NASA Participates in Women’s History STEM Event


>>WELCOME STUDENTS TO CELEBRATING HISTORY
MONTH GETTING EXCITED ABOUT S.T.E.M. PLEASE WELCOME TO THE STAGE JOHN AND ADRIAN
LAWRENCE, DIRECTOR OF THE NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM, GENERAL JACK DALY. [APPLAUSE] SECRETARY OF EDUCATION, BETSY DEVOS. [APPLAUSE] IVANKA TRUMP. MUSEUM EXPLAINER, RAY STEWART. NASA ASTRONAUT, KAY HEIR. AND NASA ENGINEERS AND MODERN FIGURES, APRIL
ERICKSON, SANDRA COFFMAN AND ANDREA WAZAGI. [APPLAUSE]
>>I THINK WE CAN ALL BE SEATED. WELL, GOOD MORNING. I’M JACK DALY, THE DIRECTOR OF THE SMITHSONIAN’S
NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM AND IT’S MY PLEASURE TO WELCOME YOU HERE TODAY TO CELEBRATE
WOMEN’S MYSTERY MONTH AND TO HEAR FROM SOME OF OUR SPECIAL GUESTS ON HOW YOU CAN MAKE
YOURSELF FAMOUS. EVERY MARCH, ACROSS THE COUNTRY, WE COMMEMORATE
THE ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF SIGNIFICANT WOMEN OF EVERY ERA. SOME, LIKE AMELIA EARHART, BESTY COLEMAN AND
JACKIE COCHRAN FOUND THEIR WAY INTO THE HISTORY BOOKS BY BEING THE FASTEST. OTHERS, BY OVERCOMING EXTRORDINARY OBSTACLES
TO ACCOMPLISH TASKS. LAST YEAR, HOLLYWOOD DID A STORY ON THREE
SUCH WOMEN IN THE FILM “HIDDEN FIGURES.” WHICH YOU WILL SEE LATER TODAY. IT REMINDS US THAT IT WAS A CONTRIBUTION AND
HARD WORK OF THOUSANDS OF AMERICANS OF ALL AGES, GENDERS AND RACES THAT RESULTED IN THE
TRIUMPH OF PUTTING THE FIRST HUMAN ON THE MOON. I ALSO WANT TO DISCUSS A GROUP OF PEOPLE WHO
HAVEN’T MADE IT INTO THE HISTORY BOOKS YET. I CHALLENGE YOU TO THINK ABOUT WHAT GREAT
MILESTONES YOU WOULD LIKE TO REACH IN THE NEXT 60 YEARS AND HOW YOU CAN MAKE THEM HAPPEN. AND AS THE THREE WOMEN IN THE FILM DISCOVERED,
IT MAY TAKE MORE THAN BRAINS . IT MAY TAKE COURAGE AND DETERMINATION TO OVERCOME OTHERS’
PRECONCEPTIONS OF WHAT YOU CAN ACCOMPLISH. NO MATTER WHAT, MAKING HISTORY TAKES HARD
WORK AND THAT STARTS IN THE CLASSROOM. IN “HIDDEN FIGURES” THE TERM COMPUTER DIDN’T
MEAN THE PHONE IN THE POCKET. IT MEANT THE PERSON WHO DID THE TASK OF COMPUTING
ORBITAL TRAJECTORIES WITH LIVES ON THE LINE. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING AND MATH,
THE S.T.E.M. SUBJECTS, ARE VITAL EVEN IN THE AGE OF SMART
PHONES. OUR SPECIAL GUESTS TODAY CAN TELL YOU FIRST
HAND JUST HOW FAR YOU CAN GO IF YOU START EARLY AND STUDY HARD. I WOULD LIKE TO THANK IVANKA TRUMP AND SECRETARY
OF EDUCATION BETSY DEVOS FOR BEING HERE TODAY. OUR MUSEUM AND THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
CAN CHANGE THE WAY SCHOOLS AND MUSEUMS WORK TOGETHER. AND ENSURE THAT A CENTURY FROM NOW, THESE
HALLS WILL BE FILLED WITH NEW STORIES OF ACHIEVEMENTS THAT WE CAN’T YET FATHOM. WE LOOK FORWARD TO HEARING FROM SECRETARY
DEVOS IN A FEW MOMENTS. THE NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM WORKS TO
CREATE INNOVATIVE MODELS FOR INFORMAL EDUCATION AND TO BUILD BRIDGES TO THE NATION’S FORMAL
EDUCATION SYSTEM. ONE OF OUR MOST SUCCESSFUL INITIATIVES HAS
BEEN A PARTNERSHIP WITH GENERAL ELECTRIC AVIATION THAT BRINGS SPECIAL MUSEUM PROGRAMS DIRECTLY
INTO THE CLASSROOMS OF THE CINCINNATI PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM. THESE LESSONS ARE LED BY EXTRORDINARY YOUNG
PEOPLE CALLED “EXPLAINERS” AND ONE OF THEM IS HERE TO TALK TO YOU RIGHT NOW. IT’S MY PLEASURE TO INTRODUCE, RAY STEWART. RAY? [APPLAUSE]
>>THANK YOU, GENERAL DALY. GOOD MORNING, EVERYONE. AND ONCE AGAIN WELCOME TO THE SMITHSONIAN
NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM. THE ARTIFACTS HERE AT THIS MUSEUM HAVE REMARKABLE
STORIES TO TELL. AND THE BIGGEST AREN’T NECESSARILY THE BEST. SOME THINGS THAT SEEM SMALL AND UNREMARKABLE
MAY HAVE, IN FACT, CHANGED HUMAN HISTORY. IT’S IMPOSSIBLE TO KNOW ALL OF THE STORIES
BEHIND THESE ARTIFACTS. JUST AS IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO KNOW ALL THE STORIES
BEHIND EVERYONE WHO HAD A HAND IN MAKING THEM. BUT, THAT’S THE BEAUTIFUL THING ABOUT SCIENCE
AND INNOVATION. EVERY ACHIEVEMENT, BIG OR SMALL, IS NOT THE
RESULT OF JUST ONE PERSON’S WORK, BUT IS BASED OFF OF THE WORK OF GENERATIONS OF PEOPLE OVER
CENTURIES AND MILLENNIA. IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO KNOW THE NAMES OF ALL
THE PEOPLE WHO WORK TO ADVANCE OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE UNIVERSE. BUT, SOME PEOPLE DO NOT HAVE TO REMAIN HIDDEN
FROM VIEW. THIS MORNING, WE WILL SEE “HIDDEN FIGURES”
A POWERFUL MOVIE ABOUT A POWERFUL STORY. CATHERINE JOHNSON AND HER FELLOW HUMAN COMPUTERS
OPENED SO MANY DOORS. THEY CHARTED THE COURSE TO TAKE US TO SPACE
AND ALL OF THE PROGRESS WE HAVE SINCE THEN, STANDS ON THEIR SHOULDERS. AS A YOUNG BLACK WOMAN IN SCIENCE, I, TOO,
STAND ON THEIR SHOULDERS. THEY HAVE OPENED THE DOOR FOR ME TO PARTICIPATE
IN THIS GREAT ADVENTURE. THESE WOMEN WORKED SO HARD NOT BECAUSE OF
HOW EASY IT WAS, BUT IN SPITE OF THE CHALLENGES AND BECAUSE IT WAS WORTH IT. I AM CURRENTLY IN THESE WASHINGTON D.C. TO
STUDY PHYSICS AND THANKFULLY HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO BE AN EXPLAINER HERE AT THE MUSEUM. THE EXPLAINERS TELL THE STORIES BEHIND THESE
ARTIFACTS TO STUDENTS JUST LIKE YOU. EVERY DAY, WE WORK TO PLANT SEEDS OF CURIOSITY,
TO FURTHER FUTURE INNOVATION AND DISCOVERY. BUT, THE REST IS UP TO YOU. THERE WILL BE VOICES THAT SAY THAT YOU CAN’T.
