Panama: between Two Worlds


(gentle music) – [Barbara Barrios
Dunmanior] Thanks to all. Good afternoon and thank you
for accompanying me today. I am going to share some
information about my country and why it is an important
logistics center. I have to start talking
about the age of discoveries. During that period of
time, some countries, like Spain and Portugal, needed
to find new commercial roads and new territories to
maintain their hegemony. The first Spaniard to arrive to Panama was Rodrigo de Bastidas in the 1501 and next year Christopher
Columbus did the same. But it wasn’t until 1510
that Vasco Nunez de Balboa founded Santa Maria la Antigua. That is the first city that was founded on the Pacific area of the continent and it was the capital
of Castilla del Oro until Panama City was founded
on August 15 of 1519, five hundred years ago. During that time there
were historic trade roads. The main one was Nombre
de Dios, Camino Real. All the gold and the silver
that were collected in Bolivia and in Peru were moved by sea to Nombre de Dios and from there to Spain. When Nombre de Dios was attacked by the pirate Francis Drake, the place was moved from Nombre de Dios to Portobelo in 1597. And in that same year the
Spaniards started building forts to defend Portobelo against the pirates. We can see here, San Lorenzo, and this one is located in Portobelo, San Felipe de la Gloria. All the gold and the silver were then moved to Portobelo
and from there to Spain. It was a mixed route. Port Nombre de Dios and
Portobelo were maritime. Chagres to Venta de Cruces was by river, and Venta de Cruces to
Panama City was terrestrial with the help of donkeys
to move the cargo. I just talked about Portobelo regarding the silver and the gold, but they have other types of merchandise like cochineal, the dye
that is used for red, and the leather and the
travelers they didn’t use Nombre de Dios or Portobelo
they used Camino de Cruces. In 1671, Henry Morgan took San Lorenzo and from there he advanced to Panama City and proceeded to plunder and destroyed it. Two years later, another
Panama City was inaugurated and we know it today as Casco Antigua. It’s this one. The first person that had the idea to build a canal in Panama was
King Charles fifth of Spain. He even ordered the studies
to see if it was feasible, but at that time they
didn’t have the technology and the project was discarded at the end. It’s important to note that
the information they got was the same route that
the canal has today was going to be used during that time. Also not many people know that in 1698 this continent wanted to create
a colony in the New World and the place they selected was Darien and the name of the
colony is New Caledonia. 1500 volunteers went to Darien, but they didn’t take
into consideration that the Spaniards were already there and they were going to be attacked. And also, Britain didn’t want
Scotland in the new world, so they didn’t defend them
against the Spaniards. During that time, Darien was a swamp and many of those peoples were effected by yellow fever and malaria
and many of them died. The expedition was a disaster and is still known as the Darien Disaster. It break the economy of
Scotland and it was one of the reasons they ended being
part of Great Britain in 1701. Also I need to mention that
we were a colony of Spain until 1821 when we got our independence, but following the idea of Simon Bolivar, we joined the Grand Columbia. Those were different
countries united as one to defend themselves. Grand Columbia was comprised by Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador, and Panama. But due to the negligence of Columbia, first Ecuador then
Venezuela separated from it and we were able to do the same until 1903 when the Republican Era started. During the time we were
part of Columbia in 1845, and American company called
Panama Railroad Company got a concession from the
government to build our railroad. With workers from China, Ireland, England, Germany, Jamaica, and the East Indies. The project started in 1850
and it was finished in 1855. The main reason of this construction was the gold fever in California
because it was very dangerous for people to transit from
one part of the country to the other. Instead, they used the railroad. Panama Railroad is the first
transcontinental railroad in the world and it unites the
Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. It has been controlled by
the US, then by France, then again by the US, then by Panama and since 1998, it’s controlled by a joint venture between Kansas City Southern and Mi-Jack Products. It moves both containers and people. The cargo is transhipment between the Atlantic, the Pacific, and vice versa. Transhipment cargo means
that those containers are not going to stay in Panama. From there, they are going to
be moved to another countries. It can move 10 trains
every 24 hours and by year, 500,000 containers are moved. The transit takes about one hour. Then in 1876, the French
