Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education | Wikipedia audio article


Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores
de Monterrey (ITESM) (in English: Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education),
also known as Tecnológico de Monterrey or simply as Tec, is a private, nonsectarian
and coeducational multi-campus university based in Monterrey, Mexico. Founded in 1943 by industrialists in the city
of Monterrey, ITESM has since grown to include 31 campuses in 25 cities throughout the country,
becoming the most recognized in Latin America. ITESM was the first university to be connected
to the Internet in Latin America and the Spanish-speaking world, having the top-ranked business school
in the region according to the Economist and being one of the leaders in patent applications
among Mexican universities. The medical school offers the only MD-PhD
program available in Mexico, in partnership with the Houston Methodist Hospital.==History=====
Early years===The Institute was founded on 6 September 1943
by a group of local businessmen led by Eugenio Garza Sada, a moneyed heir of a brewing conglomerate
who was interested in creating an institution that could provide highly skilled personnel
— both university graduates and technicians— to the booming Monterrey corporations of the
1940s. The group was structured into a non-profit
organization called Enseñanza e Investigación Superior A.C. (EISAC) and recruited several
academicians led by León Ávalos y Vez, an MIT alumnus and then director-general of the
School of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering of the National Polytechnic Institute, who
designed its first academic programs and served as its first director-general.In its early
years the Institute operated at Abasolo 858 Oriente in a large, two-story house located
a block and a half away from Zaragoza Square, behind the city’s Metropolitan Cathedral. As these facilities soon proved to be insufficient,
it started renting out adjacent buildings and by 1945 it became apparent that a university
campus was necessary. For that reason, a master plan was commissioned
to Enrique de la Mora and on 3 February 1947 what would later be known as its Monterrey
Campus was inaugurated by Mexican President Miguel Alemán Valdés.Because the operations
of the local companies were highly reliant on U.S. markets, investments, and technology;
internationalization became one of its earliest priorities. In 1950 it became the first foreign university
in history to be accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS),
one of the six regional accreditation agencies recognized by the United States Department
of Education. Its foreign accreditation would end up being
a decisive influence in its development, as it was forced to submit itself to external
evaluation earlier than most Mexican universities (1967) and unlocked additional sources of
revenue, such as tuition funds from foreign students interested in taking summer courses
in Mexico for full-academic credit.===Expansion===Its growth outside the city of Monterrey began
in the late-1960s, when both its rector and head of academics lobbied for expansion. A first attempt, funded a few years earlier
by several businessmen from Mexicali, Baja California, was staffed and organized by the
Institute but faced opposition from the Board of Trustees once the federal government refused
any additional subsidy and members of the Board cast doubt on its ability to get funds
as an out-of-state university. At the end the project was renamed Centro
de Enseñanza Técnica y Superior (CETYS) and grew into a fully independent institution.Aside
from the CETYS experiment and the 150 hectares bought in 1951 for the agricultural program’s
experimental facilities in nearby Apodaca, Nuevo León, no other expansion outside Monterrey
was attempted until 1967, when a school of maritime studies was built in the port of
Guaymas, Sonora. Shortly thereafter, premises were built in
Obregón and courses began to be offered in Mexico City. Those premises and the ones that followed,
then called external units, were fully dependent on the Monterrey Campus until 1984, when they
were restructured as semi-independent campuses and reorganized in regional rectorates (see
Organization). In 1987, when the Southern Association of
Colleges and Schools demanded faculty members with master’s degrees to lecture 100% of its
undergraduate courses, the Institute invested considerably in both distance learning and
computer network technologies and training, effectively becoming, on 1 February 1989,
the first university ever connected to the Internet in both Latin America and the Spanish-speaking
world. Such efforts contributed to the creation of
its former Virtual University a few years later and allowed it to become the first country-code
top level domain registry in Mexico; first by itself from 1989 to 1995, and then as a
major shareholder of NIC Mexico, the current national registry.==Campuses==There are thirty-one campuses of the Institute
distributed in twenty-five Mexican cities. Each campus is relatively independent but
shares a national academic curriculum (see Academics). The flagship campus is located in Monterrey,
where the national, system-wide rectorate is located. Most of them deliver both high school and
undergraduate education, some offer postgraduate programs and only five (Cumbres, Eugenio Garza
Sada, Eugenio Garza Lagüera, Santa Catarina and Valle Alto) deliver high school courses
exclusively. Nevertheless, curricular and extension courses
and seminars are usually available at most facilities.===Campuses by region===
As of September 2017, campuses were divided into the following Mexican regions:
North: Monterrey, Cumbres, Eugenio Garza Lagüera, Eugenio Garza Sada, Santa Catarina, Valle