AND SOME OF THOSE VOICES WILL COME FROM YOU. BACK IN THE BACK OF YOUR MIND. SAYING ‑‑ I’M NOT SMART ENOUGH, OR, I
DON’T BELONG. BUT, DON’T LISTEN. YOU DO BELONG. YOU WILL HAVE TO WORK HARD AND YOU WILL HAVE
TO FIGHT FOR IT. BUT, IT IS WORTH FIGHTING FOR.
AND DO NOT BE DISCOURAGED, BECAUSE YOU, TOO, ARE STANDING ON THE SHOULDERS OF MANY WHO
CAME BEFORE YOU WHO HAVE WORKED HARD AND HAVE FOUGHT TO DO THEIR PART. WE KNOW THAT THIS IS WORTH FIGHTING FOR. IT IS WORTH FIGHTING FOR AND IT’S WORTH FIGHTING
FOR NOT BECAUSE OF, JUST FOR YOURSELF OR FOR CURRENT HUMANITY, FOR OUR CURRENT DEVELOPMENT,
BUT, IT’S WORTH FIGHTING FOR FOR THE FUTURE GENERATIONS, AS WELL. WE BELIEVE IN YOU AND WE KNOW THAT YOU CAN
DO IT. IT IS MY PLEASURE TO INTRODUCE AN ADVOCATE
FOR EDUCATION AND EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN, MISS IVANKA TRUMP. [APPLAUSE]
>>THANK YOU, RAY. HOW INCREDIBLE IS SHE? AMAZING. [APPLAUSE] YOUR WORDS INSPIRE US ALL. THANK YOU. I AM HONORED TO BE HERE TODAY AT ONE OF MY
VERY, VERY FAVORITE MUSEUMS. THE NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM. THIS MONTH, WOMEN’S HISTORY MONTH, WE RECOGNIZE
THE ESSENTIAL ROLE OF WOMEN AND GIRLS IN OUR SOCIETY AND IN OUR ECONOMY. TODAY, THIS WONDERFUL EVENT ENCOURAGES US
TO THINK SPECIFICALLY ABOUT THE ROLE OF WOMEN, GIRLS, AND BOYS AND S.T.E.M. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING AND MATH. AS WE REFLECT ON THE PAST, THE PRESENT, AND
THE FUTURE. THE FILM WE ARE ABOUT TO SEE TITLED “HIDDEN
FIGURES” HONORS THE LEGACY OF THREE FEMALE AFRICAN AMERICAN NASA SCIENTISTS WHO HELPED
LAUNCH THE FIRST ASTRONAUTS INTO ORBIT IN NASA’S EARLY HISTORY. HEROS OF HIDDEN FIGURES WERE TRAIL BLAZERS
FOR WOMEN IN S.T.E.M., PAVING THE WAY FOR GREATER REPRESENTATION OF WOMEN AND AFRICAN
AMERICANS IN THESE FIELDS. THEY EMBODY AMERICA’S SPIRIT OF INNOVATION
AND INSPIRE US ALL TO CONTINUE PUSHING GENDER BOUNDARIES ACROSS ALL INDUSTRIES. THANKS TO THEIR ENORMOUS CONTRIBUTION, TODAY,
MORE THAN 50 YEARS LATER, MY FATHER’S ADMINISTRATION HAS EXPANDED NASA’S SPACE EXPLORATION MISSION
AND ADDED MARS AS A KEY OBJECTIVE. I CAN ONLY IMAGINE WHERE WE ARE GOING TO BE
IN ANOTHER 50 YEARS FROM NOW AND, RATHER, WHERE YOUR GENERATION OF SCIENTISTS, MATHEMETICIANS,
ENGINEERS AND ASTRONAUTS WILL TAKE US. OK. SO, RAISE YOUR HAND IF YOU ARE PASSIONATE
ABOUT S.T.E.M. LET’S SEE. VERY GOOD. RAISE YOUR HAND IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO BE ONE
OF AMERICA’S GREATEST INNOVATORS. I’M IMPRESSED. YOUR RESPONSE FILLS ME WITH INCREDIBLE HOPE. TODAY’S STATISTICS, THOUGH, NOT SO MUCH. WOMEN MAKE UP 48% OF THE U.S. WORKFORCE, BUT
ONLY 24% OF S.T.E.M. PROFESSIONALS. THIS STATISTIC SHOWS THAT WE ARE SADLY MOVING
IN THE WRONG DIRECTION. WOMEN ARE INCREASINGLY UNDERREPRESENTED IN
IMPORTANT FIELDS OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING AND MATH. BUT I DARE YOU TO BEAT THESE STATISTICS AND
ADVANCE THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN S.T.E.M. FIELDS. WOMEN’S PARTICIPATION IN S.T.E.M., WHERE SOME
OF THE JOBS OF THE FUTURE WILL COME FROM, IS CRITICAL IN THE FIGHT FOR WAGE EQUALITY
AND FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN IN THE ECONOMY. TO THE YOUNG MEN IN THIS AUDIENCE, YOU ALSO
HAVE A MAJOR RESPONSIBILITY TO CONTINUE THE WORK OF THE GREAT MEN AND WOMEN IN S.T.E.M. WHO CAME BEFORE YOU. I AM ALSO GOING TO GIVE YOU A CALL TO ACTION. I AM GOING TO URGE YOU TO EMPOWER YOUR FEMALE
CLASSMATES AND SUPPORT THEM ALONG THE WAY. THE PLAYING FIELD WILL ONLY BE LEVELED IF
WE CAN ALL WORK TOGETHER TO ELIMINATE THESE LONGSTANDING BARRIERS. ON A VERY PERSONAL LEVEL, AS A MOM, I AM TRYING
TO DO MY PART AS WELL. MY DAUGHTER, ARABELLA AND I, ARE ENROLLING
