board and Seven tehsils: Rawalpindi Municipal Corporation Rawalpindi
City [1] Rawalpindi Cantonment Board Rawalpindi Cantt
[2] Chaklala Cantonment Board Chaklala Cantt [3]Rawalpindi
also holds many private colonies that have developed themselves rapidly, e.g. Gulraiz
Housing Society, Korang Town, Agochs Town, Ghori Town, Pakistan Town, Judicial Town,
Bahria Town which is the Asia’s largest private colony, Kashmir Housing Society, Danial Town,
Al-Haram City, Education City.===Parks===Ayub National Park is located beyond the old
Presidency on Jhelum Road. It covers an area of about 2,300 acres (930
ha) and has a playland, lake with boating facility, an aquarium and a garden-restaurant. Rawalpindi Public Park is on Benazir Bhutto
Road near Shamsabad. The Park was opened to the public in 1991. It has a playland for children, grassy lawns,
fountains and flower beds. In 2008 Jinnah Park was inaugurated at the
heart of Rawalpindi and has since become a hotspot of activity for the city. People from as far out as Peshawer come to
Jinnah Park to enjoy its modern facilities. It houses a state-of-the-art cinema, Cinepax,
a Metro Cash and Carry supermart, an outlet of McDonald’s, gaming lounges, Motion Rides
and other recreational facilities. The vast lawns also provide an adequate picnic
spot. Rawalpindi is situated near the Ayub National
Park formerly known as ‘Topi Rakh’ (keep the hat on) is by the old Presidency, between
the Murree Brewery Co. and Grand Trunk Road. It covers an area of about 2,300 acres (930
ha) and has a play area, lake with boating facility, an aquarium, a garden-restaurant
and an open-air theater. This park hosts “The Jungle Kingdom” which
is particularly popular among young residents. Liaquat Bagh, formerly known as the “company
bagh” (East India Company’s Garden), is of great historical interest. The first prime minister of Pakistan, Liaquat
Ali Khan, was assassinated here in 1950. Pakistan’s Prime Minister Banazir Bhutto was
assassinated here on 27 December 2007. She was the youngest and the only women to
be elected as prime minister of Pakistan. Rawalpindi Public Park (also known as Nawaz
Sharif Park) is located on Murree Road. The park was opened in 1991. It has a play area for children, lawns, fountains
and flower beds. A cricket stadium was built in 1992 opposite
the public park. The 1996 World Cup matches were held on this
cricket ground.==Education==Rawalpindi District is home to 2,463 government
public schools, out of which 1706 are Primary schools, 306
middle schools, 334 are High schools, while 117 are Higher education colleges.97.4& of
children ages 6–16 in urban areas of Rawalpindi District are enrolled in school – the third
highest percentage in Pakistan after Islamabad and Karachi. 77.1% of Rawalpindi’s students in Class 5
are able to read sentences in English. 27% of children in Rawalpindi attend paid
private schools. Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education,
Rawalpindi, established in 1978 to conduct SSC and HSSC examinations. Pir Mehr Ali Shah, Arid Agriculture University
(also known as Barani University) is a renowned public university offering research and education
in a number of fields and specializing in agriculture. It is on the Murree Road and is placed near
other landmarks of the city including the Pindi cricket stadium, Nawaz Sharif Park,
Rawalpindi Arts Council etc. Army Medical College is also known as the
College of Medical Sciences and is on Abid Majid Road in Rawalpindi. Separate computer labs are available for post-graduate
and undergraduate students. Other facilities in the campus include a library,
cafeteria, college mosque, swimming pool, gym, squash court, and auditorium. There are seven hostels for male and female
students near the college campus. College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering
is located on Grand Trunk Road in Rawalpindi, EME is the largest constituent college of
NUST. The campus includes all on-campus facilities,
auditorium and conference hall, accommodation and mess facilities. The library is fully computerized, with a
collection of 70,000 volumes. Military College of Signals is on Hamayun
Road in Rawalpindi Cantt; it is the oldest constituent college of NUST, founded in 1947
after the independence of Pakistan to train the members of Pakistan Armed Forces. The College of Telecommunication Engineering
is located on this campus. The MCS library is computerized, with over
55,000 volumes. Rawalpindi Medical College provides education
in health care. It is a comprehensive, state-assisted institution. It was established in March 1974. The Rawalpindi Public Library was one of the
earliest private public libraries organized after separation from India. The building was donated for a public library
by the then-Deputy Commissioner Major Davis on the initiative of philanthropist Khurshid
Anwar Jilani, an attorney, writer and social worker. However, the building was confiscated for
election and political campaigning during the last days of Field Marshal Ayub Khan’s
reign, and rare manuscripts and artifacts were taken away by the influential. Fatima Jinnah Women University The first ever
Women University of Pakistan Gordon College Rawalpindi is one of the oldest
colleges located in the heart of the city. It was established in 1872. The college has beautiful colonial style campus. College offers Graduate and master’s degree
programa. Historically the college has been known for
its cultural activities as it has one of the largest auditorium in which stage dramas and
other programs were regularly conducted. College remained co-education until the early
1970s but after Zia-ul-Haq regime it was converted to boys only. Several notable people are graduates of this
Rawalpindi, being so close to the capital, has an active media and newspaper climate. There are over a dozen of newspaper companies
based in the city including Daily Nawa-i-Waqt, Daily Jang, Daily Asas, The Daily Sada-e-Haq,
Daily Express, Daily Din, Daily Aajkal Rawalpindi, Daily Islam, and Daily Pakistan in Urdu and
Dawn, Express Tribune, Daily Times, The News International and The Nation in English. There are a large number of Cable TV service
providers in the city such as Nayatel, PTCL, SA Cable Network and DWN. Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation has a centre
in Rawalpindi Television channels based in Rawalpindi include: ATV
Lights Asia Aapna Channel
Pothohari TV (Regional language channel) City 51
Pahariwood Network (Regional language channel) K2 TV
Oxygene TV Samaa News==Recreation==
In mid-2012 3D cinema, The Arena, started its operations in Bahria Town Phase-4 in Rawalpindi. Rawalpindi Golf Course was completed in 1926
by Rawalpindi Golf Club, one of the oldest golf clubs of Pakistan. The facility was initially developed as a
nine-hole course. After several phases of development, it is
now a 27-hole course and the biggest in Pakistan. From the clubhouse, there is a panoramic view
of Faisal Mosque, the twin cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Major domestic golf tournaments are regularly
held here. Playland is another public park parallel to
Ayub Park==
See also==Demography of Rawalpindi District
Climate of Rawalpindi Lal Haveli
Rawalpindi Gazetteer Christ Church Rawalpindi
Military Hospital Rawalpindi Benazir Bhutto Road
Pakhral Janjua
Morgah Dhamial Rajputs
Dhamial Adyala jail
Benazir Bhutto International Airport General Headquarters (Pakistan Army

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