government started performing studies to build a canal. Baron Gordon Lepinay presented the results of the study to the French congress. He was a French engineer and his idea was very similar as the current canal. He presented the idea to use locks. – [Student] Excuse me? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior] Locks. And he said that it was going to take about six years to finish everything, but the congress didn’t like the idea. Then Ferdinand de Lesseps,
the builder of the Suez Canal, presented his own idea of building a canal similar as the Suez one, sea level, and that was the project accepted. The thing is that de
Lesseps was not an engineer and since the beginning, the
administration was very bad. They didn’t have enough
equipment, enough people, the communications were very bad, and they were effected by
malaria and yellow fever and more than 20,000 people died. Then the company went bankrupt and another person was
assigned, Gustave Eiffel, but at that time when they
decided that they needed locks, it was too late because they were unable to gain the trust
of the French government and of the people. Almost at the same time, the United States was very interested in having a canal controlled by them. The first one that started
working with that idea was President McKinley
and after he was killed, Theodore Roosevelt
continued with the project. They have two different options, one in Nicaragua the other in Panama. Panama was selected at the end because it was going to be cheaper. We already had a railroad. The option was a shorter route and Panama was more stable than Nicaragua. I need to mention that the
fact that decided Panama at the end was that one
of the persons in charge of the project sent to every member of the US Congress this stamp. Where you can see the Momotombo volcano in Nicaragua make an eruption. Panama doesn’t have any active volcanoes. Then the US proceeded
to buy the shares from the French company and with
the help of Dr. William Gorgas, they eradicated the mosquitoes that transmitted the
yellow fever and malaria. For that purpose they used poison, spiders, ants, and lizards. The first engineer that was
in charge of the construction was John Stevens and since the
beginning he figured out that the equipment used by the
French was not enough. So he proceeded to buy more equipment, improved the communications,
get better resources, and hire the workforce. By 1913 Panama Canal had more
than 40,000 people working on the construction and
they decided to use locks instead of a canal sea level because the Pacific
Ocean is 20 centimeters higher than the Atlantic. They also built for that purpose
an artificial lake, Gatun, and some communities were flooded and the people were relocated. When the project was almost
finished, Stevens quit. Even today we don’t know the reasons. Then Roosevelt decides that
the only way that the project was going to be successful
was involving the Army. So he appointed engineer
George Goethals as the person in charge and he finished
with the construction. The canal was inaugurated on
August 15, 1914, 105 years ago, and the first vessel to
transit was the steam Ancon. Today the canal runs about
80 kilometers of the country between the provinces of Panama and Colon. It has locks in three different locations. These are the locks, Gatun, Mireflores, and Pedro Miguel. Each lock has two chambers to
allow transit in both ways. Gatun has three locks. Mireflores has two. And Pedro Miguel has one. Thanks to the Torrijos Carter Treaty, the canal was returned to
Panama on August 31, 1999. Since then it has been working autonomous. It is not part of the government and is not controlled by it. The transit takes between
eight and 10 hours and is based on gravity and
help of locomotives and tugs. The canal works without interruption 24 hours a day all year long. The new locks started
working on June 26, 2016. One in Colon, Aqua Clara
and the other in Cocoli. They work with pools. To be able to save water
with between transits. In this case, 10,000 people
were working on that project and 95% of them were Panamanian. The canal moves between 30
and 40,000 vessels per year, serving 160 countries on 144 routes and those vessels reach 1700 terminals. But the canal is not the only service we provide for the local
commerce and international one. According to the UN with a statistic dated with 110 ports last year, Panama is number one in Latin America. Regarding the amount
of moves per terminal. Last year more than 4 million TEUs were moved in Panama ports. A TEU is an equivalent in
a container of 20 feet. And also, according to the
Maritime Connectivity Index of last year, Panama is
number one in Latin America and number 30 in the world. This index takes into consideration
the level of integration in the world maritime transport network. Panama has the advantage of
having a railroad that crosses two seas and also that we
have ports and terminals on both the Atlantic and the
Pacific side of the country. As you can see in this map, in Panama City we have two terminals. Panama ports terminal, that
