Montpellier | Wikipedia audio article

Montpellier (UK: , US: , French: [mɔ̃pəlje,
-pɛl-] (listen); Occitan: Montpelhièr [mumpeˈʎɛ]) is a city near the south coast of France on
the Mediterranean Sea. It is the capital of the Hérault department. It is located in the Occitanie region. In 2016, 607,896 people lived in the urban
area and 281,613 in the city itself. Nearly one third of the population are students
from three universities and from three higher education institutions that are outside the
university framework in the city.==Status==
Montpellier is the third-largest French city on the Mediterranean coast after Marseille
and Nice. It is the 7th-largest city of France, and
is also the fastest-growing city in the country over the past 25 years.==History=====
Medieval period===In the Early Middle Ages, the nearby episcopal
town of Maguelone was the major settlement in the area, but raids by pirates encouraged
settlement a little further inland. Montpellier, first mentioned in a document
of 985, was founded under a local feudal dynasty, the Guilhem, who combined two hamlets and
built a castle and walls around the united settlement. The name is from medieval Latin mons pislerius,
referring to the woad used for dying locally. The two surviving towers of the city walls,
the Tour des Pins and the Tour de la Babotte, were built later, around the year 1200. Montpellier came to prominence in the 12th
century—as a trading centre, with trading links across the Mediterranean world, and
a rich Jewish cultural life that flourished within traditions of tolerance of Muslims,
Jews and Cathars—and later of its Protestants. William VIII of Montpellier gave freedom for
all to teach medicine in Montpellier in 1180. The city’s faculties of law and medicine were
established in 1220 by Cardinal Conrad of Urach, legate of Pope Honorius III; the medicine
faculty has, over the centuries, been one of the major centres for the teaching of medicine
in Europe. This era marked the high point of Montpellier’s
prominence. The city became a possession of the Kings
of Aragon in 1204 by the marriage of Peter II of Aragon with Marie of Montpellier, who
was given the city and its dependencies as part of her dowry. Montpellier gained a charter in 1204 when
Peter and Marie confirmed the city’s traditional freedoms and granted the city the right to
choose twelve governing consuls annually. Under the Kings of Aragon, Montpellier became
a very important city, a major economic centre and the primary centre for the spice trade
in the Kingdom of France. It was the second or third most important
city of France at that time, with some 40,000 inhabitants before the Black Death. Montpellier remained a possession of the crown
of Aragon until it passed to James III of Majorca, who sold the city to the French king
Philip VI in 1349, to raise funds for his ongoing struggle with Peter IV of Aragon. In the 14th century, Pope Urban VIII gave
Montpellier a new monastery dedicated to Saint Peter, noteworthy for the very unusual porch
of its chapel, supported by two high, somewhat rocket-like towers. With its importance steadily increasing, the
city finally gained a bishop, who moved from Maguelone in 1536, and the huge monastery
chapel became a cathedral. In 1432, Jacques Cœur established himself
in the city and it became an important economic centre, until 1481 when Marseilles overshadowed
it in this role.===After the Reformation===
At the time of the Reformation in the 16th century, many of the inhabitants of Montpellier
became Protestants (or Huguenots as they were known in France) and the city became a stronghold
of Protestant resistance to the Catholic French crown. In 1622, King Louis XIII besieged the city
which surrendered after a two months siege (Siege of Montpellier), afterwards building
the Citadel of Montpellier to secure it. Louis XIV made Montpellier capital of Bas
Languedoc, and the town started to embellish itself, by building the Promenade du Peyrou,
the Esplanade and a large number of houses in the historic centre. After the French Revolution, the city became
the capital of the much smaller Hérault.===Modern history===During the 19th century the city thrived on
the wine culture that it was able to produce due to the abundance of sun throughout the
year. The wine consumption in France allowed Montpellier’s
citizens to become very wealthy until in the 1890’s a fungal disease had spread amongst
the vineyards and the people were no longer able to grow the grapes needed for wine. After this the city had grown because it welcomed
