Philosophy of education | Wikipedia audio article

The philosophy of education examines the goals,
forms, methods, and meaning of education. The term is used to describe both fundamental
philosophical analysis of these themes and the description or analysis of particular
pedagogical approaches. Considerations of how the profession relates to broader philosophical
or sociocultural contexts may be included. The philosophy of education thus overlaps
with the field of education and applied philosophy. For example, philosophers of education study
what constitutes upbringing and education, the values and norms revealed through upbringing
and educational practices, the limits and legitimization of education as an academic
discipline, and the relation between educational theory and practice.
In universities, the philosophy of education usually forms part of departments or colleges
of education.==Philosophy of education=====Idealism=======Plato====Date: 424/423 BC – 348/347 BC Plato’s educational philosophy was grounded
in a vision of an ideal Republic wherein the individual was best served by being subordinated
to a just society due to a shift in emphasis that departed from his predecessors. The mind
and body were to be considered separate entities. In the dialogues of Phaedo, written in his
“middle period” (360 B.C.E.) Plato expressed his distinctive views about the nature of
knowledge, reality, and the soul:When the soul and body are united, then nature orders
the soul to rule and govern, and the body to obey and serve. Now which of these two
functions is akin to the divine? and which to the mortal? Does not the divine appear…to
be that which naturally orders and rules, and the mortal to be that which is subject
and servant?On this premise, Plato advocated removing children from their mothers’ care
and raising them as wards of the state, with great care being taken to differentiate children
suitable to the various castes, the highest receiving the most education, so that they
could act as guardians of the city and care for the less able. Education would be holistic,
including facts, skills, physical discipline, and music and art, which he considered the
highest form of endeavor. Plato believed that talent was distributed
non-genetically and thus must be found in children born in any social class. He built
on this by insisting that those suitably gifted were to be trained by the state so that they
might be qualified to assume the role of a ruling class. What this established was essentially
a system of selective public education premised on the assumption that an educated minority
of the population were, by virtue of their education (and inborn educability), sufficient
for healthy governance. Plato’s writings contain some of the following
ideas: Elementary education would be confined to
the guardian class till the age of 18, followed by two years of compulsory military training
and then by higher education for those who qualified. While elementary education made
the soul responsive to the environment, higher education helped the soul to search for truth
which illuminated it. Both boys and girls receive the same kind of education. Elementary
education consisted of music and gymnastics, designed to train and blend gentle and fierce
qualities in the individual and create a harmonious person.
At the age of 20, a selection was made. The best students would take an advanced course
in mathematics, geometry, astronomy and harmonics. The first course in the scheme of higher education
would last for ten years. It would be for those who had a flair for science. At the
age of 30 there would be another selection; those who qualified would study dialectics
and metaphysics, logic and philosophy for the next five years. After accepting junior
positions in the army for 15 years, a man would have completed his theoretical and practical
education by the age of 50.====Immanuel Kant====Date: 1724–1804
Immanuel Kant believed that education differs from training in that the former involves
thinking whereas the latter does not. In addition to educating reason, of central importance
to him was the development of character and teaching of moral maxims. Kant was a proponent
of public education and of learning by doing.====Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel====Date: 1770–1831===Realism=======Aristotle====Date: 384 BC – 322 BC
Only fragments of Aristotle’s treatise On Education are still in existence. We thus
know of his philosophy of education primarily through brief passages in other works. Aristotle
considered human nature, habit and reason to be equally important forces to be cultivated
in education.[2] Thus, for example, he considered repetition to be a key tool to develop good
habits. The teacher was to lead the student systematically; this differs, for example,
from Socrates’ emphasis on questioning his listeners to bring out their own ideas (though
the comparison is perhaps incongruous since Socrates was dealing with adults).
Aristotle placed great emphasis on balancing the theoretical and practical aspects of subjects
taught. Subjects he explicitly mentions as being important included reading, writing
and mathematics; music; physical education; literature and history; and a wide range of
sciences. He also mentioned the importance of play.