is owned by a Chinese company, Hutchinson Ports and PSA Panama owned by
the Port of Singapore. And on the Atlantic side, we have CCP owned by Evergreen and Manzanillo International Terminal owned by an American
company called Carrix. Also Panama ports has
terminals in both sides in the Pacific and in the Atlantic. Between those four terminals, they moved last year 4,340,164 TEUs, more than 4 million containers. And last but not least, I have
to mention Tocumen Airport. Tocumen is a regional hub. It is the busiest airport
in Central America and the third largest
one in Latin America. It has flights to over 84
destinations in 35 countries. It has more destinations
than both Rio De Janeiro and Mexico airports and those are cities that are bigger than Panama. Right now we have 33 airlines
that use the airport, but starting this year they
are talking with others like Emirates that will be using Tocumen. It has two runways, one that was inaugurated at the beginning of this year. In 2017 it moved more
than 15 million passengers and by 2040 it is projected
too move more than 50 million. I hope that I have been
able to share with you the information about why Panama
is an important logistic center and I leave you with some
pictures of the terminals and the ports in Panama,
the railroad, Tocumen, and this is locomotive that is used to move the vessels in the Panama Canal. Thank you. (audience applauding) – [Commentator] Questions? – [Student 1] I have so many questions. So I will start with the one which is mostly just info for me. So I just checked the break
down of energy mix of Panama and it said that 50% of
power produced in Panama is produced by hydroelectric
power stations. – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior] Yes. – [Student 1] And I want
to ask are these graphs incorporated to the channel
or it are different class? – [Barbara Barrios
Dunmanior] Actually the canal produce energy. – [Student 1] Yeah. – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
And the majority of the times, it’s not used by Panama. They seLL it to other
countries in Central America. – [Student 1] Oh, cool. And one more question, like what is the input of the channel to longevity of country? So does it produce a lot
of revenues for Panama? The canal, how other countries, do they pay Panama to go there? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior] Yes. Every transit the country has to pay and if you want to reserve a place, you have to pay a little more. It depends of the size of the vessel and the amount of cargo
that is transported. Now they are exploring
because with the new locks we can use them to transport gas. – [Student 1] Oh, yeah.
Cool. They have longevity. – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior] Yes. – [Student 1] Cool. Thank you. – [Student 2] Barbara, thank
you for your presentation. It is impressive how Panama
is well located in the world and the fact is that it’s location could contribute to your country. However I read that Panama
nowadays in Panama Canal and other logistics tools
that you have in your country are facing a lot of competition. – [Barbara Barrios
Dunmanior] Yes, that’s true. – [Student 2] And with
other waste, sea waste, for example the Suez Canal. And what I read also that Panama Canal, the Panama Canal fare is very high compared to the Suez Canal and main ships that came from China to the East Coast of US prefer
go over to Suez Canal than Panama Canal because the distance is not too large from these two pathways. As you working in that
containers terminal, do you feel that like this competition, or have you experienced this? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior] Yes. – [Student 2] Do you
have an opinion on that? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
Yes. I can tell you regarding the terminal I work for, we feel the competition. In one case, once a ship line they left us and went to the competition
and the next year they returned because the
quality of the service the competition provide was not as good as the one provided by us. And we try to improve
the services offered. For example, Panama was the
first country in Latin America having automatic stocking cranes and that warranties that
the moves done by our are the ones requested by
the maritime community, 30 moves per hour. – [Student 2] Thank you. – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
And the canal they have been studying the prefers, but even if some vessels
decide to go to Suez, the advantages of using
Panama are more than Suez. Especially now that we have the new locks. – [Student 2] Okay. – [Student 3] Okay, thank you
Barbara for your presentation. The first time I hear
about Panama is about the boat using Panama flag and they were saying that the boat using Panama
flag has the rights to move them away in the oceans. – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior] Yes. – [Student 3] So I would
like to understand why. Are there any treaty, international treaty that governs the rules there? – [Barbara Barrios