immigrants from Algeria and other parts of northern Africa after Algeria’s independence
from France. In the 21st century Montpellier is between
France’s number 7th and 8th largest city. The city had another influx in population
more recently, largely due to the student population, who make up about one-third of
Montpellier’s population. The school of medicine kickstarted the city’s
thriving university culture, though many other universities have been well established there. The coastal city also has such developments
as the Corum and the Antigone that have attracted an increasing number of students.===Lords of Montpellier===William I of Montpellier (died 1019)
William II of Montpellier (died 1025) William III of Montpellier (died 1058)
William IV of Montpellier (died 1068) William V of Montpellier (died 1121)
William VI of Montpellier (died 1149) William VII of Montpellier (died 1179)
William VIII of Montpellier (died 1202) Marie of Montpellier (died 1213)
and King Peter II of Aragon (died 1213) James I of Aragon (died 1276)
James II of Majorca (died 1311) Sancho of Majorca (died 1324)
James III of Majorca (died 1349)==Geography==The city is situated on hilly ground 10 km
(6 mi) inland from the Mediterranean coast, on the River Lez. The name of the city, which was originally
Monspessulanus, is said to have stood for mont pelé (the naked hill, because the vegetation
was poor), or le mont de la colline (the mount of the hill)
Montpellier is located 170 km (106 mi) from Marseille, 242 km (150 mi) from Toulouse,
and 748 km (465 mi) from Paris. Montpellier’s highest point is the Place du
Peyrou, at an altitude of 57 m (187 ft). The city is built on two hills, Montpellier
and Montpelliéret, thus some of its streets have great differences of altitude. Some of its streets are also very narrow and
old, which gives it a more intimate feel.===Climate===
Montpellier has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa), with mild, damp winters, and hot, rather
dry summers. The monthly mean ranges from 7.2 °C (45.0
°F) in January to 24.1 °C (75.4 °F) in July. Precipitation is around 630 millimetres (24.8
in), and is greatest in fall and winter, but not absent in summer, either. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −17.8
°C (−0.04 °F) recorded on February 5, 1963 and up to 43.5 °C (110.3 °F) on June
28, 2019.==Neighbourhoods==Since 2001, Montpellier has been divided into
seven official neighbourhoods, themselves divided into sub-neighbourhoods. Each of them possesses a neighbourhood council. Montpellier-centre : historical centre (Écusson),
Comédie, Gares, Faubourg Boutonnet, Saint-Charles, Faubourg Saint-Jaume, Peyrou, Les Arceaux,
Figuerolles, Faubourg du Courreau, Gambetta, Clémenceau, Méditerranée, boulevard de
Strasbourg, Le Triangle, Polygone, Antigone, Nouveau-Monde, Parc à Ballons, Les Aubes,
Les Beaux-Arts, Saint-Lazare. Croix-d’Argent : avenue de Toulouse, Croix
d’Argent, Mas Drevon, Tastavin, Lemasson, Garosud, Mas de Bagnères, Mas Nouguier, les
Sabines, Lepic, Pas du Loup, Estanove, les Bouisses, Val-de-Crozes, Bagatelle. Les Cévennes : Les Cévennes, Alco, Le Petit
Bard, Pergola, Saint-Clément, Clémentville, Las Rebès, La Chamberte, La Martelle, Montpellier-Village,
Les Grisettes, Les Grèzes. Mosson : La Mosson, Celleneuve, La Paillade,
les Hauts-de-Massane, Le Grand-Mail, Les Tritons. Hôpitaux-Facultés : Malbosc, Saint-Priest,
Euromédecine, Zolad, Plan des 4 Seigneurs, Hôpitaux, IUT, Père Soulas, Universités,
Vert-Bois, Hauts de Boutonnet, Aiguelongue, Justice, Parc zoologique de Lunaret, Agropolis. Port-Marianne : La Pompignane, Richter, Millénaire,
Jacques Cœur, Consuls de Mer, Grammont, Odysseum, Montaubérou, La Méjanelle, Cambacérès. Prés d’Arènes : Les Prés d’Arènes, Avenue
de Palavas, La Rauze, Tournezy, Saint-Martin, Les Aiguerelles, Pont-Trinquat, Cité Mion.==Population==
The whole metropolitan area had a population of
510,400 in 2006. And in a study made by INSEE from 2007 to
2012 Montpellier saw the strongest population growth of France’s main communes (+1,1 %), ahead
of Paris and Lyon. In 2011, the estimated population of the metropolitan
area was 561,326.For most of its history, and even today, Montpellier is known for its
significant Spanish population, heritage and influence. Montpellier also houses important Moroccan,
Algerian, and Italian communities.==Heraldry====
Sights==The main focus point of the city is the Place
de la Comédie, with the Opéra Comédie built in 1888. The Musée Fabre. In the historic centre, a significant number
