POLITICAL THEORY – Karl Marx


Most people agree that we need to improve
our economic system somehow. Yet we’re also often keen to dismiss the ideas of capitalism’s
most famous and ambitious critic, Karl Marx. This isn’t very surprising. In practice, his political and economic ideas have been
used to design disastrously planned economies and nasty dictatorships. Nevertheless, we shouldn’t reject Marx too
quickly. We ought to see him as a guide whose diagnosis of Capitalism’s ills helps us
navigate towards a more promising future. Capitalism is going to have be reformed – and
Marx’s analyse are going to be part of any answer.
Marx was born in 1818 in Trier, Germany. Soon he became involved with the Communist party, a tiny group of intellectuals advocating
for the overthrow of the class system and the abolition of private property. He worked
as a journalist and had to flee Germany, eventually settling in London. Marx wrote an enormous number of books and
articles, sometimes with his friend Friedrich Engels Mostly, Marx wrote about Capitalism, the type
of economy that dominates the western world. It was, in his day, still getting going, and
Marx was one of its most intelligent and perceptive critics. These were some of the problems he identified
with it: Modern work is “alienated”
One of Marx’s greatest insights is that work can be one of the sources of our greatest
joys. But in order to be fulfilled at work, Marx
wrote that workers need ‘to see themselves in the objects they have created’. Think
of the person who built this chair: it is straightforward, strong, honest and elegant It’s an example of how, at its
best, labour offers us a chance to externalise what’s good inside us. But this is increasingly
rare in the modern world. Part of the problem is that modern work is
incredibly specialised. Specialised jobs make the modern economy highly efficient, but they
also mean that it is seldom possible for any one worker to derive a sense of the genuine
contribution they might be making to the real needs of humanity.
Marx argued that modern work leads to alienation=Entfremdung in other words, a feeling of disconnection
between what you do all day and who you feel you really are and what you think you ideally be able to
contribute to existence. Modern work is insecure
Capitalism makes the human being utterly expendable; just one factor among others in the forces
of production that can ruthlessly be let go the minute that costs rise or savings can
be made through technology. And yet, as Marx knew, deep inside of us, we don’t want to
be arbitrarily let go, we are terrified of being abandoned.
Communism isn’t just an economic theory. Understood emotionally, it expresses a deep-seated
longing that we always have a place in the world’s heart, that we will not be cast
out. Workers get paid little while capitalists
get rich This is perhaps the most obvious qualm Marx
had with Capitalism. In particular, he believed that capitalists shrunk the wages of the labourers
as much as possible in order to skim off a wide profit margin. He called this
primitive accumulation=ursprüngliche Akkumulation Whereas capitalists see profit as a reward
for ingenuity and technological talent, Marx was far more damning. Profit is simply theft,
and what you are stealing is the talent and hard work of your work force. However much one dresses up the fundamentals,
Marx insists that at its crudest, capitalism means paying a worker one price for doing
something that can be sold for another, much higher one. Profit is a fancy term for exploitation. Capitalism is very unstable Marx proposed that capitalist systems are
characterised by series of crises. Every crisis is dressed up by capitalists as being somehow
freakish and rare and soon to be the last one. Far from it, argued Marx, crises are endemic to capitalism – and they’re
caused by something very odd. The fact that we’re able to produce too much – far more
than anyone needs to consume. Capitalist crises are crises of abundance,
rather than – as in the past – crises of shortage. Our factories and systems are so efficient,
we could give everyone on this planet a car, a house, access to a decent school and hospital. That’s what so enraged Marx and made him
hopeful too. Few of us need to work, because the modern economy is so productive. But rather than seeing this need not to work
as the freedom it is, we complain about it masochistically and describe it by a pejorative