One of education’s primary missions for Aristotle, perhaps its most important, was to produce
good and virtuous citizens for the polis. All who have meditated on the art of governing
mankind have been convinced that the fate of empires depends on the education of youth.====Avicenna====Date: 980 AD – 1037 AD
In the medieval Islamic world, an elementary school was known as a maktab, which dates
back to at least the 10th century. Like madrasahs (which referred to higher education), a maktab
was often attached to a mosque. In the 11th century, Ibn Sina (known as Avicenna in the
West), wrote a chapter dealing with the maktab entitled “The Role of the Teacher in the Training
and Upbringing of Children”, as a guide to teachers working at maktab schools. He wrote
that children can learn better if taught in classes instead of individual tuition from
private tutors, and he gave a number of reasons for why this is the case, citing the value
of competition and emulation among pupils as well as the usefulness of group discussions
and debates. Ibn Sina described the curriculum of a maktab school in some detail, describing
the curricula for two stages of education in a maktab school.Ibn Sina wrote that children
should be sent to a maktab school from the age of 6 and be taught primary education until
they reach the age of 14. During which time, he wrote that they should be taught the Qur’an,
Islamic metaphysics, language, literature, Islamic ethics, and manual skills (which could
refer to a variety of practical skills).Ibn Sina refers to the secondary education stage
of maktab schooling as the period of specialization, when pupils should begin to acquire manual
skills, regardless of their social status. He writes that children after the age of 14
should be given a choice to choose and specialize in subjects they have an interest in, whether
it was reading, manual skills, literature, preaching, medicine, geometry, trade and commerce,
craftsmanship, or any other subject or profession they would be interested in pursuing for a
future career. He wrote that this was a transitional stage and that there needs to be flexibility
regarding the age in which pupils graduate, as the student’s emotional development and
chosen subjects need to be taken into account.The empiricist theory of ‘tabula rasa’ was also
developed by Ibn Sina. He argued that the “human intellect at birth is rather like a
tabula rasa, a pure potentiality that is actualized through education and comes to know” and that
knowledge is attained through “empirical familiarity with objects in this world from which one
abstracts universal concepts” which is developed through a “syllogistic method of reasoning;
observations lead to prepositional statements, which when compounded lead to further abstract
concepts.” He further argued that the intellect itself “possesses levels of development from
the material intellect (al-‘aql al-hayulani), that potentiality that can acquire knowledge
to the active intellect (al-‘aql al-fa‘il), the state of the human intellect in conjunction
with the perfect source of knowledge.”====Ibn Tufail====Date: c. 1105 – 1185
In the 12th century, the Andalusian-Arabian philosopher and novelist Ibn Tufail (known
as “Abubacer” or “Ebn Tophail” in the West) demonstrated the empiricist theory of ‘tabula
rasa’ as a thought experiment through his Arabic philosophical novel, Hayy ibn Yaqzan,
in which he depicted the development of the mind of a feral child “from a tabula rasa
to that of an adult, in complete isolation from society” on a desert island, through
experience alone. Some scholars have argued that the Latin translation of his philosophical
novel, Philosophus Autodidactus, published by Edward Pococke the Younger in 1671, had
an influence on John Locke’s formulation of tabula rasa in “An Essay Concerning Human
Understanding”.====John Locke====Date: 1632–1704
In Some Thoughts Concerning Education and Of the Conduct of the Understanding Locke
composed an outline on how to educate this mind in order to increase its powers and activity: “The business of education is not, as I think,
to make them perfect in any one of the sciences, but so to open and dispose their minds as
may best make them capable of any, when they shall apply themselves to it.”
“If men are for a long time accustomed only to one sort or method of thoughts, their minds
grow stiff in it, and do not readily turn to another. It is therefore to give them this
freedom, that I think they should be made to look into all sorts of knowledge, and exercise
their understandings in so wide a variety and stock of knowledge. But I do not propose
it as a variety and stock of knowledge, but a variety and freedom of thinking, as an increase
of the powers and activity of the mind, not as an enlargement of its possessions.”