of hôtels particuliers (i.e. mansions) can be found. The majority of the buildings of the historic
centre of Montpellier (called the Écusson because its shape is roughly that of an escutcheon)
have medieval roots and were modified between the 16th and the 18th centuries. Some buildings, along Rue Foch and the Place
de la Comédie, were built in the 19th century. The Rue du Bras de Fer (Iron Arm Street) is
very typical of the medieval Montpellier. The mikve, ritual Jewish bath, dates back
to the 12th century and is one of very few in Europe. The Jardin des plantes de Montpellier—oldest
botanical garden in France, founded in 1593 The La Serre Amazonienne, a tropical rain
forest greenhouse The 14th-century Saint Pierre Cathedral
The Porte du Peyrou, a triumphal arch built at the end of the 17th century, and the Place
Royal du Peyrou built in the 17th century, are the highest point of the Ecusson. The Tour des Pins, the only remaining of 25
towers of the city medieval walls, built around 1200. The Tour de la Babotte, a medieval tower which
was modified in the 18th century to house an observatory. The Saint Clément Aqueduct, built in the
18th century. The Antigone District and other housing projects
have been designed by the architect Ricardo Bofill from Catalonia, Spain
A number of châteaux, so-called follies, built by wealthy merchants surround the city
Nearly 80 private mansions were built in the city from the 17th to 19th century, and some
of their interior courtyards are open==Education=====History===
The University of Montpellier is one of the oldest in the world, founded in 1160, and
having been granted a charter in 1220 by Cardinal Conrad von Urach and confirmed by Pope Nicholas
IV in a papal bull of 1289. It was suppressed during the French Revolution
but was re-established in 1896. It is not known exactly at what date the schools
of literature were founded which developed into the Montpellier faculty of arts; it may
be that they were a direct continuation of the Gallo-Roman schools. The school of law was founded by Placentinus,
a doctor from Bologna University, who came to Montpellier in 1160, taught there during
two different periods, and died there in 1192. The school of medicine was founded perhaps
by a graduate of the Muslim Spain medical schools; it is certain that, as early as 1137,
there were excellent physicians at Montpellier. The statutes given in 1220 by Cardinal Conrad,
legate of Honorius III, which were completed in 1240 by Pierre de Conques, placed this
school under the direction of the Bishop of Maguelonne. Pope Nicholas IV issued a Bull in 1289, combining
all the schools into a university, which was placed under the direction of the bishop,
but which in fact enjoyed a large measure of autonomy. Theology was at first taught in the convents,
in which St. Anthony of Padua, Raymond Lullus, and the Dominican Bernard de la Treille lectured. Two letters of King John prove that a faculty
of theology existed at Montpellier independently of the convents, in January 1350. By a Bull of 17 December 1421, Martin V granted
canonical institution to this faculty and united it closely with the faculty of law. In the 16th century the faculty of theology
disappeared for a time, when Calvinism, in the reign of Henry II of France, held complete
possession of the city. It resumed its functions after Louis XIII
had reestablished the royal power at Montpellier in 1622; but the rivalries of Dominicans and
Jesuits interfered seriously with the prosperity of the faculty, which disappeared at the Revolution. The faculty numbered among its illustrious
pupils of law Petrarch, who spent four years at Montpellier, and among its lecturers Guillaume
de Nogaret, chancellor to Philip the Fair, Guillaume de Grimoard, afterwards pope under
the name of Urban V, and Pedro de Luna, antipope as Benedict XIII. But after the 15th century this faculty fell
into decay, as did also the faculty of arts, although for a time, under Henry IV of France,
the latter faculty had among its lecturers Casaubon. The Montpellier school of medicine owed its
success to the ruling of the Guilhems, lords of the town, by which any licensed physician
might lecture there; there was no fixed limit to the number of teachers, lectures were multiplied,
and there was a great wealth of teaching. Rabelais took his medical degrees at Montpellier. It was in this school that the biological
theory of vitalism, elaborated by Barthez (1734–1806), had its origin. The French Revolution did not interrupt the