Alto, Aguascalientes, Chihuahua, Ciudad Juárez, Laguna, Matamoros, Saltillo, Tampico and Zacatecas.Central-South:
Mexico City, Santa Fe, State of Mexico, Prepa Tec Esmeralda, Chiapas, Cuernavaca, Hidalgo,
Metepec, Puebla, Toluca and Veracruz Central.West: Colima, Guadalajara, Irapuato, León, Morelia,
Navojoa, Northern Sonora, Obregón, Querétaro, San Luis Potosí, Santa Anita and Sinaloa.Former
campuses include Guaymas (transferred to TecMilenio University in the early 2000s) and Mazatlán
(transferred to TecMilenio University in 2009).===Other infrastructure===In addition to the campuses, the Institute
manages: The Ignacio A. Santos Medical School, the
Hospital San José and the Zambrano-Hellion Medical Center. Eight international sites in Argentina (Buenos
Aires), Colombia (Bogotá, Medellín), Ecuador (Guayaquil and Quito), Panama (Panama City),
Peru (Lima) and the United States (Miami) offering extension courses, research and international
consulting. Fifteen liaison offices in charge of forging
international partnerships and negotiating professional internships and academic exchanges
with local universities, companies and civil institutions. Current liaison offices are located in Belgium
(Brussels), Canada (Montreal and Vancouver), China (Beijing, Guangzhou and Shanghai), France
(Nice and Paris), Italy (Florence, Macerata and Verona), Switzerland (Fribourg), Spain
(Barcelona and Madrid) and the United States (Boston, Dallas and Washington, D.C.)==Organization==All campuses are sponsored by non-profit organizations
composed primarily of local businesspeople. The Monterrey Campus is sponsored by Enseñanza
e Investigación Superior, A.C. (EISAC), which co-sponsored the system as a whole until a
newly built organization, Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, A.C.
(ITESM AC) overtook those responsibilities. Such organizations (effectively serving as
boards of trustees) are responsible for electing the rectors or directors of a particular campus. Since February 2012, the president of ITESMAC
is José Antonio Fernández, a class of 1976 alumnus and current chairman and CEO of FEMSA. Former presidents include the founder, Eugenio
Garza Sada (1943–73) and his son, Eugenio Garza Lagüera (1973–97), and Lorenzo Zambrano
(1997-2012), a class of 1966 alumnus and until his passing.Former heads of the Institute
include: León Ávalos y Vez (1943–1947) first director-general. Roberto Guajardo Suárez (1947–1951) second
director-general. Víctor Bravo Ahuja (1951–1958) third director-general,
and from 11 April 1955, first rector. Fernando García Roel (1959–1984) second
rector. Rafael Rangel Sostmann (1985–2011) third
rector. David Noel Ramirez Padilla (2011-2017) fourth
rector.The Tecnológico de Monterrey President is Salvador Alva Gómez, former president
of PepsiCo Foods & Beverages Latin America.And the rector for the Tecnológico de Monterrey
is David Garza Salazar.===High schools===
Following the historical trend of Mexico’s largest universities, the Institute sponsors
several high schools that share one or more national curricula: bilingual, bicultural,
multicultural and/or International Baccalaureate, which is administered from Geneva, Switzerland. As of December 2017, over 26,000 students
in several campuses were registered as high school students within the system.==Academics==Academically, the university is organized
into several departments and divisions —as opposed to the traditional faculty school
scheme used by most Mexican public universities— and it was the first Mexican university in
history to divide the academic year in semesters. Current academic calendar for both high school
and undergraduate students is composed of two semesters running from August to December
and from January to May (each lasting 16 weeks) and an optional summer session from June to
July, where at most two courses can be taken in an intensive basis. As of 2010, the Institute offers 57 undergraduate
degrees, of which 37 are taught in English and are generally awarded after nine semesters
of study (except for Medicine and Architecture); 33 master’s degrees, generally lasting three
to five semesters (and can also be structured in three-months terms), and 11 doctorate degrees
varying in length according to their academic field.===Admissions===
Since 1969 the Institute requires every college applicant to achieve a minimum pass mark at
an academic aptitude test (Prueba de Aptitud Académica, PAA) delivered by The College
Board, a not-for-profit examination board in the United States. However, each campus is free to request additional
requirements; such as a grade average of 80 or 90 in high school (on a 100-point scale)
for those willing to transfer or apply to the Monterrey Campus. As for the graduate schools, the requirements
may vary according to the discipline, such as a grade average of 80/100 and 550-points
in both the GMAT and the TOEFL for some programs at its Graduate Business School (EGADE).===Accreditations===Studies at the Tech are officially accredited
by the Secretariat of Public Education of Mexico (Secretaría de Educación Pública,
SEP) and by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS) of the United States. On November 2008, its graduate business school
(EGADE) became one of the 34 business schools in the world to hold simultaneous accreditation
of its programs by the AACSB of the United States, the Association of MBAs of the United
Kingdom and the European Quality Improvement System (EQUIS) while the Institute became
the first Latin American university in history to receive full-accreditation on some of its
engineering programs by ABET (as opposed to the traditional substantially-equivalent designation
given to most schools outside the United States).The quality of its programs is also audited by
the Institute of Food Technologists, the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management