IN A CODING CLASS THIS SUMMER. WE ARE EXCITED TO LEARN THIS IMPORTANT NEW
LANGUAGE TOGETHER. NOW I CHALLENGE YOU TO EMBRACE S.T.E.M. LEARNING AND BECOME PART OF OUR COUNTRY’S
GREAT HISTORY OF SCIENTISTS AND MATHEMETICIANS AND SUPPORT EACH OTHER IN REACHING THIS TREMENDOUS
GOAL. INNOVATION IS AT THE HEART OF THE AMERICAN
GENOME. AMERICAN INNOVATIONS HAVE TRANSFORMED OUR
WORLDS. FROM THE LIGHTBULB TO THE SMART PHONE, AMERICA
LEADS BY EXAMPLE. AND, YOU CAN CONTINUE TO MOVE THE NEEDLE IN
FAVOR OF GREATER INNOVATION. YOU ARE THE NEXT GENERATION OF INNOVATORS. YOU ARE THE FUTURE AND THE FUTURE IS IN YOUR
VERY CAPABLE HANDS. IT IS NOW MY TREMENDOUS HONOR AND PLEASURE
TO INTRODUCE TO YOU SOMEONE WHO IS A GREAT CHAMPION FOR EACH AND EVERY ONE OF YOU AND
WHO IS THE MASTERMIND BEHIND THIS INSPIRING EVENT CELEBRATING THE WORK YOU ARE DOING IN
YOUR SCHOOLS AND IN STEM FIELDS. SECRETARY BETSY DEVOS. [APPLAUSE]
>>THANK YOU SO MUCH, IVANKA, FOR THAT VERY KIND INTRODUCTION AND FOR YOUR GREAT REMARKS. AND, THANK YOU TO GENERAL DAILY FOR HOSTING
US HERE AT THE MUSEUM TODAY. THANK YOU TO THE ENGINEERS AND OUR ASTRONAUT
FOR BEING HERE TODAY. WE ARE EXCITED TO HEAR FROM YOU IN A FEW MOMENTS. I WANT TO BEGIN, THOUGH, BY ASKING ALL OF
THE STUDENTS IN THE AUDIENCE, HOW MANY OF YOU HAVE DREAMPT OF BEING AN ASTRONAUT? CAN I SEE A SHOW OF HANDS? QUITE A FEW. HOW MANY OF YOU WOULD LIKE TO GO INTO OUTER
SPACE SOME DAY? LOTS MORE HANDS. WELL, YOU ARE GOING TO NEED THE ONES THAT
FIRST RAISED THEIR HANDS TO GET ON THAT FIRST. TODAY, YOU ARE GOING TO LEARN ABOUT SOME OF
THE PEOPLE WHO FIRST MADE IT POSSIBLE FOR PEOPLE TO GO TO SPACE. I AM GOING TO DATE MYSELF AND SAY I’M PROBABLY
ONE OF THE FEW IN THIS ROOM THAT ACTUALLY REMEMBERS WHEN A HUMAN FIRST STEPPED FOOT
ON THE MOON. I DON’T KNOW HOW MANY OF YOU STUDENTS HAVE
SEEN VIDEO FILM OR FILM FOOTAGE OF THAT EVENT. CAN I SEE A SHOW OF HANDS? FOR THAT EVENT, AGAIN? THAT WAS AN AMAZING MOMENT. I THINK I WAS 10 YEARS OLD AT THE TIME. AND, I WILL NEVER FORGET THE FEELING OF PRIDE
THAT I HAD BY SEEING OUR AMERICAN ASTRONAUT SET FOOT ON THE MOON. YOU HERE REPRESENT THE FUTURE FOR THIS NATION. AND IVANKA TALKED ABOUT THE FACT THAT HER
FATHER HAS SET OUT THE GOAL AND THE ASPIRATION OF REACHING MARS WITH HUMANS AND I KNOW THAT
THERE’S PROBABLY SOMEONE IN THIS AUDIENCE WHO IS GOING TO BE PART OF THAT IMPORTANT
MISSION. I AM EXCITED ABOUT THE MOVIE THAT YOU ARE
ABOUT TO SEE. I HAVE HAD THE OPPORTUNITY TO SEE IT. IT IS A REALLY INSPIRING MOVIE. AND, THE WOMEN IN THE MOVIE IN THIS MOVIE
“HIDDEN FIGURES” SHOW THAT IT DOESN’T MATTER WHETHER YOU ARE A BOY OR A GIRL, WHETHER YOU
ARE BLACK OR WHITE, YOU CAN BE GREAT. AT WHATEVER YOU DO. SO LONG AS YOU BELIEVE IN YOURSELF. YOU WORK HARD AND YOU STAY TRUE TO YOUR CONVICTIONS. IN A MINUTE, WE ARE GOING TO MEET AN ACCOMPLISHED
ASTRONAUT. BUT I WANT TO MENTION ANOTHER TRAIL BLAZER
THAT I RECENTLY MET. HER NAME IS SHASTA WISE. SHE AND HER FAMILY FLED AFGHANISTAN WHEN SHE
WAS A YOUNG GIRL. SHE DIDN’T FLY IN A PLANE UNTIL SHE WAS IN
HIGH SCHOOL. BUT, FROM THE MOMENT SHE TOOK OFF ON HER FIRST
FLIGHT, SHE KNEW SHE WANTED TO BE A PILOT. SHE WAS COMMITTED TO HER DREAM AND SHE WORKED
HARD TO ACHIEVE IT. SHE BECAME THE FIRST CIVILIAN FEMALE PILOT
FROM AFGHANISTAN. AND NOW, SHE’S FOUNDED HER OWN NONPROFIT CALLED
“DREAMS SOAR” WITH A MISSION OF INSPIRING THE NEXT GENERATION OF S.T.E.M. AND AVIATION PROFESSIONALS. SHE’S ABOUT TO BEGIN A FLIGHT AROUND THE WORLD
TO ENCOURAGE WOMEN TO GET INVOLVED IN S.T.E.M. AND AVIATION. SHE’S STOPPING IN 28 COUNTRIES ON FIVE CONTINENTS. SHE’S JUST ONE OF MANY TRAILBLAZING YOUNG