Locke expressed the belief that education maketh the man, or, more fundamentally, that
the mind is an “empty cabinet”, with the statement, “I think I may say that of all the men we
meet with, nine parts of ten are what they are, good or evil, useful or not, by their
education.”Locke also wrote that “the little and almost insensible impressions on our tender
infancies have very important and lasting consequences.” He argued that the “associations
of ideas” that one makes when young are more important than those made later because they
are the foundation of the self: they are, put differently, what first mark the tabula
rasa. In his Essay, in which is introduced both of these concepts, Locke warns against,
for example, letting “a foolish maid” convince a child that “goblins and sprites” are associated
with the night for “darkness shall ever afterwards bring with it those frightful ideas, and they
shall be so joined, that he can no more bear the one than the other.””Associationism”,
as this theory would come to be called, exerted a powerful influence over eighteenth-century
thought, particularly educational theory, as nearly every educational writer warned
parents not to allow their children to develop negative associations. It also led to the
development of psychology and other new disciplines with David Hartley’s attempt to discover a
biological mechanism for associationism in his Observations on Man (1749).====Jean-Jacques Rousseau====Date: 1712–1778
Rousseau, though he paid his respects to Plato’s philosophy, rejected it as impractical due
to the decayed state of society. Rousseau also had a different theory of human development;
where Plato held that people are born with skills appropriate to different castes (though
he did not regard these skills as being inherited), Rousseau held that there was one developmental
process common to all humans. This was an intrinsic, natural process, of which the primary
behavioral manifestation was curiosity. This differed from Locke’s ‘tabula rasa’ in that
it was an active process deriving from the child’s nature, which drove the child to learn
and adapt to its surroundings. Rousseau wrote in his book Emile that all
children are perfectly designed organisms, ready to learn from their surroundings so
as to grow into virtuous adults, but due to the malign influence of corrupt society, they
often fail to do so. Rousseau advocated an educational method which consisted of removing
the child from society—for example, to a country home—and alternately conditioning
him through changes to his environment and setting traps and puzzles for him to solve
or overcome. Rousseau was unusual in that he recognized
and addressed the potential of a problem of legitimation for teaching. He advocated that
adults always be truthful with children, and in particular that they never hide the fact
that the basis for their authority in teaching was purely one of physical coercion: “I’m
bigger than you.” Once children reached the age of reason, at about 12, they would be
engaged as free individuals in the ongoing process of their own.
He once said that a child should grow up without adult interference and that the child must
be guided to suffer from the experience of the natural consequences of his own acts or
behaviour. When he experiences the consequences of his own acts, he advises himself.
“Rousseau divides development into five stages (a book is devoted to each). Education in
the first two stages seeks to the senses: only when Émile is about 12 does the tutor
begin to work to develop his mind. Later, in Book 5, Rousseau examines the education
of Sophie (whom Émile is to marry). Here he sets out what he sees as the essential
differences that flow from sex. ‘The man should be strong and active; the woman should be
weak and passive’ (Everyman edn: 322). From this difference comes a contrasting education.