and by the national accrediting councils of Mexico, such as the Council for Higher Education
Accreditation (Consejo para la Acreditación de la Educación Superior, COPAES) and the
Inter-Institutional Committees for Higher Education Evaluation (Comités Interinstitucionales
de Evaluación de la Educación Superior, CIEES).As of 2017, 169 undergraduate degrees
were accredited by national accrediting councils and 36 were accredited by international accrediting
agencies. As for graduate degrees, 11 were accredited
by international accrediting agencies and 58 were listed in the National Census of High-Quality
Postgraduate Studies (Padrón Nacional de Posgrados de Calidad, PNPC) by the National
Council for Science and Technology (CONACYT).===Academic memberships===The Institute is the only Latin American institution
at the European Consortium of Innovative Universities (ECIU) —an organization committed to innovations
in both teaching and learning— and at Universitas 21; an international network of research-intensive
universities established as an “international reference point and resource for strategic
thinking on issues of global significance.” It is also the only Mexican university, along
the National Autonomous University of Mexico, to be enrolled at the Association of Pacific
Rim Universities, an international consortium of leading research universities including
Stanford University, University of California, Berkeley and Caltech. The Institute was also the first private university
to become a member of the National Association of Universities and Institutions of Higher
Education of Mexico (ANUIES) back when it was composed entirely by public universities
(1958) and is a full member of the Mexican Federation of Private Institutions of Higher
Education (Federación de Instituciones Mexicanas Particulares de Educación Superior, FIMPES).===Faculty===The Institute has over 10,000 professors at
high school, undergraduate and postgraduate levels: 2,207 tenured and 7,900 associated
professors, and all of them have the appropriate academic credentials to lecture at their corresponding
academic level according to the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. As of 2017 some 470 professors taught courses,
worked in international projects or attended seminars or congresses at foreign universities
while some 590 foreign professors taught courses at the Tech. As for their academic development, its faculty
training program was bestowed with the 2004 Andrew Heiskell Award for Innovation in International
Education by the Institute of International Education.===Libraries===
The Institute has at least thirty-three libraries in twenty-five Mexican cities holding over
2.4 million books, publications, and 46 types of electronic databases with at least 51,000
specialized magazines and academic journals and over 9000 e-books. Its Cervantean Library, named after Miguel
de Cervantes and located in the current rectorate, holds one of the largest collections of Don
Quixote incunabula, an original edition of L’Encyclopédie, and the Mario Pani Archives,
and other bibliographical treasures while the main library of the Monterrey Campus holds
the personal collections of archaeologist Ignacio Bernal.===Rankings===Overall, the Institute is the only Mexican
university besides the National Autonomous University of Mexico to be ranked at the 2010
QS World University Rankings, in which it was classified #65 worldwide at its Employer’s
Review, #269 in Engineering and Information Technology, #232 in Social Sciences and #387
at its overall ranking. In the 2010 International Professional Ranking
of World Universities, developed by the École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris,
it ranked 224 out of 390 worldwide.Among its graduate schools, EGADE has been ranked 7th
among the best business schools outside the United States according to the Wall Street
Journal (2006), 4th in the world in business ethics and social-responsibility programs
according to BusinessWeek magazine (2005), among the 100 best graduate business schools
in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit (2009) and its OneMBA program, delivered
in partnership with four different institutions (see Joint programs and international partnerships
below) was ranked 27 worldwide by the Financial Times in its 2009 Executive Master in Business
Administration rankings.===Joint programs and international partnerships
===Some of its academic programs are offered
as joint degrees or in partnership with foreign universities: Its Master of Science in Information Technology
is offered as a joint degree with Carnegie-Mellon University, which is ranked 4th for graduate
studies in computer science in 2008 according to US News and World Report and 7th in Engineering/Technology
and Computer Sciences among Shanghai Jiao Tong University’s world’s top 100 universities. The OneMBA degree is offered through a partnership
with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, the Rotterdam School of Management of
the Netherlands, the Chinese University of Hong Kong and the Getulio Vargas Foundation
of Brazil and is ranked 27 worldwide among executive MBAs by the Financial Times. The B.A. Finance and Accounting is offered as a joint
degree with the University of Texas at Austin, Master in Professional Accounting, ranked
#1 Graduate Accounting School in the U.S. by US News and World report since 2007. [2]
The Bachelor of Science in Industrial Engineering is offered in partnership with the Université
de Technologie de Troyes in France and with the Université Laval in Quebec, Canada. The Global MBA for Latin American Managers
is offered in partnership with the Thunderbird School of Global Management, which has been
ranked consistently by US News & World Report as the #1 school in International Management
since 1995. The medical degree is offered as a dual Ph.D.