WOMEN WHO ARE PROMOTING THE IMPORTANCE OF S.T.E.M. EDUCATION AND THE FIELD OF AVIATION. NOW, THERE ARE STILL BARRIERS TO OVERCOME. JUST LIKE THERE WERE FOR ALL OF THE WOMEN
THAT YOU ARE MEETING TODAY. THEY PAVEED THE WAY FOR YOUR SUCCESS. BUT, YOU CAN DO YOUR PART TO IMPROVE THE LIVES
OF WOMEN IN THE FUTURE. I MENTOR A TEENAGE GIRL IN MY HOMETOWN AND
THAT’S BEEN A VERY, VERY INFORMATIVE RELATIONSHIP FOR ME. A VERY IMPORTANT RELATIONSHIP. I WANT TO ENCOURAGE THE YOUNG GIRLS IN THIS
ROOM AND THE YOUNG BOYS, TO THINK ABOUT MENTORING IN YOUR LIFE. WHO HERE HAS A YOUNGER SISTER OR A YOUNGER
BROTHER? OR A YOUNGER COUSIN? I HOPE THAT YOU NEVER UNDERESTIMATE THE IMPACT
THAT YOU CAN HAVE ON THEIR LIVES. BY BEING A GOOD EXAMPLE AND BY ENCOURAGING
THEM TO BE THE BEST THEY CAN BE AT WHATEVER THEY CHOOSE TO DO. WE ARE VERY FORTUNATE TO HAVE SOMEONE HERE
TODAY WHO PERSONIFIES A TRAIL‑BLAZING WOMAN IN S.T.E.M. AND AVIATION. ASTRONAUT KAY HYRE. SHE WAS BORN AND RAISED IN MOBILE, ALABAMA
AND SHE GRADUATED FROM THE UNITED STATES NAVAL ACADEMY. IN 1993, SHE BECAME THE FIRST FEMALE IN THE
U.S. MILITARY ASSIGNED TO A COMBAT CREW. SHE STARTED ASTRONAUT TRAINING IN 1995. SHE HAS ORBITED THE EARTH OVER 400 TIMES. AND HAS LOGGED OVER 711 HOURS IN SPACE. SHE ALSO HELPED BUILD THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE
STATION. SHE IS QUITE A TRAIL BLAZER. AND I AM PROUD TO INTRODUCE YOU TO CAPTAIN
KAY HYRE. [APPLAUSE]
>>THANK YOU SO MUCH.>>WELL, THANK YOU. IT’S REALLY A TREAT FOR ME TO BE HERE TODAY. HOPEFULLY YOU ARE FEELING THE SAME. AND, IT’S ESPECIALLY FUN TO SEE HOW MANY OF
YOU RAISED YOUR HANDS WHEN ASKED IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO GO INTO SPACE. I SAW A LOT OF HANDS THERE. NOW, I UNDERSTAND THAT NOT EVERYBODY WANTS
TO GO INTO SPACE. SOME PEOPLE MIGHT THINK IT’S A LITTLE BIT
SCARY. OR, TOO HARD OR TOO MUCH WORK OR CERTAINLY
YOU WOULD HAVE HAD TO HAVE STARTED PLANNING THAT CAREER OUT WHEN YOU WERE THREE YEARS
OLD OR SOMETHING LIKE THAT. WELL, I’M HERE TO TELL YOU THAT’S NOT QUITE
THE CASE. I DIDN’T HAVE THAT SET CAREER PATH. AS A MATTER OF FACT, WHEN I WAS A LITTLE KID,
AND I SAW PEOPLE FLYING IN SPACE, I THOUGHT FOR SURE BY THE TIME I WAS AN ADULT, EVERYBODY
WOULD BE FLYING IN SPACE. WE WOULD BE ABLE TO BUY A TICKET JUST LIKE
WE DO FLYING ON AN AIRLINE. MAYBE YOU CAN MAKE THAT HAPPEN. TO ME, IT SLOWED DOWN A LITTLE BIT. I THINK WE NEED TO ACCELERATE THIS BACK UP
AND GIVE MORE AND MORE PEOPLE THE OPPORTUNITY TO FLY IN SPACE. BUT ‑‑ AS YOU CAN TELL, WE ARE TALKING
ABOUT S.T.E.M. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING AND MATH. FLYING IN SPACE INCORPORATES ALL OF THOSE
DISCIPLINES AND IT TAKES SO MANY WILL DIFFERENT AREAS OF ENGINEERING AND MATH AND TECHNOLOGY
TO SAFELY PUT PEOPLE INTO SPACE AND SAFELY BRING THEM BACK HOME. AND THEN, EVEN WHILE WE ARE UP THERE, A LOT
OF YOU PROBABLY THINK WE ARE JUST PLAYING AROUND ALL THE TIME BECAUSE THOSE ARE THE
ONLY PICTURES YOU SEE. RIGHT? YOU SEE PICTURES OF ASTRONAUTS PLAYING AROUND,
FLOATING IN THE SPACE CRAFT. WELL, ACTUALLY, WE ARE WORKING THE WHOLE TIME
AS WE ARE SITTING HERE TODAY IN THIS AUDITORIUM, WE HAVE SIX PEOPLE ON THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE
STATION. 200 MILES OVER US. AND THEY ARE FLYING AROUND AND IT TAKES THEM
ONLY 90 MINUTES TO GET ALL THE WAY AROUND THE EARTH. HALF OF THAT TIME IS IN THE DAYLIGHT, HALF
OF THAT’S IN THE DARK. AND THEY ARE CONDUCTING EXPERIMENTS ON THE
INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION WHERE WE HAVE CONTINUOUSLY HAD CREWS ON BOARD FOR MORE THAN
THE AMOUNT OF TIME THAT MOST OF YOU HERE HAVE BEEN ALIVE. OVER 16 YEARS WE HAVE HAD CREWS ON BOARD THE
INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION . CONDUCTING THESE EXPERIMENTS AND LEARNING MORE ALL THE TIME. WE LOOK OUT FROM THE SPACE STATION AND SEE
