Pre service and In service Teacher Education and Strengthening of Teacher Education



you hello everyone I'm dr. Mary Vinita Thomas assistant professor Department of Education Central University of Kerala welcome to EPG part shala today we will discuss the module on pre-service and in-service teacher education and strengthening of teacher education now let us see the objectives of this module to gain in-depth knowledge and reflect on need and significance of pre-service teacher education to get acquainted with different components of pre-service teacher education to promote better understanding of the pre-service programs available for various levels of schooling to gain in-depth knowledge and reflect on objectives and significance of in-service teacher education to get acquainted with the different types of in-service teacher education available for professional development of teachers to promote better understanding of the varieties of in-service programs available to develop better knowledge on designing effective in service programs and to gain insight on academic staff colleges and its objectives and also to promote a better understanding of the centrally sponsored schemes available in India for the reconstructing and strengthening of teacher education institutions to get acquainted with the role of various institutions like NCTE and CER D UGC new paths in teacher education so first let us move on to pre-service teacher education what exactly is pre-service teacher education it refers to academic terms of study in a university level institution with the period of education generally lasting for the academic session this period of training exposes the student teacher to psychological sociological philosophical and technological aspects and the principles related to education in this stage the student teachers are introduced to principles underlying teaching such as the aims of education curriculum nature and characteristics of child development methods of teaching and learning and resources on which pupils and teachers can draw for the purpose of teaching and learning let us see the objectives of such pre-service teacher education programs the first one is to prepare teachers to care for children enjoy being with them seek knowledge own responsibilities towards society and work to build a better world there are love sensitivity to the problems of the learners commitment to justice and zeal for social reconstruction to be learners as active participants in their own learning and not as mere recipients of knowledge to engage theory along with field experiences to help trainees to view knowledge not as external to the learner but as something that is actively constructed during learning to train teachers in organizing learner centered activity based participatory learning experiences to engage teachers with the curriculum syllabi and textbooks to critically examine rather than taking them as given and accepted without question the next one is to help teachers or potential teachers to develop social sensitivity and consciousness and final human sensibilities to educate teachers to connect school knowledge with community knowledge and life outside the school to help teachers for the evaluation of attitudes values dispositions habits and hobbies in addition to the conceptual and pedagogical aspects through appropriate quantitative as well as qualitative parameters now let us see the different components of pre-service teacher education the first one is the core cause or the foundation course they are intended to provide a conceptual understanding of eleven concepts and processes in teacher education and also situate them in the broader perspective of Education and development example of such courses our philosophy of education psychology of Education sociology history and political economic causes etc the second component is a specialization or the pedagogy courses reporting mainly to enabling student teachers become effective teachers for this a few preparatory aspects are necessary to help the student teacher not only reorganize one's previous understanding of one's subjective specialization but also become conversant and create enabling learning environments for the learners further student teacher has to try out evolving a few learning situations and carry them out both in stimulated as well as real situations the third component is school internship which we are all familiar with it is a school-based experiencial learning for the student teachers in not only aspects related to teaching learning of their subject areas in the classroom but also to gain insight and sensitivity into the holistic part played by teacher in sustaining and evolving school ethos so now let us see the different pre-service programs available for various levels of schooling the first one is meant for nursery teachers who teacher who wish to teach in the preschool or the nursery section and it is called diploma in early childhood education the preschool nursery teacher education program is a Federation of two academic years and it is a children coming under two to five years the next one is diploma in elementary education the program aims at preparing teachers for elementary stage of Education that is classes 1 to 7 or 8 the elementary teacher education program carries different nomenclatures like BTC diploma in education TTC and so on the elementary programs shall be a Federation of 2 Adamo cures candidates with at least 50% marks in the senior secondary or its equivalent examinations are eligible for admission the next one is Bachelor of Education as we all know be it this is a professional course that prepares teachers for upper primary or middle level classes that is classes 6 to 8 then we have secondary classes 910 and senior secondary that is classes 11 and 12 levels the duration from now 2015 we have made be it of a duration of two years candidates with at least 50% marks either in the bachelor degree or in the master's degree or any other qualification equivalent thereto are eligible for admission to the program then we have M ed which is the master of education a program which is meant for candidates desirous of pursuing postgraduate program in education besides preparing teacher educators it also aims at preparing educational administrators supervisors and researchers then we also have various other courses like bachelor of physical education master of physical education Bachelor of Education in special education and Master of Education in special education so now this was about pre-service programs the different types available let us move on to the next part which is in-service teacher education what exactly is in-service teacher