program with the Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences of the Texas A&M Health Science Center. An International MBA program is offered as
a joint degree with the University of San Diego. The institute has a strategic partnership
with Johns Hopkins Hospital through Johns Hopkins Medicine International. The Master of Business Administration with
a concentration in Global Business and Strategy (MBA-GBS) is a double degree MBA program jointly
offered by the Graduate School of Business Administration and Leadership (EGADE) at the
Tecnológico de Monterrey, Campus Monterrey, and the Belk College of Business (Belk College)
at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. The bachelor’s degrees in Chemical Engineering
are offered as joint degrees with the Reutlingen University of Germany. Several ITESM high schools offer the International
Baccalaureate Diploma Programme, which is administered by the Geneva-based International
Baccalaureate. The school partners with New York City-based
Trilogy Education Services to host a tech training program on ITESM’s Mexico campus.==Medical school==The Ignacio A. Santos School of Medicine (Escuela
de Medicina Ignacio A. Santos, aka: EMIS) is the medical school division of the Monterrey
Institute of Technology and Higher Education (ITESM). Established in 1978 in Monterrey, Mexico.The
School of Medicine was founded to satisfy the country’s need for high quality medical
training and innovation in biomedical research. Currently, there are approximately 500 students
enrolled in the M.D. program and about 105 postgraduate students. Aside from the medical doctor program, the
School of Medicine also offers a joint M.D.-Ph.D. program with Houston Methodist Hospital, MD
Anderson Cancer Center, Texas A&M Health Science Center, and other Bachelors in Nursing, Nutrition
Sciences and Biomedical Engineering. The graduate medical education department
offers several medical residency and fellowship programs. The general director of the TecSalud organization
is Guillermo Torre M.D. PhD, a cardiologist who trained under Michael E. DeBakey MD at
Baylor College of Medicine.==Research==Although some of the founding members of its
faculty were prominent researchers (first rector León Ávalos y Vez had formed a National
Commission on Science and served as director-general of the School of Electrical and Mechanical
Engineering of the National Polytechnic Institute) formal research activities at the Tech did
not start until 1951, when its Institute of Industrial Research was founded in close collaboration
with the Southwest Research Institute of San Antonio, Texas —one of the oldest and largest
independent, nonprofit, applied research and development organizations in the United States.Notwithstanding
some reputable achievements, throughout most of the 20th century its research activities
—normally financed independently or under private sponsorship— were rather scarce
in comparison to public universities such as the National Autonomous University of Mexico
or the National Polytechnic Institute, whose budgets make up to 30% of the federal spending
in higher education and, as such, are heavily financed by the government through the federal
budget.Despite its inherent difficulties to secure research funds in a developing country
where private sponsorship barely accounts for 1.1% of the national spending on science,
a new institutional mission in 2005 made social and scientific research in Mexico’s strategic
areas one of its top priorities for the next decade. As a result, new corporate endowments and
funds were committed, new research programs were created (including the first research
program financed by Google in Latin America) and important labs and infrastructure have
been built, such as the US$ 43 million Femsa Biotechnology Center, the Water Center for
Latin America and the Caribbean (financed by the Inter-American Development Bank and
the Femsa Foundation), the Motorola Research and Development Center on Home & Networks
Mobility, its MXN $24 million Center for Advanced Design at the Guadalajara Campus and, in association
with the Mainz Institute of Microtechnology of Germany (IMM), the first center of chemical
micro process engineering in Latin America.Additionally, the Institute developed a researcher-friendly
patent scheme that aims to attract talented researchers and reduce the national brain
drain. The scheme, in which the researcher may receive
up to 30% of the patent licensing income, works in combination with its internal MXN$
100,000 Rómulo Garza Prize and its national MXN$ 200,000 Luis Elizondo Prize and has allowed
it to become the leading patent applicant among Mexican universities since 2006.==Student life==Student life, traditions and activities vary
notably among campuses. Generally speaking, student involvement is
encouraged by the local campus through an office of student affairs, which supervises
most of the student clubs, regional associations and its student federation. The Institute goes great lengths to provide