word “unemployment.” We should call it freedom. There’s so much unemployment for a good
and deeply admirable reason: because we’re so good at making things efficiently. We’re
not all needed at the coal face. But in that case, we should – thought Marx
– make leisure admirable. We should redistribute the wealth of the massive corporations that
make so much surplus money and give it to everyone. This is, in its own way, as beautiful a dream
as Jesus’s promise of heaven; but a good deal more realistic sounding. Capitalism is bad for capitalists Marx did not think capitalists were evil.
For example, he was acutely aware of the sorrows and secret agonies that lay behind bourgeois
marriage. Marx argued that marriage was actually an
extension of business, and that the bourgeois family was fraught with tension, oppression,
and resentment, with people staying together not for love but for financial reasons. Marx believed that the capitalist system forces
everyone to put economic interests at the heart of their lives, so that they can no
longer know deep, honest relationships. He called this psychological tendency commodity fetishism=Warenfetischismus because it makes us value things that have
no objective value. He wanted people to be freed from financial
constraint so that they could – at last – start to make sensible, healthy choices in their
relationships. The 20th century feminist answer to the oppression
of women has been to argue that women should be able to go out to work. Marx’s answer
was more subtle. This feminist insistence merely perpetuates human slavery. The point
isn’t that women should imitate the sufferings of their male colleagues,it’s that men and
women should have the permanent option to enjoy leisure. Why don’t we all think a bit more like marx? An important aspect of Marx’s work is that
he proposes that there is an insidious, subtle way in which the economic system colours the
sort of ideas that we ending up having. The economy generates what Marx termed an
“ideology”. A capitalist society is one where most people,
rich and poor, believe all sorts of things that are really just value judgements that
relate back to the economic system: that a person who doesn’t work is worthless, that
leisure (beyond a few weeks a year) is sinful, that more belongings will make us happier
and that worthwhile things (and people) will invariably make money. In short, one of the biggest evils of Capitalism
is not that there are corrupt people at the top—this is true in any human hierarchy—but
that capitalist ideas teach all of us to be anxious, competitive, conformist, and politically
complacent. Marx didn’t only outline what was wrong
capitalism: we also get glimpses of what Marx wanted the ideal utopian future to be like. In his Communist Manifesto he describes a world
without private property or inherited wealth, with a steeply graduated income tax, centralised
control of the banking, communication, and transport industries, and free public education.
Marx also expected that communist society would allow people to develop lots of different
sides of their natures: “in communist society…it is possible for
me to do one thing today and another tomorrow, to hunt in the morning, fish in the afternoon,
rear cattle in the evening, criticise after dinner, just as I have a mind, without ever
becoming hunter, fisherman, herdsman or critic.” After Marx moved to London he was supported
by his friend and intellectual partner Friedrich Engels, a wealthy man whose father owned a
cotton plant in Manchester. Engels covered Marx’s debts and made sure his works were
published. Capitalism paid for Communism. The two men even wrote each other adoring
poetry. Marx was not a well-regarded or popular intellectual
in his day. Respectable, conventional people of Marx’s day would have laughed at the idea that his
ideas could remake the world. Yet just a few decades later they did: his writings became
the keystone for some of the most important ideological movements of the 20th century. But Marx was like a brilliant doctor in the
early days of medicine. He could recognise the nature of the disease, although he had
no idea how to go about curing it. At this point in history, we should all be
Marxists in the sense of agreeing with his diagnosis of our troubles. But we need to
go out and find the cures that will really work. As Marx himself declared, and we deeply
agree: Philosophers until now have only interpreted the world in various ways. The point, however,
is to change it.