existence of the faculty of medicine. The faculties of science and of letters were
re-established in 1810; that of law in 1880. It was on the occasion of the sixth centenary
of the university, celebrated in 1889, that the Government of France announced its intention—which
has since been realized—of reorganizing the provincial universities in France.===Universities===University of Montpellier 1: medicine, dentistry,
pharmacy, law, business, sports Montpellier 2 University: sciences
Paul Valéry University, Montpellier III: arts, languages and social sciencesUniversity
of Montpellier 1 and University of Montpellier 2 reunified in January 2015 to form the University
of Montpellier. Paul Valéry University Montpellier, remains
a separate entity===
Grandes Ecoles===ScienceE-Artsup
École Polytechnique Universitaire de Montpellier (Polytech)
National Superior Architecture School of Montpellier(ENSAM) École nationale de l’aviation civile
ENSCM: chemistry École pour l’informatique et les nouvelles
technologies Institut supérieur européen de formation
par l’action Montpellier SupAgro: agronomy
SUPINFO International University: private institution of higher education in general
Computer ScienceBusinessMontpellier Business School
SupExup Higher Education Institute==
Transport==Montpellier is served by railway, including
TGV highspeed trains. Montpellier’s main railway station is Saint-Roch. There are plans to construct a high-speed
railway linking Nîmes and Montpellier with the LGV Méditerranée. The Montpellier – Méditerranée Airport
is located in the area of Fréjorgues, in the town of Mauguio, southeast of Montpellier. The Transports de l’agglomération de Montpellier
(TaM) manages the city’s public transportation, including its 56-kilometre (35 mi) tramway
network consisting of four lines and several parking facilities. Line 1 runs from Mosson in the west to Odysseum
in the east. Line 2 runs from Jacou in the northeast to
St. Jean-de-Vedas in the southwest. Line 3 and Line 4 opened in April 2012. Line 3, which is 22.4-kilometre (13.9 mi)
long, links Juvignac and Perols with a branch to Lattes and serves 32 stations. Line 4 circles the centre and serves as a
connector line between the various arms of tram system. They intersect at Gare St. Roch station, Rives
du Lez and Corum. The TaM also manages the large bike sharing
scheme Vélomagg’, started in June 2007, comprising 1200 bicycles and 50 stations.==Sport==
Montpellier was the finish of Stage 11 and the departure of Stage 12 in the 2007 Tour
de France. It was also the finish of Stage 11 and the
departure of Stage 12 in the 2016 edition. The city is home to a variety of professional
sports teams: Montpellier Hérault Rugby, of the Top 14
who play rugby union formerly at the Stade Sabathé and now at the Altrad Stadium. In the 2010/2011 season, the team made it
to the Top 14 Final against the Stade Toulousain. Montpellier HSC of Ligue 1 who play association
football at the Stade de la Mosson. MHSC became French Champions on May 20, 2012. Montpellier Red Devils who play rugby league
in Elite 1 division at the Stade Sabathé Montpellier Agglomération Handball are a
team handball club playing in the French National League. Montpellier Vipers of France’s Division 1
ice hockey Federation, play at the Patinoire de l’Agglomération de Montpellier at Odysseum
Montpellier Water Polo play in the National League and European Cup competitions. Barracudas de Montpellier is a baseball club,
and competes in Division Élite, a French top level baseball league.Montpellier was
one of the hosts of the FIBA EuroBasket 2015. The city is home to the Open Sud de France
tennis tournament since 2010, and will host the XXXI World Rhythmic Gymnastics Championship. The main athletics stadium is the Philippidès
Stadium, which is owned by the University of Montpellier.==Culture==
The city is a centre for cultural events as there are many students. Montpellier has two large concert venues:
Le Zenith Sud (7.000 seats) and L’Arena (14.000 seats). Le Corum cultural and conference centre contains
three auditoriums. The Festival de Radio France et Montpellier
is a summer festival of opera and other music held in Montpellier. The festival concentrates on classical music
and jazz with about 150 events, including opera, concerts, films, and talks. Most of these events are free and are held
in the historic courtyards of the city or in the modern concert halls of Le Corum near
historical city center. The annual Cinemed, the International Mediterranean
Film Festival Montpellier, held in the fall, is the second largest French film festival