They are not to be brought up in ignorance and kept to housework: Nature means them to
think, to will, to love to cultivate their minds as well as their persons; she puts these
weapons in their hands to make up for their lack of strength and to enable them to direct
the strength of men. They should learn many things, but only such things as suitable’
(Everyman edn.: 327).” Émile====Mortimer Jerome Adler====Date: 1902–2001
Mortimer Jerome Adler was an American philosopher, educator, and popular author. As a philosopher
he worked within the Aristotelian and Thomistic traditions. He lived for the longest stretches
in New York City, Chicago, San Francisco, and San Mateo, California. He worked for Columbia
University, the University of Chicago, Encyclopædia Britannica, and Adler’s own Institute for
Philosophical Research. Adler was married twice and had four children. Adler was a proponent
of educational perennialism.====Harry S. Broudy====Date: 1905–1998
Broudy’s philosophical views were based on the tradition of classical realism, dealing
with truth, goodness, and beauty. However he was also influenced by the modern philosophy
existentialism and instrumentalism. In his textbook Building a Philosophy of Education
he has two major ideas that are the main points to his philosophical outlook: The first is
truth and the second is universal structures to be found in humanity’s struggle for education
and the good life. Broudy also studied issues on society’s demands on school. He thought
education would be a link to unify the diverse society and urged the society to put more
trust and a commitment to the schools and a good education.===Scholasticism=======Thomas Aquinas====Date: c. 1225 – 1274
See Religious perennialism.====John Milton====Date: 1608–1674
The objective of medieval education was an overtly religious one, primarily concerned
with uncovering transcendental truths that would lead a person back to God through a
life of moral and religious choice (Kreeft 15). The vehicle by which these truths were
uncovered was dialectic: To the medieval mind, debate was a fine art,
a serious science, and a fascinating entertainment, much more than it is to the modern mind, because
the medievals believed, like Socrates, that dialectic could uncover truth. Thus a ‘scholastic
disputation’ was not a personal contest in cleverness, nor was it ‘sharing opinions’;
it was a shared journey of discovery (Kreeft 14–15).===Pragmatism=======John Dewey====Date: 1859–1952 In Democracy and Education: An Introduction
to the Philosophy of Education, Dewey stated that education, in its broadest sense, is
the means of the “social continuity of life” given the “primary ineluctable facts of the
birth and death of each one of the constituent members in a social group”. Education is therefore
a necessity, for “the life of the group goes on.” Dewey was a proponent of Educational
Progressivism and was a relentless campaigner for reform of education, pointing out that
the authoritarian, strict, pre-ordained knowledge approach of modern traditional education was
too concerned with delivering knowledge, and not enough with understanding students’ actual
experiences.====William James====Date: 1842–1910====William Heard Kilpatrick====Date: 1871–1965
William Heard Kilpatrick was a US American philosopher of education and a colleague and
a successor of John Dewey. He was a major figure in the progressive education movement
of the early 20th century. Kilpatrick developed the Project Method for early childhood education,
which was a form of Progressive Education organized curriculum and classroom activities
around a subject’s central theme. He believed that the role of a teacher should be that
of a “guide” as opposed to an authoritarian figure. Kilpatrick believed that children
should direct their own learning according to their interests and should be allowed to
explore their environment, experiencing their learning through the natural senses. Proponents
of Progressive Education and the Project Method reject traditional schooling that focuses
on memorization, rote learning, strictly organized classrooms (desks in rows; students always
seated), and typical forms of assessment.====Nel Noddings====Date: 1929–
Noddings’ first sole-authored book Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education
(1984) followed close on the 1982 publication of Carol Gilligan’s ground-breaking work
in the ethics of care In a Different Voice. While her work on ethics continued, with the
publication of Women and Evil (1989) and later works on moral education, most of her later
publications have been on the philosophy of education and educational theory. Her most
significant works in these areas have been Educating for Intelligent Belief or Unbelief
(1993) and Philosophy of Education (1995).====Richard Rorty====Date: 1931–2007===Analytic philosophy===
G.E Moore (1873–1858) Bertrand Russell (1872–1970) Gottlob Frege (1848–1925)====Richard Stanley Peters (1919–2011)
====Date: 1919–===Existentialist===
The existentialist sees the world as one’s personal subjectivity, where goodness, truth,
and reality are individually defined. Reality is a world of existing, truth subjectively
chosen, and goodness a matter of freedom. The subject matter of existentialist classrooms
should be a matter of personal choice. Teachers view the individual as an entity within a
social context in which the learner must confront others’ views to clarify his or her own. Character
development emphasizes individual responsibility for decisions. Real answers come from within
the individual, not from outside authority. Examining life through authentic thinking
involves students in genuine learning experiences. Existentialists are opposed to thinking about
students as objects to be measured, tracked, or standardized. Such educators want the educational
experience to focus on creating opportunities for self-direction and self-actualization.