WHAT WE CAN LEARN IN SPACE. WE LOOK INSIDE THE SPACE STATION AND LEARN
WHAT WE CAN ABOUT HOW THE HUMAN BODY RESPONDS TO BEING IN SPACE FOR LONG DURATION. WE ARE GOING TO NEED TO KNOW THESE THINGS
AND HOW WE CAN LIVE AND WHAT KIND OF TECHNOLOGY WE NEED AS WE DO PUSH FORWARD AND GO TO MARS. SO, WE ARE ACTUALLY GOING TO NEED YOU. WE HAVE BEEN SENDING HUMANS INTO SPACE FOR
OVER 50 YEARS. AND WE HAVE BEEN DOING IT PRETTY MUCH THE
SAME WAY. I THINK IT’S ABOUT TIME WE GET SOME NEW IDEAS
AND I SEE A LOT OF FOLKS IN THIS AUDIENCE THAT COULD BE THE ONES TO BRING US THOSE IDEAS. AND LET ME TELL YOU SOMETHING ABOUT THESE
IDEAS. WE FLEW THE SPACE SHUTTLE FOR OVER 30 YEARS. THAT’S A LONG TIME. THAT’S LIKE TWICE YOUR LIFETIME. RIGHT? SO, OVER 30 YEARS WE FLEW THE SPACE SHUTTLE. BUT THE FIRST CONCEPT FOR IT WAS CONSIDERED
ABSOLUTELY CRAZY. WE ARE GOING TO TAKE A SPACE CRAFT AND WE
ARE GOING TO RE‑USE IT? BECAUSE, BEFORE THAT, WE JUST SENT ASTRONAUTS
UP ON A LITTLE CAPSULE, ON TOP OF A ROCKET, WE THREW THE ROCKET AWAY AND THEN WHEN THE
CAPSULE CAME BACK T PARACHUTED DOWN, LANDED IN THE WATER AND WE PUT THE CAPSULE IN A MUSEUM. BUT, THE WHOLE IDEA FOR A SPACE SHUTTLE WAS
‑‑ IT WAS GOING TO BE KIND OF LIKE A ROCKET, KIND OF LIKE A SPACE CRAFT AND KIND OF LIKE
AN AIRPLANE. BUT THE AIRPLANE DIDN’T HAVE ENGINES TO LAND. YOU HAD ONE SHOT AT LANDING. SO, YOU LAUNCHED LIKE A ROCKET WITH SOLID
ROCKET BOOSTERS ON EITHER SIDE AND ROCKET ENGINES ON THE BACK. FLEW IN SPACE LIKE AN ORBITING LABORATORY,
WE DEPLOYED SATELLITES, WE REPAIRED SATELLITES OUT HERE IN THE MUSEUM YOU CAN SEE MOCKUPS
OF THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE AND OTHER SATELLITES. WE DID LOTS OF SPACE WALKS GOING OUTSIDE THE
SPACE CRAFT. AND, WE BUILT THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION. THAT’S JUST A GLORIOUS MONUMENT TO WHAT WE
CAN DO WHEN WE WORK TOGETHER ESPECIALLY IN THESE S.T.E.M. FIELDS WITH ALL OF OUR INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS. WE DID ALL OF THIS WITH THE SPACE SHUTTLE
AND THEN AS IT CAME BACK TO LAND, IT WAS LIKE A BIG GLIDER. IT LOOKED LIKE AN AIRPLANE THAT ACTUALLY LANDED
ON A RUNWAY LIKE AN AIRPLANE. THEN WE REFURBISHED IT AND FLEW IT AGAIN. WE DID THAT FOR 135 MISSIONS. THAT CONCEPT OF DOING THAT WAS CONSIDERED
ABSOLUTELY CRAZY IN THE 1970s. BUT WE PROVED IT OUT AND THERE WE WORKED IT
AND WE HAVE, AGAIN, WE GOT THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION OUT OF IT. SO, HERE WE ARE TODAY. WITH THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION, WITH
ASTRONAUTS PEGGY WHITSON AND SHANE KIMBRO WITH INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS FROM RUSSIA AND
ALSO FRANCE ON BOARD CONDUCTING EXPERIMENTS AND LIVING DAY TO DAY, EVERY DAY, JUST, THEY
ARE LIVEING IN THIS MICRO GRAVITY OF SPACE AND CONDUCTING EXPERIMENTS. BUT, YOU KNOW, THEY DIDN’T GET THERE BY THEMSELVES. JUST AS YOU ARE GOING TO SEE IN THE MOVIE
IN A LITTLE WHILE, IT’S WAY MORE THAN THE ASTRONAUTS. WE ARE THE FORTUNATE ONES WHO GET TO FLY IN
SPACE. WE ARE THE ONES THAT MAYBE YOU SEE THE PICTURES
OF AND, BELIEVE ME, I DO FEEL VERY, VERY LUCKY TO HAVE HAD AN OPPORTUNITY TO FLY IN SPACE
TWO TIMES AND ALSO TO HELP BUILD THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION. MY MOST RECENT SPACE SHUTTLE MISSION I INSTALLED
A WHOLE BIG ROOM, NODE 3 AND A CUPOLA, A BIG BAY WIN DID HE, ON THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE
STATION. BUT IT TAKES SO MANY MANY DIFFERENT PEOPLE
TO DO THAT AND ALL KINDS OF DISCIPLINES. SO, MAYBE IF YOU DON’T WANT TO FLY IN SPACE
YOU CAN STILL COME HELP US, JUST LIKE OUR ENGINEERS AT NASA THAT I WOULD LIKE TO INTRODUCE