100 thoughts on “POLITICAL THEORY – Karl Marx”

  1. I know this is old, but great video. Anybody disliking this is most likely some Steven Crowder/Conservative dick rider who have just come off this video and doesn't use critical thinking and are made up of conformation bias. This video was blatantly unbiased, honesty, and based off of great video organization and setup and has superb editing. Never stop doing this kind of true thought provoking content. Some people can just be so anti-intellectual or ignorant to new beliefs and it's sickening, as well as similar to what Marx was talking about.

  2. Marx' failure began in the 1870s with Marginalists’ general equilibrium theory and its conclusion, devastating to Marx’s theory, that both sides benefit in any exchange, i.e., there can be no exploitation in honest voluntary exchange. Marx fails as well to discern an important difference between many individuals capable only of repetitive work, and a minority capable of authentic creativity. In summary, he fails at both rational theory and honest empiricism.

  3. Hmm this sounded very biased; for my learning is there anywhere in the world where Marxism was/is successfully practiced?

  4. Aaaand another biased video on Marx, trying to make communism look 'utopian' and misinterpret Marx's words at its finest. And also the fact that the USSR was a 'nasty dictatorship'. People like these make me laugh.

  5. Lol incentive to do nothing makes the rich not want to carry the rest of the world on their back. Why should the rich continue giving to the bottom when there are so many doing nothing and simply taking advantage of the system?

    Higher taxes make the rich leave to 'll countries with lower tax rates. We push this crap all around the world and all the rich will gather in their own made land and call the shots as to who wants to go in and work for wages they persona set.

  6. Christ,Allah,Ram,Buddhaand all other beliefs on this Mother Earth made into one and created by Mother Nature to counter unnaturalists

  7. The issue with this claim though is capitalism then is very different from what it is now. He grew up in countries where the he wealthy elites, and I literally mean men and women who were descendants of lords and so on, were the ones who owned the factories and other things. The way they managed payments and working conditions were completely deferent too. It took a dozen fires in the US before we cracked down on safety precautions. It took a man sneaking into a factory with a camera, with no interest in exposing the filth at all, to change the cleanliness of these places for us to change how any of these ran and that was over a hundred and fifty years after Mark died before we even got there. I understand his point it’s pleasant to think that we don’t need anything telling us what to do, and the reality is, in the US and many countries like us, you can choose not to work. But it’s on you to eat. It’s on you to have the luxurious the rest of us are working for. The great thing about the US now is you can literally be your own boss. You can make furniture the way you want. You can sell a service someone wants. This is what makes the culture from then. The culture of now very different.

  8. Communism Worked so well they had to wall in the populous to prevent everyone running to freedom. Glorious history of death, destruction, despair.

  9. Wait. He said world produces more than what we need that being unemployed is basically freedom? Who produces when everybody stops working? Is he saying that since we have "abundance" others should get it for free while others have to work for it?

  10. the theory is right about capitalism but theory is theory. capitalism and socialism got the wrong name in 21st century just like the left and right movement are the other way around.

  11. As a german I have to addmit that everytime a german says: I have an ideology and your system is wrong. You can start counting bodies. Mass murder will be all over the place.

  12. Communism doesn't work because the marginal output per person to an economy diminishes exponentially. If Marx had his way he would have eventually run out of bullets to go hunting, run out of bait to fish with, run out of food for his cattle to herd and run out of food for himself because everyone else will be doing these leisurely activities instead of contributing to the economy. What other antithesis is there apart from being entirely self sufficient ? Also if one does not want to feel exploited for their work then they should do something they are passionate about, then they will reap the benefits of doing what they love and making money for it. Also today you cant exactly skim down someones earnings without major consequences, a decent wage is what attracts employees and quality of skill, with todays level of market saturation and competition you can't get away with wage exploitation or people will just work for someone else. The idea however of wage exploitation was much more prevalent and legitimate back in Marx's day with less competition and harsher working conditions, its not the same today. And the end of the video saying we should all be marxists? This is trash 🙂

  13. Why am I not surprised that JewTube makes a video on Karl Marx and fail to mention what really goes on. I guess because the truth is “anti-semitic”.

  14. We should take ideas form every system. The problem with our current politics in most parts of the world is a partisan bias that makes us discredit anything the other side says. We need to go back to just implementing ideas that. For example, for all the talk about USA having a pure form of capitalism, the antitrust laws and regulations are an instrument of government control and interference. Yet I do not think anybody would prefer to have a situation were we only have monopolies or companies can just pollute rivers or pay workers $1/h for doing an honest work. So let's be a bit more open to everybody and find a working solution, instead of dividing and being at the mercy of the powerful.