They start with the student, rather than on curriculum content.===Critical theory=======Paulo Freire====Date: 1921–1997
A Brazilian philosopher and educator committed to the cause of educating the impoverished
peasants of his nation and collaborating with them in the pursuit of their liberation from
what he regarded as “oppression,” Freire is best known for his attack on what he called
the “banking concept of education,” in which the student was viewed as an empty account
to be filled by the teacher. Freire also suggests that a deep reciprocity be inserted into our
notions of teacher and student; he comes close to suggesting that the teacher-student dichotomy
be completely abolished, instead promoting the roles of the participants in the classroom
as the teacher-student (a teacher who learns) and the student-teacher (a learner who teaches).
In its early, strong form this kind of classroom has sometimes been criticized on the grounds
that it can mask rather than overcome the teacher’s authority.
Aspects of the Freirian philosophy have been highly influential in academic debates over
“participatory development” and development more generally. Freire’s emphasis on what
he describes as “emancipation” through interactive participation has been used as a rationale
for the participatory focus of development, as it is held that ‘participation’ in any
form can lead to empowerment of poor or marginalised groups. Freire was a proponent of critical
pedagogy. “He participated in the import of European
doctrines and ideas into Brazil, assimilated them to the needs of a specific
socio-economic situation, and thus expanded and
refocused them in a thought-provoking way”[3]===Other Continental thinkers=======Martin Heidegger====Date: 1889–1976
Heidegger’s philosophizing about education was primarily related to higher education.
He believed that teaching and research in the university should be unified and aim towards
testing and interrogating the “ontological assumptions presuppositions which implicitly
guide research in each domain of knowledge.”====Hans-Georg Gadamer====Date: 1900–2002====Jean-François Lyotard====Date: 1924–1998====Michel Foucault====Date: 1926–1984==Normative educational philosophies==
“Normative philosophies or theories of education may make use of the results of philosophical
thought and of factual inquiries about human beings and the psychology of learning, but
in any case they propound views about what education should be, what dispositions it
should cultivate, why it ought to cultivate them, how and in whom it should do so, and
what forms it should take. In a full-fledged philosophical normative theory of education,
besides analysis of the sorts described, there will normally be propositions of the following
kinds: Basic normative premises about what is good
or right; Basic factual premises about humanity and
the world; Conclusions, based on these two kinds of premises,
about the dispositions education should foster; Further factual premises about such things
as the psychology of learning and methods of teaching; and
Further conclusions about such things as the methods that education should use.”===Perennialism===Perennialists believe that one should teach
the things that one deems to be of everlasting importance to all people everywhere. They
believe that the most important topics develop a person. Since details of fact change constantly,
these cannot be the most important. Therefore, one should teach principles, not facts. Since
people are human, one should teach first about humans, not machines or techniques. Since
people are people first, and workers second if at all, one should teach liberal topics
first, not vocational topics. The focus is primarily on teaching reasoning and wisdom
rather than facts, the liberal arts rather than vocational training.====Allan Bloom====Date: 1930–1992
Bloom, a professor of political science at the University of Chicago, argued for a traditional
Great Books-based liberal education in his lengthy essay The Closing of the American
Mind.===Classical education===The Classical education movement advocates
a form of education based in the traditions of Western culture, with a particular focus
on education as understood and taught in the Middle Ages. The term “classical education”
has been used in English for several centuries, with each era modifying the definition and
adding its own selection of topics. By the end of the 18th century, in addition to the