Dunmanior] The thing is, the question that Max made about defers that are paid by vessels, they are going to be cheaper
if you are using Panama flag. That’s the reason that many
of them prefer to use Panama and also they use Liberia. – [Student 1] So essentially the business can register their vessels in Panama. – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
Yes, even if the vessel is not from Panama. – [Student 1] Cool. – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
So Panama is number one and then Liberia. – [Student 4] Okay, this a reason for this money laundering
Panama is known for? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
But money laundering is not related to logistics. – [Student 4] No, no. I’m not
asking about the logistics. I’m asking like, they can use Panama flags and they are getting registered in Panama. That means they are not
registered in their home country. – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
They are registering in Panama to get cheaper fees
when doing the transit. (speaking over Student 4) That’s the main reason,
not money laundering. – [Student 4] So they
are registering somewhere and then the business is coming to Panama? That is my question. – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]. Yes. To transit using the canal. – [Student 4] Yes. – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
But the vessels are verified and I will give you an example. In the terminal I work
for about three years ago there was a vessel, a Cuban one, that came from Cuba, went to Manzanillo and from there it was
going to North Korea, but the security when it was checking it discovered that they had things hidden and the authorities were called. So it is not that easy. – [Student 3] And my second
question is about the weights of maritime economy
on longevity and lividity. – [Barbara Barrios
Dunmanior] It’s the majority. – [Student 3] And do you
know the percentages there? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
I don’t have it right now, but I can find them for you. – [Student] But do you
have any other economy? You know what I mean like? – [Barbara Barrios
Dunmanior] Yes, services. – [Student 4] Services? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior] Services. – [Student 4] Okay, not travel resources you don’t have it? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior] No. – [Student 4] Okay. Agriculture? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
Agriculture is very small. They are trying to improve agriculture since the new government
started this year. – [Student 4] Great. Thank you. – [Barbara Barrios
Dunmanior] You’re welcome. – [Student 3] And you said something… – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior] Josie. – [Josie] Yeah, sorry. I have
been to your beautiful country in the beginning of this year. – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior] Thank you. – [Josie] So I can say it
was an amazing experience so I can say that I also saw like in my own eyes in general there how it’s look like
and doing excursions there, so it’s incredible. But I also mention there are some kind of social problems in the country. – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior] Yes. – [Josie] And also infrastructure problem, like transportation within the country, it’s kind of difficult. So I’m interested in your point of view. How could you estimate what
is the major social problems, issues that exist and
also how to improve the transport and infrastructure
of this country? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
Well regarding transport, they are building. We have already a subway and
they are adding new lines to it and that has improved
transportation a lot. Also they are using more buses and the new government have
plans to improve that part. But the inequality is something
that we need to work in and try to solve it, because
with all the money produced with the canal and all the other services, every Panamanian should be
in a very good position. – [Josie] But right now,
what’s the main like social concerns of the nation? What do you need from the government? – [Barbara Barrios
Dunmanior] Social security. Social security because
you are paying for it and when you need to
use it, it’s not good. – [Josie] I see. Thank you. – [Student 3] Barbara you
were saying some difference between the heights and
there was some difference. Can you just explain that? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior] Yes. The reason the canal at
sea level didn’t work is because the Atlantic Ocean
and the Pacific Ocean are not at the same level,
one is higher than the other. That’s the reason they needed to use locks and the artificial lake. We move the vessel up so it can transit and then it goes down again. – [Student 3] Oh, okay. – [Student 4] You were saying that Panama was a colony of Spanish. How did the ships cut from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
They had to use Cabo de Orio. – [Student 4] Like that, okay.