YOU TO SOME OF THEM. SO STARTING OFF, WE HAVE WITH US TODAY SOME
OF OUR WOMEN ENGINEERS THAT HAVE HELPED US NOT ONLY FLY IN SPACE, BUT ALSO TO EXPLORE
SPACE. EXPLORE INTERPLANETARY SYSTEMS AND UNIVERSES. STARTING OFF, WE HAVE SANDRA KAUFMANN. SANDRA ‑‑ [APPLAUSE] ‑‑ SANDRA IS
THE EARTH SCIENCE DIVISION DEPUTY DIRECTOR AT NASA HEADQUARTERS. AND SHE HELPS US STUDY A VERY IMPORTANT PLANET
TO US . OUR OWN EARTH.>>CAN YOU HEAR ME? OK. SO, THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR HAVING ME HERE TODAY. I WAS BORN IN A VERY SMALL COUNTRY IN CENTRAL
AMERICA CALLED COSTA RICA. AND, MY DREAM OF BECOMING A NASA EMPLOYEE
STARTED WHEN I WAS SEVEN YEARS OLD WHEN APOLLO WENT TO THE MOON. SO NOW YOU KNOW HOW OLD I AM.
AND, NOT TO BORE YOU WITH THE WHOLE STORY OF MY LIFE, IT TOOK MANY, MANY YEARS AND A
LOT OF EFFORT, BUT I STAYED TRUE TO MY DREAM. WANTED TO WORK IN SPACE. THINGS RELATED TO SPACE. I NEVER REALLY WANTED TO BE AN ASTRONAUT LIKE
KAY, BUT I WANTED TO BE INVOLVED IN THE SPACE PROGRAM. I WENT THROUGH HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE LIKE,
YOU KNOW, MOST OF THE PEOPLE WHO BECOME ENGINEERS. WHEN I STARTED IN COLLEGE, I EVEN HAD A COUNSELOR
TELL ME THAT I COULDN’T STUDY ENGINEERING BECAUSE I WAS A MANY WOULD. BUT EVEN WITH ALL OF THAT, I OVERCAME ALL
OF THOSE THINGS AND I KEPT DREAMING, CONTINUED MY DREAM. I WANTED TO BE AN ENGINEER. AND SO, IN ORDER FOR ME TO BE AN ENGINEER
THAT I WANTED I HAD TO COME TO THE UNITED STATES. AND EVENTUALLY I BECAME A CITIZEN AND EVENTUALLY,
I GRADUATED. I HAVE A DEGREE IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING,
A DEGREE IN PHYSICS AND, YOU KNOW, THROUGH MY 26‑YEAR CAREER AT NASA, I HAVE DONE A
LOT OF WONDERFUL THINGS, WORKED WITH A LOT OF PEOPLE. I HAVE ACTUALLY WORKED ON A SHUTTLE MISSION
AS AN ENGINEER TRAINING ASTRONAUTS. THAT WAS THE HUBBLE ‑‑ WORKED IN MANY
OTHER MISSIONS I HAVE TOUCHED PRETTY MUCH ALL OF THE AREAS OF SCIENCE THAT WE DO AT
NASA. ASTRO PHYSICS, EARTH SCIENCE AND PLANETARY. I WORKED ON THE LAST MISSION TO MARS THAT
WE LAUNCHED, AND THAT WAS A COOL, COOL THING. A LITTLE PIECE OF ME AND MY COUNTRY, COSTA
RICA, IS IN ROUTE AND ORBITING AROUND MARS RIGHT NOW.
AND, TO THE POINT WHERE NOW I AM THE DEPUTY DIRECTOR FOR THE EARTH SCIENCE DIVISION AT
NASA HEADQUARTERS OVERSEEING ALL OF THE SATELLITES THAT WE HAVE ORBITING AROUND EARTH. WE HAVE 19 SATELLITES THAT ARE CONSTANTLY
OBSERVING EARTH AND TRYING TO UNDERSTAND THE EARTH AS A SYSTEM, BECAUSE IT’S ALL INTERCONNECTED
AND ALSO, BASED ON WHAT WE STUDY, WE TRY TO UNDERSTAND THE SOCIETAL BENEFITS THAT WE CAN
EXTRACT FROM ALL OF OUR STUDIES AND HOW WE CAN HELP HUMANITY AS A WHOLE. SO, THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR HAVING ME HERE. [APPLAUSE]
>>WELL, THANK YOU. WE ALSO HAVE TODAY ANDREA ROSAGI. AND SHE IS WITH US AS THE DEPUTY DIRECTOR
OF ASTRO PHYSICS AT NASA HEADQUARTERS. [APPLAUSE]
>>GOOD MORNING. IT’S REALLY A PLEASURE TO BEING HERE. I WAS BORN IN WASHINGTON D.C. AND GREW UP
HERE AND I DISCOVERED MY LOVE FOR MATH AND SCIENCE IN D.C. PUBLIC SCHOOLS. I WOULD COME HOME AND TRY TO REPLICATE THE
EXPERIMENTS WE DID IN SCIENCE CLASS IN MY BASEMENT. I WOULD LOOK FOR HOUSEHOLD ITEMS AND SEE WHAT
I COULD DO AT HOME. AND ALONG THE WAY I DISCOVERED POWER TOOLS. AND ONE OF THE LUCKIEST THINGS FOR ME, WHEN
I LOOK BACK, IS THAT MY FATHER NEVER ONCE TOLD ME THAT GIRLS DON’T PLAY WITH POWER TOOLS. I’M SO GLAD HE NEVER SAID THAT TO ME. SO, I DECIDED TO PURSUE ENGINEERING. I GOT A BACHELOR’S AND A MASTER’S IN MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING AND I STARTED MY CAREER AT NASA AS AN ENGINEER WHERE I WORKED ON SYSTEMS THAT
