Welcome to the course, Culturally Responsive
Built Environments. Today, we are going to talk about Urban Transformations
in the Middle East, which we are specifically going to talk about Doha. Before talking about what is happened, what
happened in Doha? I want to give you a brief input on the theoretical
aspects of how the production of space happens? Whether, it is a monumental to the urban form
or the city level and this is where I want to introduce you to one of the important theory
of production of space by Henry Lefebvre. And in fact, he talks about in fact in earlier
lecturers we did discussed about martin Heidegger. We did talked about Bodios habitus, we did
talk about Neil’s work, but then collectively it actually summarizes the whole context of
the historicity of the space. And, mainly his work, the Henry Lefebvre’s
work deals with the, what is the mode of existence of social relationships. So, he narrows down this whole discussion
and he underpins in that is spatial, because how they social relations occur and how they
take place? And, how it is actually seen and how it is
actually understood, he underpins into that is what in the spatial terms. So, in his chapter spatial tectonics, because
his work mostly deal with the social space and in one of the chapter on special architectonics,
he broadly talks about 2 aspects. One is the production of space in terms of
monument or building differentiation and the second aspect which he talks about the second
scale I would say, one is a monumental scale and second scale is more of a city scale,
the city and genesis and transformation of urban form. So, here the space we are not talking from
only a small building or a small space, but it goes back to a biggest scale of an mega
city. In his early work, he talks about 3 kinds
of spaces. And, how they are produced? The first one he talks about the conceived
space. Conceived space is often referred with the
space produced by planners and political decision makersn and, therefore based on knowledge
and particular ideologies. For instance if you talk about that the way
is Chandigarh is planned; obviously, it has been a plan with a particular vision. So, in that way that is where the, how the
political decision makers and the planners looks at the modernity and the equality, the
democracy into the planning process. Whereas, the second aspect he talks about
the perceived space, which is produced by the spatial practice of all the users of the
space. So, how people start using the space? So, that is where the perceived space he talks
about. And, this is where he bring backs to the Bodios
habitus sense of place and the planning the intellectual space is formed by the invisible
degree of peoples attachment to a certain place. So, when this becomes a mirroring or a repetitive
performances. So, how this space is formed through a invisible
attachment? And, the degree of peoples attachment to a
certain place. And, this is where he talks about the subjective
dimension of space production is defined as the lived space that is where intuitus. And, now I take you to a slightly different
track, but still I would like to relate because why I am going to talk today about capitalism,
and communism and when we are talking about why I am not directly jumping into the urban
transformation in Doha, that you will understand little later. So, that the beginning of the industrial economy’s
industrialization process. So, one need to understand what is capitalism? And, what is a communism? And, how different ideologies have shaped
different processes of space production? So, I need to introduce you to Adam Smith
work on who was an economist and who’s Professor from Glasgow, in Scotland and written the
book of Wealth of Nations. So, here he mainly focused on the liberalised
economy, how it can lead to the economic progress of a state or a nation. And, how it is related like the same thing,
how Lefebvre have related with this capitalist economies, and the capitalist ideologies into
the social space because, he bring tripartite ordering, which assigns more or less a appropriate
place to: Number 1 biological reproduction; number 2 the reproduction of labour power,
number 3 reproduction of social relations of production. So, basically here he is talking about the
biological aspect of faith, the reproduction of labour power and the social relationship
within it and which can able to produce. But, then coming to the Marx, Karl Marx who
actually written the Communist Manifesto. He, that is where he brings the kind of gap
between the rich and the poor the bourgeoisie and proletariat society. And, how the gap is increasing and that is
where he talks about the class antagonisms under capitalism between the bourgeoisie and
proletariat would, eventuate in the working class, conquest of political power and eventually,
establish a classless society that is where the communism the birth of communism a society
governed by a free association of producers. Here in the capitalistic one side the rich
become richer and the poor becomes poorer. So, the gap is increasing. So, that is where he tries to address this
particular gap and how the communist society has a different role to offer the society
and the so, that it can bridge the gap. Obvious it has been very much criticize at
later part today, if you look at it very few countries are working on this philosophy. So, I would like to show you a small video
to understand the difference between this. Adam Smith versus Karl Marx, this could quickly
turn into a debate between the ideas of capitalism and the ideas of socialism or the ideas of
capitalism, and the less radical version of socialism, Marxism or even could turn into
a debate between capitalism and communism which derived from Marxism. Although, these philosophers vary greatly
in their ideas and philosophies without them the industrial revolution would not have been
what it is and it would not have the effect today without them. Adam Smith, Adam Smith was born on June 17th
1723 in Scotland. He was a professor at the University of Glasgow
and he wrote the book the Wealth of Nations. In this book he defended the ideas of a free
market, free economy, in the 3 natural laws. Smith was a firm believer in laissez faire
economics and he also thought that economic liberty would result in economic progress. At the core of Adam smith’s laissez faire
capitalist philosophy slice the 3 natural laws of economics. Law one is the law of self-interest, law number