They went around the canal? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
They went around the because the canal didn’t exist. – [Student 4] Okay. So is
there a way from Panama too? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
No Pizzaro was not in Panama. He was in Peru. – [Student 4] No but
Pizzaro crosses at in Elmaro and his partners at the base in Panama and then Panama then went to Peru. – [Barbara Barrios
Dunmanior] Pedro Arias Davila founded Darien and then Darien and Panama was the center to move all the gold and the silver that came from Peru. Christopher Columbus was in Panama. Pedro Arias Davila, as was
Vasco Nunez de Balboa.., but at that time they
thought about the canal but didn’t have the technology. At the end they discarded the project and they had to go to Argentina
and go around the continent to go from one side to the other. – [Student 4] To Argentina then through? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior] Yes. Yes. – [Commentator] Questions? – [Student 5] How do you
see yourself in 10 years? (laughing) (audience laughing) – [Student 5] Like such
where and what are you doing? – [Student 6] There’s deep thoughts here. (laughing) – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
I see myself working at the university sharing my knowledge. – [Student 5] In Panama? – [Barbara Barrios
Dunmanior] In Panama yes. – [Student 3] Okay, this is
an addition to my question. What type of the level of
education is found there in your population there? – [Barbara Barrios
Dunmanior] It’s very high. – [Student 3] It’s very high? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior] Because the University of Panama is free. – [Student 3] Ah, it’s free? Great! – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
The amount you have to pay per semester is like $20. – [Student 3] Okay. – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
And the quality is good. – [Student 3] Do you
have socialist government or capitalist? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior] A mix. – [Student 3] A mix, social democrat. – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior] Yes. – [Student 3] Okay. – [Student 6] How would you say, how many people in Panama are employed by those logistic companies? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
For example, the canal has more than 50,000 people working for it. The company I work for has more than 1000 and I’m not counting subcontractors and other informal type of works that are related with logistics. – [Student 6] So you would say
the majority of Panama people work in some sort of logistics? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
Yes, related with logistics and with services, like banks. – [Student 6] Okay, thank you. – [Student 3] Hi, like now
is this discussion about climate change is growing. So how Panama can actually
be effected by it? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
They are already making studies looking for other water sources. – [Student 3} Okay. – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
They already found one in Colon that’s a province aquifer and they presented the
results of the report this year where they are making studies. – [Student 3] So is the
validity of the senate, the current channel will be effected? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior] Yes. – [Student 7] How do
the different channels collaborate with each
other to kind of prioritize going through the canal? Or are there conflicts that
within even the different boats or the terminals or
priority going through? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
Well, the vessels that have transit with the canal, they are prioritized in every terminal when they need services. And they think, how long
will it take to ensure that they arrive on time. Because if you lose the reserve,
you need to pay a penalty. – [Commentator] Any other
thoughts? Comments? Questions? – [Student 8] A friend of mine
is going to Panama very soon so he may need a major
destination for tourists whose going to your
country to help pass time. – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
Well, it’s always interesting to see how the canal operates. So he can go to Mireflores if he’s going to be in Panama City, but in Colon they have a place where you can see the old locks and the new locks at the same time. So I would recommend to go there. If he likes to go to the beach, Bocas del Todo is a good place. If they love coffee,
they can go to Chiriqui, they have coffee traders there. And if they like to party, Panama City. (laughing) – [Student 3] Do Panama has some, I mean, immigration issues? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior] Yes. – [Student 3] Yeah, what are they? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior] I would say that as big as the United States, Cubans trying to come to the states. They are arriving in
Panama with the excuse of going through the Colon Free Trade Zone and then they stay. We have a lot of Venezuelans, I think that the issue is
happening in all Latin America, and Nicaraguans. With this new government, they are trying to regulate that issue, especially in the airport. – [Student 3] Any depravity
issues among the population? – [Barbara Barrios
Dunmanior] In the world, Panama is number five in equity. – [Student 3] Oh really? Whoa. Why? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
Because we have a lot of resources with not much corruption, with the government. – [Student 3] So then like Bapti right, when she’s talking about money laundering. – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
No the issue that I mentioned about corruption is not money laundering, it’s people asking for
appointments from the government who assure, ensure that one work is going to be assigned to a company. That type of corruption,
not money laundering. – [Student 3] Okay. Thank you. – [Student 9] What would
then be some of the exports be then in Panama from other countries? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
We export vegetables to Europe, but the majority
of the things we do in the country are
imports and transhipment from China to Panama and from Panama to another place for example. – [Student 7] And these
then are there fees to transit service to
promises deliver down there? – [Barbara Barrios