  15. This is the most diligent reframing of the "real communism has never been attempted" argument I've ever encountered. This has the potential to be a persuasive argument if the same dedication were to be used in addressing the unfortunate genocidal tendencies that are a hallmark of communist governments. A system of government that has brutally murdered over 100 million citizens tends to make people a little skittish. I will concede, however, that there's nothing quite as relaxing as soaking in a nice blood bath after a long day at the gulag.

  16. Communism: Massive human rights abuses and titan numbers of disappearances of any who criticise the state. There is no freedom of belief, no political freedom, absolute state control of all people and all the media, mass brutality, total monitoring of the population, no freedom of movement, secret police and nationwide brainwashing. There's lack of any legal recognition of human rights, no independent judiciary, total state rule of law, no due process.
    These people are literally worse than the nazi SS. Hitler was a sadistic piece of s**t who murdered 6 million innocent Jewish people. However, in USSR, various Eastern European countries, China, Vietnam, North Korea, Cambodia, all over Latin America, various African countries and Afghanistan to name some, the commies have murdered over 100 million innocent people. As an idea communism has never once worked and has caused mass murder and starvation in every single place it was implemented bar none. F**k communism.

  17. The problem with socialism is you eventually run out of other people's money.

    If we lived under socialism I would do nothing, just rinse the state for all its worth and when it collapses we can get back to reality.

  18. For one. Heaven is real. It's God's throne. Jesus said it in Matthew 5:34. And marriage is God's idea for procreation and it was the first ever relationship between two human beings. Genesis 2:24.

  19. Poverty is not a life sentence if you give people opportunities and education. People pull themselves out of poverty and become successful all the time in America. That is why so many risk life and limb to leave their socialists countries to come America.

    Why in the world would anyone want to give up their freedom and give control over their life to a group of powerful elites? No thank you.

  20. 8:48 "we should all be marxists" u should seriously not say that. Heres a arguably great philosopher, who proposed a problem with no solution, and then asks everyone to go about the solution who are on average less intelligent than Carl Marx, this will create nihilism quickly.

  21. People hate communism because the government told them too. I'd wager none of the people who say they hate communism have ever actually read any of Karl Marx's work.

  22. So Marx is an emotionally oppressed man who's not able to get what he wants without conforming to the things that he didn't want to do at the same time wanted everyone to be like him and agree with him.

  23. I'm not adverse to learning more about Marx, and his system which those who use it to attain ultimate power to enslave, and execute millions, which leads to the first, and most basic question I never hear Leftists mention, or the dumbass who created this video who simply says 'capitalism is flawed, Marxism will be considered to reform it (I'm paraphrasing). Yes, dumbass, I'd say your ass umption leaves out what i consider should be the starting point for your murderous utopia, Who are you going to put in charge of your commie utopia with the power to enslave, and execute those of us who are not as useful as your benevolent dictator would like, or should we outright object to them, telling them to go to hell. You see I would not buy into this shit even if you could put one of your most esteemed heroes, in charge such as Hiltabeast, or Ossama/Obama.

  24. Got a crucial part wrong. Profit is not the same as surplus value. Marx says that a worker is paid enough to mantain himself and to reproduce. Everything he produces beyond that is how capitalists profit. And capitalists are in that position beacuse of an historical appropriation of the means of production. So what capitalists are profiting of is the time of workers, time they could be utilizing in human experiences and enrichment, learning songs, languages, reading, spending real time with the family etcetera. Just imagine. If workers got paid for everything they produced, would they need to work all the hours they work? No! If they got paid for all what they produced, what could the owner trade and profit from? No profit could come from it. And why do they have to work longer to give the surplus to capitalists? How come the capitalists became owners of the means of production? Another thing is that the money spent on înputs don´t produce profit. You spend money on a machine, the machine can give just a certain amount from its use. Whereas the exploration of workers is variable. Workers can give u more from the same investiments and the same hours of "use" if u explore them a little bit further. That is where PROFIT actually comes from. The thing is, profit come from reducing worker`s rights, but when u reduce his rights, he consumes less. So in capitalism the crisis doesn`t come from shortages, of food, workers availabe or money in the bank. It comes beacuse capitalism can`t solve this paradox.