2 is the law of competition and law number 3 is the law of supply and demand. Law number one of smith’s natural laws is
the law of self-interest. This question is asked almost every day by
most people around the world. The question is why work? Why spend 8 to 12 hours every day working? The answer for most people is you or your
family. Why do you go to school to get an education,
which will most likely lead to a better life with more money, more food and more luxuries
such as vacations, electronics in a better house for you and your family? Law number 2 of smith’s natural laws is
the law of competition. A small family owned shop opens up on a street
with some other surrounding, small shops around it. Unlike the other shops this one sells dresser
people call this store, store number 1. Store 1 has one worker and they can make one
dresser in the average of 3 months. So, in January a customer comes and takes
away the dresser, another customer comes and they order another dresser and in April the
customer comes back and takes their dresser that the order. Business is going great for store number 1. However, in May another store selling the
same dressers opens up dress down the street. We will call the store; store number 2. In July store number 2 releases a dresser
what store number 1 is still out of stock, store number 2 continues to make dresses and
instead of waiting one customer comes and takes them all at once. This causes store number 1 to make a better
product. This causes store number 2 to make a better
product and they keep enhancing their products. As the need for business increases, this turns
into something like a game for the businesses. One store releases a product, the next store
tops that and the next store tops that. The more businesses there are the more competition
is created. Ultimately this competition creates a better
product. Law number 3 of smith’s natural laws is
the law of Supply and Demand. The economy always has and always will be
dependent on supply and demand a dresser factory will always sell dressers. But, it will be dependent on the supply and
demand on how it will sell with the public? Supply meaning how many can be made with the
resources that they have and demand meaning the popularity, that this product has in power. If the supply is low and the demand is low
the cost will stay constant meaning no fluctuations and it will cost to make the product, but
not many will be made. When the supply is low and the demand is high,
it will cost to make the product and it will be very expensive to buy it. When the supply is high in the demand is low,
it will cost a little to make the product and it will not be expensive to buy. When the supply happens to be high and the
demand happens to be high, this is where Smith’s third law takes action. Smith’s believe that enough goods would
be made at a low price in order to keep up with a high demand. When, the supply was high and the demand was
high, this caused the economy to rise and it makes money. A dresses factory can only make one dresser
per every day. However, the demand for these dressers becomes
very high in a short period of time. This relatively slow rate causes the public
to be angry with the factory, because they want more dresses. However, the factory can only make so, many
at a time. This causes the factory to change their ways. So, the one per day quota is now turned into
a dresser every hour. At the basis of all Adam Smith’s beliefs
lies a strong belief and laissez faire economics. Laissez Faire basically means to have the
government leave you alone; they thought that the nations did not grow wealthy from tariffs. Rather free trade cause nations to grow wealthy,
free trade is trade with no regulation and no government interaction, they thought that
free trade would boost the economy and would make a lot of money. A combination of Smith, Malthus and Ricardo
created a new way of thinking called capitalist. This new way of thinking thought that company
should be private and that the sole reason to invest money was to create profits. Thomas Malthus thought that the population
was increasing at a faster rate, than the actual food supply was. He also thought that people will always be
poor if once poor. David Ricardo also thought that once you were
poor you will always be poor. He also thought that if there was a high number
of workers and a high number of resources, the product will be cheap. However if there is a low number of workers
in a low no. our resources, it will be expensive. Karl Marx was born may 5th 1818 in Germany. Coming from him came the Philosophy of Marxism,
which was really just a more radical version of socialism. In his book the communist manifesto, he expressed
his thoughts in the problems that he saw in the capitalist system. In his book he discussed the problems with
permanent social classes and he also discussed how the poor will suffer, because they will
always be poor. He thought that human society always has been
and always will be derived of social classes. And, that these social classes will be permitted,
he thought that once poor you will always be poor. In the communist manifesto Karl Marx explained
his views and Social Classes. He noted that social classes are permanent
before the industrial revolution, he had workers on the bottom, the bourgeasie or the middle
class in the middle and then wealthy on top. Actually the industrial revolution, he thought
that the workers were going to be on the bottom the middle class in the middle and wealthy
on the top. However, he had a gap between the wealthy
and the rest. He thought that the wealthy were going to
grow even wealthier and that the poor were going to grow even poorer, with the distribution
of money with extremely wealthy on the right and extremely poor on the left. Before the industrial revolution Marx thought
that the wealthy, the middle class, and the poor were relatively close to one another
based on the distribution of wealth. However, after the Industrial Revolution,
he thought that the wealthy would grow extremely wealthy, the poor would grow extremely poor
and the middle class would lose some of their wealth as well. The poor worked in terrible conditions and
Marx thought that this would cause the poor which was the majority of the population to
overthrow the factories. How Marx saw the future? Marx thought that the capitalist system was
going to destroy itself. He thought that the factories were going to