GO INTO SPACE AND SENT DATA BACK DOWN TO EARTH SO THAT SCIENTISTS HERE CAN HELP UNLOCK THE
MYSTERIES AROUND US HERE ON OUR HOME PLANET OF EARTH AND OUR NEIGHBORHOOD IN THE SOLAR
SYSTEM, PLACES LIKE MARS AND SATURN AND JUPITER AND THEN THE WONDERS OF THE UNIVERSE. TODAY, AS THE DEPUTY DIRECTOR OF ASTRO PHYSICS,
I GET TO LEAD A TEAM OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS AND ALL KINDS OF OTHER PROFESSIONALS LOOKING
AT WHAT ARE PERHAPS THE BIGGEST QUESTIONS HUMANS HAVE EVER ASKED. WHEN YOU LOOK UP INTO THAT FAMILIAR NIGHT
SKY AND LOOK AT THOSE STARS AND CONSTELLATIONS, WE LOOK AT THE QUESTIONS OF ‑‑ HOW DID
IT ALL START? HOW DID THE UNIVERSE START? HOW DO THINGS WORK OUT THERE? HOW IS IT CHANGING? AND THE BIG QUESTION ‑‑ ARE WE ALONE OR
IS THERE LIFE ELSEWHERE IN THE UNIVERSE? NOW, THIS KIND ‑‑ THESE KIND OF QUESTIONS
ARE BIG AND WE ARE PUTTING TOGETHER THE PIECES OF THE PUZZLE. BUT THERE ARE A LOT OF EMPTY SPACES IN THIS
PUZZLE. THIS IS A MULTI‑GENERATIONAL ENDEAVOR. AND WE NEED YOU TO START FILLING IN MORE PIECES
OF THAT PUZZLE. THANK YOU AGAIN FOR HAVING ME. [APPLAUSE]
>>THANK YOU. AND, WE ALSO HAVE WITH US APRIL ERICSON. APRIL IS THE NEW BUSINESS LEAD FOR INSTRUMENT
SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGY DIVISION AT NASA’S GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER.>>GOOD MORNING. [APPLAUSE]
>>COME ON NOW I NEED A BETTER SHOUT OUT THAN THAT. GOOD MORNING. YEAH. YOU ARE GOING TO SEE A PHENOMENAL FILM. HI. I GREW UP IN BROOKLYN, NEW YORK. I ACTUALLY GREW UP IN THE NEW YORK HOUSING
AUTHORITY PUBLIC HOUSING AUTHORITY AND SO I HAD MEAGER SURROUNDINGS AND I TELL THAT
TO PEOPLE BECAUSE EVEN WHEN YOU DON’T HAVE, SAY, A LOT OF MONEY, YOU CAN REALLY APPLY
YOURSELF VERY WELL IN SCHOOL AND THAT’S ONE OF THE AMERICAN WAY. RIGHT? GET A GOOD EDUCATION, WORK REALLY HARD AND
YOU MAYBE GET A GOOD JOB LIKE WE HAVE. I LOVE MY JOB AT NASA. SO, I WENT FROM BROOKLYN, NEW YORK TO CAMBRIDGE,
MASSACHUSETTS. I WAS SUCH A GOOD STUDENT THAT I GOT A SCHOLARSHIP
TO GO TO A SCHOOL IN WESTERN MASSACHUSETTS. THERE WAS A TEACHER THAT INSPIRED ME TO APPLY
FOR A PROGRAM AT M.I.T. SO I DID A SUMMER PROGRAM, GOT TO GET INTO
A FLIGHT SIMULATOR AND I SCORED THREE POINTS OFF OF A PILOT’S SCORE AND I THOUGHT ‑‑ WOW. THIS IS WHAT I WANT TO DO. SO I WENT TO M.I.T., GOT MY BACHELOR’S IN
AIR NAUTICAL ASTRONAUT CHALLENGE NEARING. THAT’S A LOT TO SAY. BUT WE CALL THOSE PEOPLE ROCKET SCIENTISTS
OR AEROSPACE ENGINEERS. I CAME TO SCHOOL AT HOWARD UNIVERSITY AND
I DID MY WORK IN STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF LARGE SPACE STRUCTURES LIKE THE INTERNATIONAL
SPACE STATION AND SO THAT’S REALLY WHY I AM SO INTERESTED IN SORT OF HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT,
BUT THEN I CAME ACROSS THIS LITTLE PLACE CALLED GODDARD. NASA GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER WALKING THROUGH
THE HALLS OF HOWARD AND THEY OFFERED ME THE OPPORTUNITY TO WORK AS A SUMMER INTERN AND
I WOWED THEM AND THEY OFFER IMMEDIATE A JOB THAT SUMMER. I CAME A FIRST CO‑OP STUDENT THAT WAS A
Ph.D. STUDENT. I HAVE TAUGHT AT UNIVERSITIES AND MIDDLE SCHOOLERS. I TEACH AEROSPACE CLUB AND I HAVE A LOT OF
FUN BUILDING INSTRUMENTS AND DEVELOPING NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR OUR SPACE PROGRAM. SO HOPEFULLY WE WILL GET A CHANCE TO MEET
YOU GUYS AGAIN. I HAVE MET SOME OF YOU THIS MORNING BUT I
HOPE YOU ENJOY THE FILM. I WANT TO SAY ONE MORE THING. MET CATHERINE JOHNSON 20 YEARS AGO AND I HAVE
BEEN TALKING ABOUT HER FOR 20 YEARS. NOW EVERYBODY’S TALKING ABOUT HER AND I HOPE
YOU GUYS WILL, TOO.>>WELL THANK YOU. [APPLAUSE]