after the Cannes Film Festival. Held since 1979, it offers screenings of over
200 long and short films, documentaries, animated films, trailers, and a special program of
student films. Other events include panel discussions, exhibitions,
and gatherings. Venues include Le Corum and cinema halls.==International relations=====
Twin towns – Sister cities===Montpellier is twinned with:==Notable people==Montpellier was the birthplace of: Abraham ben Isaac of Narbonne (c. 1110–1179),
rabbi and author of the halakhic work Ha-Eshkol Nicholas of Poland (c.1235-c.1316), Dominican
healer Saint Roch (1295–1327), pilgrim to Rome,
venerated as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church
Pierre Magnol (1638–1715), botanist, founder of the concept of plant families
Étienne-Hyacinthe de Ratte (1722–1805), mathematician and astronomer
Cyrille Rigaud (1750–1824), poet Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès (1753–1824),
lawyer and statesman, author of the Code Napoléon Guillaume Mathieu, comte Dumas (1753–1837),
military leader Louis-Sébastien Lenormand (1757–1837),
chemist, physicist, inventor and the first modern parachuting pioneer in the world
Auguste Comte (1798–1857), a founder of the discipline of sociology
Antoine Jérôme Balard (1802–1876), chemist Émile Saisset (1814–1863), philosopher
Charles Bernard Renouvier (1815–1903), philosopher Édouard Albert Roche (1820–1883), astronomer
Alfred Bruyas (1821–1876), art collector Alexandre Cabanel (1823–1889), painter
Renaud de Vilbac (1829–1884), composer, organist
Frédéric Bazille (1841–1870), Impressionist painter
Henri-Charles Puech (1902–1986), historian of religion
Léo Malet (1909–1996), crime novelist Henri Carol (1910–1984), French composer
and organist Jeanne Demessieux (1921–1968), organist,
pianist, composer, and pedagogue Monique de Bissy, member of the Resistance
during World War II (1923–2009) Jean-Luc Dehaene (1940–2014), Prime-Minister
of Belgium Didier Auriol (born 1958), rally driver, 1994
World Rally Champion Rémi Gaillard (born 1975), famous French
prankster Sophie Divry (born 1979), writer, winner of
the 2014 Prix Wepler Suzanne Verdier (1745–1813), writerOther
famous inhabitants include: François Rabelais (1493–1553), student
at the University of Montpellier Nostradamus (1503–1566), student at the
University of Montpellier Ioan Iacob Heraclid, ruler of Moldavia from
1561 to 1563 Pierre-Joseph Amoreux (1741–1824), zoologist
Jean-Louis Michel (1785–1865), fencing master, who lived in Montpellier from 1830 onwards
Agénor Azéma de Montgravier (1805–1863), deputy director of l’Ecole d’Artillerie de
Montpellier, died in Montpellier in 1863 Gaston Darboux (1842–1917), mathematician
Josias Braun-Blanquet (1884–1980), botanist Jean Moulin (1899–1943), famous French resistant
during WWII, studied and worked in Montpellier Alexander Grothendieck (1928–2014), mathematician
Nikola Karabatić (born 1984), handball player Paul Valéry (1871–1945), student at the
University of Montpellier Enver Hoxha (1908–1985), student at the
University of Montpellier Grégory Vignal (born 1981), Birmingham City
F.C. full-back Taha Hussein (1889–1973), student at the
University of Montpellier Michel Navratil (1908–2001), survivor of
the sinking of the RMS Titanic Guy Delisle (born 1966), Canadian-born cartoonist,
animator and author Adamantios Korais (1748–1833), Greek humanist
scholar and a major figure in the Greek Enlightenment, studied at the University of Montpellier==
Other locations named after Montpellier==”Montpellier” is used as the name of other
towns and streets in as many as four continents. Many places in England, Scotland, Wales and
Ireland carry the name Montpellier. Often they are in resort locations claiming
some of the healthy attributes for which the French city was renowned in earlier centuries. The variant spelling “Montpelier” is common,
and is of quite early provenance. Brewer uses that spelling. The first example was the early 19th-century
suburb of Montpelier in Brighton.The capital of the American state of Vermont was named
Montpelier because of the high regard in which the Americans held the French who had aided
their Revolutionary War against the British. Several other American cities are also named
Montpelier. Places named Montpelliers/Montpeliers are
also found in Australia, Canada, South Africa, and the Caribbean.==See also==
Communes of the Hérault department Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Montpellier

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