trivium and quadrivium of the Middle Ages, the definition of a classical education embraced
study of literature, poetry, drama, philosophy, history, art, and languages. In the 20th and
21st centuries it is used to refer to a broad-based study of the liberal arts and sciences, as
opposed to a practical or pre-professional program. Classical Education can be described
as rigorous and systematic, separating children and their learning into three rigid categories,
Grammar, Dialectic, and Rhetoric.====Charlotte Mason====Date: 1842–1923
Mason was a British educator who invested her life in improving the quality of children’s
education. Her ideas led to a method used by some homeschoolers. Mason’s philosophy
of education is probably best summarized by the principles given at the beginning of each
of her books. Two key mottos taken from those principles are “Education is an atmosphere,
a discipline, a life” and “Education is the science of relations.” She believed that children
were born persons and should be respected as such; they should also be taught the Way
of the Will and the Way of Reason. Her motto for students was “I am, I can, I ought, I
will.” Charlotte Mason believed that children should be introduced to subjects through living
books, not through the use of “compendiums, abstracts, or selections.” She used abridged
books only when the content was deemed inappropriate for children. She preferred that parents or
teachers read aloud those texts (such as Plutarch and the Old Testament), making omissions only
where necessary.===Essentialism===Educational essentialism is an educational
philosophy whose adherents believe that children should learn the traditional basic subjects
and that these should be learned thoroughly and rigorously. An essentialist program normally
teaches children progressively, from less complex skills to more complex.====William Chandler Bagley====Date: 1874–1946
William Chandler Bagley taught in elementary schools before becoming a professor of education
at the University of Illinois, where he served as the Director of the School of Education
from 1908 until 1917. He was a professor of education at Teachers College, Columbia, from
1917 to 1940. An opponent of pragmatism and progressive education, Bagley insisted on
the value of knowledge for its own sake, not merely as an instrument, and he criticized
his colleagues for their failure to emphasize systematic study of academic subjects. Bagley
was a proponent of educational essentialism.===Social reconstructionism and critical
pedagogy===Critical pedagogy is an “educational movement,
guided by passion and principle, to help students develop consciousness of freedom, recognize
authoritarian tendencies, and connect knowledge to power and the ability to take constructive
action.” Based in Marxist theory, critical pedagogy draws on radical democracy, anarchism,
feminism, and other movements for social justice.====George Counts====Date: 1889–1974====Maria Montessori====Date: 1870–1952
The Montessori method arose from Dr. Maria Montessori’s discovery of what she referred
to as “the child’s true normal nature” in 1907, which happened in the process of her
experimental observation of young children given freedom in an environment prepared with
materials designed for their self-directed learning activity. The method itself aims
to duplicate this experimental observation of children to bring about, sustain and support
their true natural way of being.===Waldorf===Waldorf education (also known as Steiner or
Steiner-Waldorf education) is a humanistic approach to pedagogy based upon the educational
philosophy of the Austrian philosopher Rudolf Steiner, the founder of anthroposophy. Learning
is interdisciplinary, integrating practical, artistic, and conceptual elements. The approach
emphasizes the role of the imagination in learning, developing thinking that includes
a creative as well as an analytic component. The educational philosophy’s overarching goals
are to provide young people the basis on which to develop into free, morally responsible
and integrated individuals, and to help every child fulfill his or her unique destiny, the
existence of which anthroposophy posits. Schools and teachers are given considerable freedom
to define curricula within collegial structures.====Rudolf Steiner====Date: 1861–1925
Steiner founded a holistic educational impulse on the basis of his spiritual philosophy (anthroposophy).