>>THANKS SO MUCH FOR TAKING TIME FROM YOUR JOBS TO COME TODAY AND TALK WITH THE STUDENTS. I WOULD LIKE TO BRING UP ONE MORE PERSON HERE. BUT ‑‑ ONE MORE THING I FORGOT TO TELL
YOU. THIS IS KIND OF INTERESTING. HOW MANY PEOPLE HAVE SEEN THE INTERNATIONAL
SPACE STATION FLY OVER? ONLY A COUPLE PEOPLE. WELL, YOU HAVE OPPORTUNITIES EVERY NOW AND
THEN. IT’S FLYING AROUND ALL THE TIME, BUT IT DOESN’T
ALWAYS COME RIGHT OVER US RIGHT AT THE RIGHT TIME. THE ONLY TIMES WE CAN SEE IT, BECAUSE IT’S
SO HIGH ABOVE US, ABOUT 200 MILES UP, IS WHEN IT FLIES OVER JUST BEFORE SUNRISE. SO IT’S DARK HERE ON THE GROUND BUT THE SUN
IS SHINING ON IT. OR, IF IT HAPPENS TO FLY BY JUST AFTER SUNSET. DARK HERE ON THE GROUND, BUT THE SUN IS STILL
SHINING ON IT. WELL, WEDNESDAY, WEDNESDAY AT 8:15 P.M., THERE’S
GOING TO BE A VISIBLE PASS FOR ALMOST SIX MINUTES. SO, I ENCOURAGE YOU TO GO ON TO THE INTERNET
AND LOOK FOR HOW TO SEE ‑‑ HOW TO SIGHT ‑‑ THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION AND
GO OUT AND WATCH IT GO OVER. SO, NOW I WOULD LIKE TO BRING UP BARB GRUBER,
OUR AEROSPACE EDUCATOR HERE AT THE MUSEUM. [APPLAUSE]
>>SO, YOU GUYS ‑‑ YOU GUYS HAVE MET A LOT OF MODERN FIGURES HERE. WHAT I WOULD LIKE TO INTRODUCE YOU TO IS ONE
OF THOSE HIDDEN FIGURES LIKE WHAT YOU WILL SEE IN THE MOVIE. HER NAME IS MARGARET HAMILTON. SHE WAS A COMPUTER SCIENTIST AND HER TEAM
WAS IN CHARGE OF PROGRAMMING AND COMPILING THE GUIDANCE COMPUTER FOR THE APOLLO 11. SHE GOT THE TERM “ROPE MOTHER” BECAUSE OF
THE WAY THAT THEY HAD TO CODE THE MEMORY FOR THE GUIDANCE MISSION. SO, RAISE YOUR HAND IF YOU KNOW WHAT A BIT
IS. I GOT A FEW. JUST A BIT. IT’S EITHER A ONE OR A ZERO. RIGHT? SO, THIS IS HOW WE PROGRAM COMPUTERS SINCE
THE BEGINNING. AND IT’S STILL HOW WE CAN PROGRAM SOME COMPUTERS. THE MEMORY OF THE APOLLO GUIDANCE COMPUTER
CONSISTED OF IRON BEADS WITH WIRES OR ROPE, RUNNING THROUGH THEM. THE SIGNAL WOULD, FOR A ONE, WOULD BE IF THE
WIRE RAN THROUGH THE BEAD AND THE SIGNAL FOR A ZERO WOULD BE IF THE WIRE RAN AROUND THE
BEAD. SO, IT’S A BINARY ONE OR A BINARY ZERO. NOW RAISE YOUR HAND IF YOU KNOW WHAT A BITE
IS. OK? FOR THOSE WHO DIDN’T RAISE YOUR HAND, A BITE
IS EIGHT BITS. SO, PULL UP YOUR ROPES. YOU WILL NOTICE THAT YOU HAVE BEADS IN GROUPS
OF EIGHT. YOU HAVE EIGHT RED ONES, EIGHT WHITE ONES
AND EIGHT BLUE ONES. SO, EACH OF THOSE REPRESENTS A BITE WORTH
OF INFORMATION. NOW, NASA HAD NINE YEARS TO GET TO THE MOON
AND BACK. YOU GUYS HAVE FIVE MINUTES TO CODE. WHAT YOU ARE GOING TO DO, PULL THE WIRE OUT
OF THE BEADS. ALL RIGHT? I NEED MY CODES UP ON THE SCREEN. MY BINARY CONVERSION CHART. THANK YOU. ALL RIGHT. SO, YOU ARE GOING TO CODE YOUR INITIALS. YOU CAN START AT EITHER THE RED OR THE BLUE
SIDE. IF YOU ARE PROGRAMMING A ZERO, YOUR WIRE WILL
SKIP THE BEAD. IF YOU ARE CODING A ONE, THE WIRE WILL GO
THROUGH THE BEAD. I AM ASSUMING YOU HAVE THREE INITIALS. IF YOU DON’T HAVE THREE INITIALS, YOU HAVE
TO IMPROVISE. YOU CAN EITHER RUN THE WIRES THROUGH ALL THE
WHITE ONES IF YOU DON’T HAVE A MIDDLE INITIAL. IF YOU HAVE MORE THAN THREE INITIALS, YOU
GOT TO PICK YOUR FAVORITE. OK? SO, YOU GUYS HAVE FIVE MINUTES TO RUN THE
WIRES THROUGH. YOU ARE JUST GOING TO RUN IT THROUGH ‑‑ EVERYBODY
IS GOING TO SKIP THEIR FIRST BEAD BECAUSE BINARY CODE, THAT ZERO IS THE FIRST ONE OF
EVERY LETTER. SO YOU GUYS HAVE FIVE MINUTES TO CODE YOUR
INITIALS. ALL RIGHT? AND, OUR GUESTS ARE GOING TO BE OUT THERE
‑‑ OH, YOU ARE DEPARTING. OK. IT WAS VERY NICE. THANK YOU. SO ‑‑ GO AHEAD AND GET STARTED. IF YOU GUYS WANT TO HELP THEM. THAT WOULD BE GREAT. I WANT TO THANK OUR SPECIAL GUESTS, GENERAL
DAILY, SECRETARY BETSY DEVOS, IVANKA TRUMP, ASTRONAUT KAY HIRE AND OUR MODERN FIGURES
AND NASA ENGINEERS. [APPLAUSE]

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