education the very name suggests in service so it refers to the education a teacher receives when he has entered the teaching profession after pre-service teacher education it includes all refresher courses workshops seminars etc that he receives at different institutions what are the aims and objectives of such an in-service teacher education program the first one to explore reflect on and develop one's own practice it also aims to deepen one's knowledge of and update oneself about one's academic discipline or other areas of school curriculum research and reflect on learners and their education understand and update oneself on educational and social issues and finally prepare for other roles professionally linked to education or teaching such as teacher education curriculum development or counseling let us see the different types of in-service programs available for our teachers we are all familiar with conference so what exactly is a conference it has a broad discussion of subjects of practical interest generally there is a central theme around which several sub topics are given it is composed of various presentations that tend to be short and concise with a time span of about 10 to 30 minutes and then presentations are usually followed by a discussion the next one workshop which again is a very familiar term for all of us it is an interactive training where participants carry out a number of training activities rather than just listening to a lecture or presentation by an expert in a workshop intensive consideration is given to practical problems that are arising from the daily functioning of the teaching job solutions to problems are worked out in groups by the pooling of information and resources then we have refresher courses a refresher course is a short educational course for teachers to review their subject and developments in it they are generally organized to give an opportunity to teachers to refresh and improve their knowledge in classroom subjects and widen their experience in the methodology of teaching it enables the teachers to keep abreast of the progress in educational theory and practices then we have orientation programs the concept of an orientation program emphasizes teachers as agents of socio-economic change and national development and underlines the need to make them skill oriented teachers the curriculum of orientation courses include awareness of linkages between society and vironment development and education philosophy of Education Indian education system and pedagogy resource awareness knowledge generation and management and personality development then we have study groups group of teachers in a study group we have a group of teachers of the same subject and a subject expert in the College of Education where they combine together and start working they choose some topics of common interest or some problem related to their teaching subject discussion is started under guidance and then they continue thinking studying and discussing that subject and if needed concerned experts may be invited for extension lectures the study groups may meet once in a week or even once in a month so this was about the different types of in-service program so now students let us see the varieties of in-service programs we have in our country for helping the growth of our teachers the first one is the induction program induction is the support and guidance provided to new teachers and school administrators in the early stages of their careers it includes orientation to the workplace socialization mentoring by experienced teachers and guidance through beginning teaching practice it trains them on the expected standards norms policies and work culture of the institution and inculcates in them the desired social behaviors pertaining to their job next is the Cascade model what is this cascade model this is a more centralized approach and is best used to disseminate information and skills among larger teacher populations here a small group of teachers are selected to receive intensive training and then they provide training to their Spears cascade training flows down to levels of less experienced teachers until it reaches the target group and thus in the process the important information tends to be lost so this is one disadvantage of Cascade model because demet leave an information comes down to the target group the main points get to be lost then we have the one-shot training programs it is a single workshop or course for a group of teachers it is given for just a short time with no follow-up programs after it and the entire training program will be condensed and it will be done in few classes so that was about the varieties of induction programs let us see how can we design an effective in service program there are certain points to be kept in mind while designing an in-service program because it is not at all an easy task we need to consider the needs of every teacher so the first point that has to be considered is that programs must provide ample scope for sharing of experiences of communities of teachers among themselves to build stronger shared professional basis of individual experiences and ideas the program's must have well-defined aims and a clear picture of how the strategies of the program are going to achieve these aims for this every group of trainers can either directly participate in the design of the program keeping in mind a specific group of teachers or adapt a given program to a specific group of teachers programs should also include a plan for post program support and include training and orientation of support faculty in the same the aims of the programs must be relevant to the group of teachers concerned it should give a sound explanation to the teachers regarding the need of such a program and why they should attend it the teachers should be given opportunities to select the programs as per their choice depending on their needs especially for those programs that are of a long duration and would seek to impact practice because one program cannot fit all we have teachers from different levels different backgrounds so that is why we have to plan the program accordingly the next is there must be ample scope for interaction between teachers the teacher should be able to relate to the content of the programs from their own experience they must also get opportunities to reflect on these experiences finally adult oriented models of active learning which combine theoretical and practical knowledge acquisition skill demonstration and hands-on practical learning by doing are most effective in facilitating professional learning for teachers so this was about in-service teacher education the different