Now known as Steiner or Waldorf education, his pedagogy emphasizes a balanced development
of cognitive, affective/artistic, and practical skills (head, heart, and hands). Schools are
normally self-administered by faculty; emphasis is placed upon giving individual teachers
the freedom to develop creative methods. Steiner’s theory of child development divides
education into three discrete developmental stages predating but with close similarities
to the stages of development described by Piaget. Early childhood education occurs through
imitation; teachers provide practical activities and a healthy environment. Steiner believed
that young children should meet only goodness. Elementary education is strongly arts-based,
centered on the teacher’s creative authority; the elementary school-age child should meet
beauty. Secondary education seeks to develop the judgment, intellect, and practical idealism;
the adolescent should meet truth.===Democratic education===Democratic education is a theory of learning
and school governance in which students and staff participate freely and equally in a
school democracy. In a democratic school, there is typically shared decision-making
among students and staff on matters concerning living, working, and learning together.====A. S. Neill====Date: 1883–1973
Neill founded Summerhill School, the oldest existing democratic school in Suffolk, England
in 1921. He wrote a number of books that now define much of contemporary democratic education
philosophy. Neill believed that the happiness of the child should be the paramount consideration
in decisions about the child’s upbringing, and that this happiness grew from a sense
of personal freedom. He felt that deprivation of this sense of freedom during childhood,
and the consequent unhappiness experienced by the repressed child, was responsible for
many of the psychological disorders of adulthood.===Progressivism===Educational progressivism is the belief that
education must be based on the principle that humans are social animals who learn best in
real-life activities with other people. Progressivists, like proponents of most educational theories,
claim to rely on the best available scientific theories of learning. Most progressive educators
believe that children learn as if they were scientists, following a process similar to
John Dewey’s model of learning known as “the pattern of inquiry”: 1) Become aware of the
problem. 2) Define the problem. 3) Propose hypotheses to solve it. 4) Evaluate the consequences
of the hypotheses from one’s past experience. 5) Test the likeliest solution.[4]====John Dewey====
Date: 1859–1952 In 1896, Dewey opened the Laboratory School
at the University of Chicago in an institutional effort to pursue together rather than apart
“utility and culture, absorption and expression, theory and practice, [which] are [indispensable]
elements in any educational scheme. As the unified head of the departments of Philosophy,
Psychology and Pedagogy, John Dewey articulated a desire to organize an educational experience
where children could be more creative than the best of progressive models of his day.
Transactionalism as a pragmatic philosophy grew out of the work he did in the Laboratory
School. The two most influential works that stemmed from his research and study were The
Child and the Curriculum (1902) and Democracy and Education (1916). Dewey wrote of the dualisms
that plagued educational philosophy in the latter book: “Instead of seeing the educative
process steadily and as a whole, we see conflicting terms. We get the case of the child vs. the
curriculum; of the individual nature vs. social culture.” Dewey found that the preoccupation
with facts as knowledge in the educative process led students to memorize “ill-understood rules
and principles” and while second-hand knowledge learned in mere words is a beginning in study,
mere words can never replace the ability to organize knowledge into both useful and valuable
experience.====Jean Piaget====Date: 1896–1980
Jean Piaget was a Swiss developmental psychologist known for his epistemological studies with
children. His theory of cognitive development and epistemological view are together called
“genetic epistemology”. Piaget placed great importance on the education of children. As
the Director of the International Bureau of Education, he declared in 1934 that “only
education is capable of saving our societies from possible collapse, whether violent, or
gradual.” Piaget created the International Centre for Genetic Epistemology in Geneva
in 1955 and directed it until 1980. According to Ernst von Glasersfeld, Jean Piaget is “the
great pioneer of the constructivist theory of knowing.”Jean Piaget described himself
as an epistemologist, interested in the process of the qualitative development of knowledge.
As he says in the introduction of his book “Genetic Epistemology” (ISBN 978-0-393-00596-7):
“What the genetic epistemology proposes is discovering the roots of the different varieties
of knowledge, since its elementary forms, following to the next levels, including also
the scientific knowledge.”====Jerome Bruner====Date: 1915–2016
Another important contributor to the inquiry method in education is Bruner. His books The
Process of Education and Toward a Theory of Instruction are landmarks in conceptualizing
learning and curriculum development. He argued that any subject can be taught in some intellectually
honest form to any child at any stage of development. This notion was an underpinning for his concept
of the “spiral” (helical) curriculum which posited the idea that a curriculum should
revisit basic ideas, building on them until the student had grasped the full formal concept.