Dunmanior] Yes, yes, yes. They board the vessel,
the vessel have to send the documents before they
arrive so they can be reviewed. – [Student 7] And is it uniform
or do they rely on countries to depending on, depending on the price? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior] In our eyes, from country to country, depending on treaties that they have. – [Student 8] Not depending
on the size of the container or the weight of its contents? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior] No. The type of product that
is going to be sent, the treaties that they have or any arrangement with that country. – [Student 9] So if you’re in between the like both Americas, then you must have a lot
of problems with smuggling? You know it’s like with them… – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior] Yes, yes. – [Student 9] So I think
you have to have like strong borders or something
but I heard that with Columbia, you don’t really have like a lot of yeah. – [Barbara Barrios
Dunmanior] With Columbia, we have a lot of issues with the guerrilla and now that they started working again and many smugglers and people, they try to use the jungle between Columbia and
Panama to bring people that wants to arrive to the Unites States. – [Student 10] And it’s
like a deep jungles on the border with Columbia
so it kind of can’t go there because it’s not safe. And the border is kind of dangerous. – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior] The border, we cannot go to the Columbian part. We have to keep the Panamanian part safe. – [Student 10] Yeah. Is it
complicated to keep it safe? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
Yes. With the guerrilla, yes. – [Student 10] You have a
strong army and border services? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
We don’t have an army after the US invasion in 1989. We just have a police service where they are training
to work on the jungle. – [Student 9] So there is
actually essentially every job that our army would do, they would do? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
Yes, we had an army but it was disbanded. – [Student 10] Interesting. – [Student 1] And why
did this invasion happen? – [Barbara Barrios
Dunmanior] Because the US was having a conflict with
Manuel Antonio Noriega. He was a dictator at that time and similarly they invaded Panama to take Noriega but
they destroyed the army and the country was in
shambles after that. – [Student 3] So you think
Noriega was a dictator? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
I don’t know what to tell you because for a period of time,
he was working for the US, he was part of the CIA. – [Student 3] Yeah, yeah, okay. – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
And during that time, it was okay. – [Student 3] So he
decided to stop them off? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
I don’t know what happened. – [Student 3] Then, oh,
that’s it. Thank you. – [Student 4] I have a
question regarding… – [Barbara Barrios
Dunmanior] Yes and then you. – [Student 4] Okay, thank you. – [Student 11] Drug trafficking has been a legit problem with Panama. – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior] Sorry? – [Student 11] Drugs, trafficking of drugs has been a major issue in Panama. – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior] Small issue. – [Student 11] Have
you heard the news that the canal has been used by such smugglers to carry all that illegal activities. – [Barbara Barrios
Dunmanior] They have tried. – [Student 11] So are you
aware of any major disciplines or maybe measures taken by
the authorities to restrict this kind of illegal activity? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
Yes and not only in the canal, it the ports too. That’s the reason the
vessel that came from Cuba was discovered because
the officer went on board and started checking everything. – [Student 11] So you have
major system in place? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior] Yes. – [Student 4] Mine is
a generalist question, how is the law and order situation because when you quarantine that, so the number is very high. So just how the general
law and order situation? – [Barbara Barrios
Dunmanior] For every vessel that arrives.. – [Student 4] I’m not
asking about the ports. In general, as a country how
is the law and order situation? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
It has improved because we have to comply with many treaties, with the states, and with
organizations in Europe so everything has been in line and measures have been
taken to avoid problems. – [Student 1] I just googled that around 30% of Panama exports are
going from antibiotics. Why is that so? So do you have very strong pharmaceutical production
facilities there? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior] Yes, at the Colon Free Trade
Zone there are companies that work in pharmaceutics
and they use the ports that are already in the area
to export those products. – [Student 1] Do those companies belong to Panama to other countries? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior] To Panama. – [Student 1] They do. – [Student 9] You have
the most expensive coffee in the world. – [Barbara Barrios
Dunmanior] Yes, the Geisha. – [Student 9] I heard it’s like
$70 or something like that? – [Barbara Barrios
Dunmanior] What they did and the experts considered
that that was the best one, that’s the reason the price is so high. Geisha coffee. – [Student 10] Geisha?
I’ve never heard of Geisha. Before it was Indonesia. It was the most expensive one. – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior] It’s Panama. – [Student 10] Oh, okay. – [Student 3] Do you have some too? – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
No because I don’t drink it. (audience laughing) I invite you to come to Panama. (laughing) – [Student 3] You’re not there. – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
After Christmas I will be. – [Student 3] Okay, all right. – [Commentator] Final
questions you guys have? Any final thoughts or comments? – [Student 10] Thank you very much. It was a very interesting
presentation you made. – [Barbara Barrios Dunmanior]
Thank you for coming and that. (audience applauding)

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