varieties the different types and how we go about designing an effective in-service teacher education program for our teachers so dear students now let us have a look on the different provisions available in our country for strengthening teacher education the first one being academic staff colleges now as we know at present they are being renamed as human resource development centers the national policy and education recognized the need for improving quality of teaching and proposed to provide opportunities for professional and career development so that teachers may fulfill their role and responsibilities within the system of higher education in order to achieve this a scheme of setting up academic staff colleges in suitable universities in the country was initiated by the University Grants Commission let us see the different functions of such academic staff colleges the first one is to formulate a program of orientation along the broad guidelines given above identify resource persons in various fields of specialization for running the orientation programs and refresher courses and familiarize such resource persons with the philosophy and guidelines for the courses set up a documentation center come library for reference and resource materials necessary for the courses produce specially designed material required for effective implementation of the courses organized monitor and evaluate the courses for teachers create a culture of learning and self-improvement among teachers so that it becomes an integral part of the educational system at the tertiary level organized orientation programs for senior administrators heads of departments principals Dean's and other decision-makers provide opportunities for teachers and service to exchange experience with their peers and to mutually learn from each other provide a forum for serving teachers to keep themselves abreast of the latest advances in various subjects provide opportunities to further widen their knowledge and to pursue research studies provide an introduction to new methods and innovations in higher education so that the participants can in turn develop their own innovative methods of instruction then bring out publications relevant for enhancing teaching and research capabilities of teachers we also have many centrally sponsored schemes in India for reconstructing and strengthening of teacher education institutions let us see some of the major such centrally sponsored schemes the first one is diet we all know the strict Institute of Education and training the objective of establishing a diet in each district under the centrally sponsored scheme was to improve the quality of elementary teacher education through innovative pre-service and in-service education the vision of a diet as planned under the scheme is to restructure and reorganize the elementary teacher education to make it more responsive and to realize universalization of elementary education then we have colleges of teacher education si tes they were expected to become the central support organizations for preparation and professional development of secondary teachers with this objective in view were not for secondary teacher education institutions but upgraded as si tes to improve quality of secondary education in their respective areas and then the most familiar IASC Institute of Advanced Studies in education I ases are meant for empower ment of teacher educators developing more effective teacher development programs state policy high quality research and innovation etc under the centrally sponsored scheme 31 i AST s have been established in various universities and secondary teacher training institutions the next is the State Council of educational research and training ncert under the centrally sponsored scheme the ser T's are to provide more focused leadership and support to educational endeavors and states as a state partner institutions with NC er T the SCE our T's are expected to organize in-service teacher education programs extension programs for all categories of educational personnel their other functions include development of curriculum instructional material textbooks supplementary materials as well as undertaking research programs guidance support and assistance to the State Department of Education functioning as stay to the source institutions to provide academic support at all stages of education coordination of all academic matters relating to school education and to maintain appropriate linkages with other educational organizations supervision and support to district and subdistrict level institutions so like that there are many such functions that NSC RT has to do now let us see the role of various institutions in teacher education the first one the most important of all the NCTE the National Council for teacher education the National Council for teacher education is a statutory body which came into existence in pursuance of the National Council for teacher education Act 1993 on 17th August 1995 the main objective of the end teehee is to achieve planned and coordinated development of the teacher education system throughout the country the regulation and proper maintenance of norms and standards in the teacher education system and for matters concerned there with the mandate given to the ncte is very broad and covers the whole gamut of teacher education programs including research and training of persons for equipping them to teach at pre primary primary secondary and senior secondary stages in schools and non-formal education part-time education adult education and distance or correspondence education courses then we have Nupur the national university of educational planning and administration the national university of educational planning and administration has its origin dating back to 1962 when the unesco established the asian regional center for educational planners administrators and supervisors with its norman glitcher changing to Asian Institute of educational planning and administration in 1965 it became new Park in 2006 some of the main objectives of Nupur are as given to organize pre-service and in-service training programs in the area of educational planning and administration and allied disciplines to organize orientation and training programs and refresher courses for teacher educators and for university and college administrators engaged in educational planning and administration to disseminate and advance knowledge by providing instructional research and extension facilities in such branches of learning as it may deem fit and to provide to students and teachers the necessary facilities and atmosphere for the promotion of innovations in education leading to