He emphasized intuition as a neglected but essential feature of productive thinking.
He felt that interest in the material being learned was the best stimulus for learning
rather than external motivation such as grades. Bruner developed the concept of discovery
learning which promoted learning as a process of constructing new ideas based on current
or past knowledge. Students are encouraged to discover facts and relationships and continually
build on what they already know.===Unschooling===Unschooling is a range of educational philosophies
and practices centered on allowing children to learn through their natural life experiences,
including child directed play, game play, household responsibilities, work experience,
and social interaction, rather than through a more traditional school curriculum. Unschooling
encourages exploration of activities led by the children themselves, facilitated by the
adults. Unschooling differs from conventional schooling principally in the thesis that standard
curricula and conventional grading methods, as well as other features of traditional schooling,
are counterproductive to the goal of maximizing the education of each child.====John Holt====In 1964 Holt published his first book, How
Children Fail, asserting that the academic failure of schoolchildren was not despite
the efforts of the schools, but actually because of the schools. Not surprisingly, How Children
Fail ignited a firestorm of controversy. Holt was catapulted into the American national
consciousness to the extent that he made appearances on major TV talk shows, wrote book reviews
for Life magazine, and was a guest on the To Tell The Truth TV game show. In his follow-up
work, How Children Learn, published in 1967, Holt tried to elucidate the learning process
of children and why he believed school short circuits that process.===Contemplative education===
Contemplative education focuses on bringing introspective practices such as mindfulness
and yoga into curricular and pedagogical processes for diverse aims grounded in secular, spiritual,
religious and post-secular perspectives. Contemplative approaches may be used in the classroom, especially
in tertiary or (often in modified form) in secondary education. Parker Palmer is a recent
pioneer in contemplative methods. The Center for Contemplative Mind in Society founded
a branch focusing on education, The Association for Contemplative Mind in Higher Education.
Contemplative methods may also be used by teachers in their preparation; Waldorf education
was one of the pioneers of the latter approach. In this case, inspiration for enriching the
content, format, or teaching methods may be sought through various practices, such as
consciously reviewing the previous day’s activities; actively holding the students in consciousness;
and contemplating inspiring pedagogical texts. Zigler suggested that only through focusing
on their own spiritual development could teachers positively impact the spiritual development
of students.==Professional organizations and associations
====See also==Methodology
Pedagogy==References====Further reading==
Classic and Contemporary Readings in the Philosophy of Education, by Steven M. Cahn, 1997, ISBN
978-0-07-009619-6 A Companion to the Philosophy of Education
(Blackwell Companions to Philosophy), ed. by Randall Curren, Paperback edition, 2006,
ISBN 1-4051-4051-8 The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Education,
ed. by Nigel Blake, Paul Smeyers, Richard Smith, and Paul Standish, Paperback edition,
2003, ISBN 0-631-22119-0 Philosophy of Education (Westview Press, Dimension
of Philosophy Series), by Nel Noddings, Paperback edition, 1995, ISBN 0-8133-8430-3
The quarterly review of comparative education: Aristotle [5]
Andre Kraak, Michael Young Education in Retrospect: Policy And Implementation Since 1990[6]
Freire, UNESCO publication==
External links==”Philosophy of Education”. In Stanford Encyclopedia
of Philosophy Encyclopedia of Philosophy of Education
Thinkers of Education. UNESCO-International Bureau of Education website
International Society for Philosophy of Music Education
International Network of Philosophers of Education Philosophy of Education Society
Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain Philosophy of Education Society of Australia
Canadian Philosophy of Education Society (CPES) The Nordic Society for Philosophy of Education
Society for the Philosophical Study of Education The Ohio Valley Philosophy of Education Society
Humanities Research Network; Te Whatunga Rangahau Aronu
Leaders Educational Advise

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