scholarships to those in need, awarding partial financial assistance to 49% of its student
population. However, with tuition fees of almost MXN $200,000
per academic year (among the highest in Latin America according to Forbes magazine) most
of its student community comes from upper and upper-middle class and the overall atmosphere
is arguably politically and socially conservative. For example, opposite-sex visits are forbidden
in dormitories; attendance is taken daily at 10:00 p.m. in women’s dormitories and some
high school staff in the Mexico City Campus has publicly admonished students for questioning
conservative politicians during school visits (although no disciplinary action was ever
taken).The number of international students vary notably among campuses. As of December 2017, 4,714 foreign students
were studying in one of its campuses while 10,618 Tech students were taking courses in
a foreign university.===Athletics===Tec has a good record in college athletics,
picking up over 18% of the medals at the 2007 national collegiate competition (Universiada)
and one of its campuses won every American Football Collegiate Championship in Mexico
(ONEFA) from 1998 to 2008. Such accomplishments were possible through
the Institute’s investments in sports facilities and personnel and a well-funded and comprehensive
athletic scholarships program, which attracted a significant number of promising athletes
but prompted allegations of talent drain by some of its rivals. Before the 2009 season the Institute decided
to part ways with the organization and create a new league; however, the league didn’t materialize
after other breakaway universities decided to remain in the ONEFA. The Institute asked to return to the organization,
but the ONEFA Board decided that the request should be formally presented in its next ordinary
meeting, after the 2009 season, which its four teams ended up playing between themselves
in a Tech-only championship. For the 2010 season, the Institute decided
not to participate in the ONEFA championship and, instead, asked the CONADEIP, a national
athletic association of private educational institutions, to create an American football
championship.Although there are local adaptations, since 1945 the system-wide sports mascot is
the ram (borrego salvaje), traditionally embodied in a male bighorn sheep. A somewhat popular urban legend states that
the mascot was chosen by the American football team on its way to a match, after spotting
a male sheep on the road. According to the official sources, however,
the mascot was chosen during an official contest held by students in the mid-1940s.==Notable people==From December 2006 to January 2009 both the
U.S. Secretary of Commerce and the Mexican Secretary of Economy (former Kelloggs’ CEO
Carlos Gutiérrez and Gerardo Ruiz Mateos) were Tech alumni. Other businesspeople include Cemex’ CEO Lorenzo
Zambrano, FEMSA’s CEO José Antonio Fernández, Grupo Salinas’ CEO Ricardo Salinas Pliego
Max Appedole film producer, activist and Casa Cuervo’s CEO Juan Beckman.In science and technology,
Alexander Balankin, former lecturer at the Mexico City Campus, has received the 2005
UNESCO Science Prize for his works on Fractal Mechanics; Ernesto Enkerlin received UNESCO’s
2005 Sultan Qaboos Prize for Environmental Preservation for his involvement in sustainability
and two alumni have been members of the United States President’s Information Technology
Advisory Committee: Pedro Celis (Distinguished Engineer at Microsoft) and Héctor García
Molina, former Director of Stanford University’s Computer Science Department, 1999 ACM SIGMOD
Innovations Award and highest h-index in Computer Science.At least two late presidential candidates
and democracy activists, Luis Donaldo Colosio and Manuel Clouthier, were former graduates. Over a dozen Mexican governors and cabinet
members have attended classes at the Tech, including former Secretary of Commerce and
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) negotiator Herminio Blanco. In cultural affairs, Gabriel Zaid has distinguished
himself as one of the leading Mexican intellectuals of the 20th century and in sports Fernando
Platas and Víctor Estrada have both won Olympics medals, while former coach of Mexico’s national
football team, Miguel Mejía Barón, is in charge of the Football Department at Puebla.As
for staff and faculty, at least two rectors or directors of different universities have
been lecturers or members of the staff at the Tech. Luis Ernesto Derbez, a former Foreign Minister,
is currently the Rector of the University of the Americas, Puebla. Enrique Cabrero Mendoza is the current head
of The National Council for Science and Technology and a former rector of CIDE. In addition, the Ex-Rector Rafael Rangel Sostmann
is member of the External Advisory Council of the World Bank Institute.==See also==
List of Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education faculty
List of Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education alumni==Notes

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