restructuring of courses new methods of teaching and learning integral development of personality studies in various disciplines interdisciplinary studies and national integration and international understanding then we come to NC ERT the National Council of educational research and training in 1961 the Government of India established the National Council of educational research and training as an autonomous organization to assist and advise the governments at the center and in states in the implementation of their policies for education especially to bring about qualitative changes in school education and teacher preparation over the years the council has evolved into a unique organization with its increasing range of activities that has influenced school education in India pre-service and in-service training of teachers at various levels pre primary elementary secondary and higher secondary vocational education educational technology guidance and counseling and special education are the areas of training in which ncert works and then finally we have UGC the University Grants Commission the UGC was formally established only in November 1956 as a statutory body of the Government of India through an act of Parliament for the Coordination determination and maintenance of standards of university education in India the UGC has a unique distinction of being the only grant giving agency in the country which has been vested with two main responsibilities one being providing funds and the next being coordination determination and maintenance of standards in institutions of higher education the ug C's mandate includes promoting and coordinating university education determining and maintaining standards of teaching examination and research in universities framing regulations on minimum standards of Education monitoring developments in the field of ecology 8th and university education dispersing grants to the University and colleges serving as a vital link between Union and state governments and institutions of higher learning and finally advising the central and state governments on the measures necessary for improvement of university education so this was we saw a glimpse of the different centrally sponsored schemes the different type of institutions we have to strengthen teacher education in our country we also saw what are the different types the pre-service program the in-service program what exactly it is meant for so now let us have a brief overview of the module we just saw now the first one we went through pre-service teacher education the need and significance of a pre-service teacher education program a pre-service teacher education program as we saw is mainly meant for student learners who want to enter into teaching profession they need to be trained in different ways to get acquainted with teacher behaviors teacher mannerisms and keeping this in mind we have specifically pre-service teacher education programs we also saw the different components of a pre-service teacher education program like the core courses the foundation courses the specialization courses and then the teaching internship which is the most interesting part of a pre-service teacher education program where a student teacher goes onto the field and teaches and he gets acquainted with the real hands-on experience of a school and teaching and all then we also saw pre-service programs which are available for various levels of schooling like if suppose someone wants to be a nursery school teacher she has to take a different kind of pre-service program if someone wants to teach in an elementary school or in a higher school we have beard M ed and so on so the different types of pre-service programs available for various levels of schooling we had a reflection also on in-service teacher education a deep thought or reflection the objectives significance of King's service teacher education program why we need an in-service teacher education program because once we feel that ok pre-service teacher education is done then why should I go for an in-service now I am in service so that is most important you need our continuing professional development of yourself once you enter into the teaching profession keeping this in mind we have in-service teacher education programs we also saw the different types of in-service teacher education programs like workshops conferences study groups and debate risk whatever which helps a teacher to improve professionally and then we saw the different varieties of in-service programs like the induction the Cascade model the one-shot model the induction program basically is very important as it was mentioned because a person who enters into the field of teaching for refresher when he is into school he needs to get familiar not only with the teaching thing but also with the administration how to go about in a school what are the other works that have to be done so for this we have this induction programs we also got a better knowledge on designing effective in service programs that are effective because just designing an in-service program is not done we need to meet the needs of every teacher teachers from different backgrounds different levels of schooling so one program will never fit all of them keeping this in mind we need to design effective in service program so we saw that how effectively can one design an in-service program we also had an insight on academic staff colleges and its objectives what are these colleges meant for and then the centrally sponsored schemes in India for the reconstruction and strengthening of teacher education institutions like Diet the ia SES the CTE s the main functions objectives of such schemes etc and finally we had a glimpse on various institutions like NCTE and C ERT UGC new pas the role they play in strengthening teacher education institutions in our country thank you

12 thoughts on “Pre service and In service Teacher Education and Strengthening of Teacher Education”

  1. Which of the following is not pre-service teacher education programme?
    A. 2 year B.ed
    B. Orientation course
    C. Junior basic training programme
    D. 4 year Integrated b.ed

  2. Principal ,Sr. Lecturer and Lecturer posts in DIETs should be fill on regular basis and seperate carder to improve Elementary Teacher Education. Minimum qualification of Lecturer and Sr. Lecturer in DIETs should be M.Ed ( Ele. Edu. ) and five years teaching experience of Govt. Elementary school. Rules and regulations of NCTE must be followed in DIETs by Elementary Education Department. Quality of elementary teacher education programme must be improved for quality of elementary education.

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