  25. After at least 100mln victims of communism worldwide they still praise Marks? Consider changing name to school od death

  26. So basicly
    Capitalism bad because of corporations controlling everything
    Communism bad because goverment controlling everything
    Socialism bad because there is not enough of anything to control
    ok

  27. So Marxism=/=Communism. Marxism is just a particular critique of Capitalism. Communism is a separate political and ideological prescription for those problems, though not a particularly good one.

  28. So…one can say that automation of specialized labour may be one of possible solutions for alienation of work. Mundane tasks could have been done by specialized machines, so people could educate themselves to perform more complicated and fulfilling jobs. The more educated the person is, the less likely it is for him/her to be expandable. Wokres get paid little, because there's a scale effect. The owner of the business usually earns a lot more, because he has to handle the whole business and he takes responsibility for it. A worker is a specialist, who is responsible only for a little part of the whole project. The worst that could happen to the worked is – usually – losing his job. The owner of the business has to handle a risk that is much bigger than that.

    As to unstability of capitalism…well…how stable North Korea is?

    Communism is resentment and theft. And theft is immoral, regardless if the majority people approves of it or not.

    Invention and advancement comes through meaningful work, not from leisure. Imagine the state of our world if Marx's ideas came to life on the whole planet. We would go back to the stone age pretty quickly.

    More conscientious, industrious and hard working people SHOULD be payed more. That's their reward. Why should they do it, if the outcome would be that same as the outcome of the people just "enjoying leisure"?

    Communism had failed again and again, leaving millions of corpses behind. How many more do people need to come with a conclusion that maybe communism isn't a good idea to try to experiment with? I have no idea why some people still believe that it can work in the real world. I'm not saying that capitalism is perfect, because it's not. I'm saying that capitalism is the best system that mankind has created so far.

    With the sentence "In the modern day we should all be marxists" you just ensured that this is the last video of your channel that I would ever watch.

  29. Marxism seems an overreaction to the (Mostly correctly) identified problems with underregulated capitalism. Laissez-faire capitalism will eventually implode, but no top-down, forced replacement system will ever work in capitalistic, freedom-loving societies. What emerges, or evolves, will by nature have to come from the bottom up, not from the top down. One example of overreaction is to say that workers are paid little while capitalists get rich. Corporations will pay workers as little as possible, and try to get as much as possible out of them, IF ALLOWED TO, yes. In a healthy supply & demand economy, there are limits to this "abuse.' If a capitalist does not see the prospect of wealth, he will not take the risk of investment. They "Lose" at times, as well. Strictly speaking, the non-VC CEO of a corporation (i. e., the hired President, rather than one who fronted the money to start it up or maiintain it) who is making many times the salary of his workers, is him/herself, A WORKER! Finally, I agree, and have for some time, with the opposition to private ownership of land, or "Property." The 10-20-fold increase in single-family home prices in many areas of the USA in the last 50 years is proof of it's inherent fallacy. However, this can not now be taken away. We can hopefully learn from this, in the future.

  30. Wow, this was a stupid video. Carl Marx was an unemployed pseudo-intellectual, who mooched off of his friends, and struggled desperately to justify staying a useless piece of garbage. The fact is, his BS "diagnosis" acknowledges that people want to feel useful… But ignores the concept of giving to others in exchange for some back, as it falsely claims that all labor is stolen labor. Then, it happily justifies theft, along with totalitarian removals of all rights, including the right to property, the right to speak, the right to communicate over non-government means… What an absolute joke. If anyone could just do nothing all they wanted, anytime, then no one would ever choose to do difficult work… Ever. No one would invent. No one would manufacture. Everyone would do what Marx talked about, and "hunt in the morning, fish in the afternoon, and critique after dinner"

    The entire Marxist-Socialist-Communist ideology depends on the removal of rights to steal from people who earned, and give to people who deserve nothing. It's absurd on its face.

    How gullible do you have to be in order to believe this BS? Do you have to be educated the wrong way for your entire life?

  31. yeah a Guy who never worked a day in his life, wanted to abolish inheritance all while living in LONDON, off of the beneficence of his " friend" who INHERITED his money from his father a wealthy Merchant….. Yeah lets listen to that guy.. lol all you have to do is look at a before and after picture of Hong Kong and Venezuela. Hong Kong in the 50's was a shanty refugee rock island with no resources to a economic powerhouse it is today.. Venezuela was once the richest country in S America and now broken garbage eating state

  32. There are too many points to criticize in this vid.. the world wide evidence is clear… Capitalism has lifted MILLIONS of people OUT of poverty ANYWHERE socialism/marxism goes it DESTROYS Its a parasite,… doesn't create anything

  33. @8:35 RE" Important movements" those " movements" Murdered 100 MILLION people and enslaved 1 BILLION OMG! how do you praise that?

  34. The big Monopolist corps are Marxist. Marxist slither their way through industry by enslaving workers in a monopolist companies . So Carl Marx was correct that marxism is in capitalist world. Its ultimate end is Monopolizing Industry

  35. No communism any more! It's proven that this idea is not applicable and adoptable for human being. It's turning humans in to the aggressive animals. We can see some of these avidencies like in North Korea and former Soviet Union.

  36. I met a stripper in Trier, never imagined that town had so much historical significance.

    I’m talking about Marx not the stripper.

  37. I don't think specialized work making economy more effective, I see it in work. It's doing only more reclamations because many many people is doing only few parts of some product and they don't care about completed product, only about that one part so when someone want assemble it he doesn't know what things someone screwed and masked somehow etc…and ofcourse customer will return it when he realize it. It's much better when one worker is doing whole product, but I know, capitalists want milions of products and full bank accounts so they want quantity and not quality. That specializations are problem even when someone has vacation so there is nobody who can easily replace him for a week or 2 weeks, it's big problem. In classic oldschool manufacturing everyone can replace everyone so you don't have such problems as in modern companies that one guy have vacation or is sick and company operate because of that. Renewal of classic small companies with qualified craftsmans is solition of all this stupid problems in capitalism. But don't get me wrong, communism is still kind of capitalism (yes, it really is because they need operational economy and "hard" currency to buying from other countries) so this problem is valid even for communism.

  38. Capitalism may have flaws, but I’ll take it any day over Karl Marx crazy theories. The problem is who is doing the redistributing? Do we really trust other people to make our decisions for us so we can have leisure? Centralized control is extremely dangerous and inevitably leads to abuse of power by the heads of state.

  39. This video touched on something that I think is really interesting. He stated that machines were enabling greater efficiency in the production of goods, resulting in greater unemployment.

    In the past, new industries have developed to create new jobs. But as technology advances the jobs machines are capable of performing is growing rapidly. What happens when our population size far outstrips the number of jobs available?

    In a capitalist system, everyone needs a job to afford the cost of living. One solution is to artificially restrict machines from performing jobs, leaving them open for people to fill that position. But this is counter to the interests of many business owners and capitalists as machines can perform the same job more efficiently and effectively for less money. A better solution, which Marx argued, is to increase the automation in the production of goods and leave more people in a state of unemployment.
    Obviously having unemployment in the double digits in a capitalist system is a very bad thing for everyone unemployed, so capitalism must change or even be replaced.

    My point is that unless our technological advancement is artificially restricted, capitalism may be headed for extinction.

    I personally would be ok with that. I want to be able to pursue my interests without having to worry about food or housing or medical care costs. As a planet we could devote more time to things that expand humanity's boundaries, like traveling to space. We would be able to devote our time and energies to greater things if we worried less about getting enough money and resources for ourselves to simply survive.

  40. I feel like in a future where automation is everywhere and labor is unnecessary for humans, communism will be necessary and work great for humanity.

  41. When you make a million bucks off your lame videos, make sure you keep to your Marxism ideology and give us some of your capitalist money.

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