end up competing against the small family owned businesses. And, a small family owned business can make
one dresser, in the same time a factory can make many different dressers of many different
designs. Marx thought that this would completely destroy
all family owned businesses; he thought that all of the artisans would disappear. Marx thought that the wealth was going to
be held in factories and manufacturers. He thought that because of this the people
would revolt. People would want their money their power
and their equality back. He thought that because of this everything
would be shared, everyone shared and everyone’s profits would share. This would cause complete equality, the government
would be held in the people. This new society would now become social class
free, Marx described this point as a state of communism. Marxist age of pure communism, Marx considered
this stage the last phase in turning the society into complete socialism. In this phase everything is owned by the people,
private property would cease to exist. All land would become owned by the people. All factory, mines, railroads and businesses
would also become owned by the people. All food and goods would become shared equally
among all. There were very few immediate reactions to
Marx’s the communist manifesto. However, by the turn of the century Marx’s
ideas of communism had spread all the way around the world, Marx’s ideas of communism
caused explosive results worldwide. His ideas affected many countries including
Russia’s Lenin, China’s Mao Zedong, in and Cuba’s Fidel Castro. For Marxist predictions right or wrong for
the most part they were wrong. Marx thought that economic forces determined
and predicted the outcome of society; turns out there are many factors including religion,
nationalism, ethnic loyalties and a desire for democratic reforms. Also mark thought that the gap between the
rich and poor would grow immensely. The gap actually did not grow because the
government had enforced many new reforms that would prevent this from happening. Although the ideas of these philosophers varied
greatly our society would not be what it is without them? So, that is the brief about the capitalism
and communism between Adam smith’s work and as well as Karl Marx shields. Then, how Lefebvre brings all this into the
space production? So, infact in the first aspect which we discussed
about the monumentality, because he talks about how certain periods in history especially
with dealt with the “monumentality” that took all the aspects of spatiality, that is
perceived the conceived and the lived especially the monument. Monumental space offered each member of a
society an image of that membership an image of his or her social visage. So in fact, here the monument itself is a
kind of identity portrays identity of the society. And, if you look at the kind of the roman
civilization, how this whole development of plazas, development of monumental style of
buildings and how it portrait the whole wealth of nation and it is how the society it got
an identity. So, in a similar note the capitalist society,
by contrast what it does is it no longer totalizes its elements, nor seeks to achieve such a
total integration through monuments. Here it balances it strives to distil its
essence into buildings, which is a kind of uniform in nature and which is a kind of competitive
environments. So, that is why the buildings displays monuments
and here the one of the important thing you have to notice is and successfully combine
the object of control by power with the object of commercial exchange. So, how the law of competition which we discussed
and the law of self-interest and because, that is where the commercial exchange. So, the where the Noble class has gone and
the merchant class came above. So, that is where the bigger transition have
happened And that has directly have an spatial impact. So, Lefebvre at some point he developed, second
ontological transformation of space. And, especially for him the long history is
one of the important aspect which he looked into understanding the production of the space. So, infact the end of 20th century has marked
an important beginning special the new industrial revolution and the world wars. So, he actually looked at various historical
approaches and how a new space started producing. And, that is why the history of the beginning
of a new type of space, that is more dominated by lived space and which he considers as still
being in its infancy. So, what he names is he names one the first
one is an absolute space. And, the second one is abstract or conflicted
space and, the third one he talks about the differential spaces. So, here absolute space, it was result of
a human spatial practice. Namely physical interaction with the natural
how the society started interacting with the nature? And, then how they develop their environment,
built environments for the survival processes? And, this is very less informed with the intellectual
intervention or rationalized planning processes. Whereas from he also talks about from the
when he is moving from the global level, he talks about the change of this absolute space
to the abstract space, through the analysis of the rise and fall of Greek and Roman societies. Where, the states city empires have how they
risen, how they are fallen, and how the democratic ideologies came into it and how it has impacted
on the spatial forms? And, that is where he talks about the how
the historical mediation between the medial feudal space and the capitalist walls located
in urban space. Because, this is a this is a huge transition
between the kind of feudal space and the commercial exchange, how it brought this capitalist into
the urban space the space of those urban systems, which established themselves during transition. So, this is where, when there is a kind of
interaction with these both top down and on the form formal process of the capitalist
societies and that is with a city became the centre of political power. And, the spatial development became more and
more administered and shaped by the rulers to enhance the functionality of it is urban
space. So, that is where the conceived space it goes
back to what in his first antonology of conceived space. The space of intellect, begin to emerge and
formed a new type, known as abstract space. So, from absolute here we talk about a kind
of conceived space or a kind of abstract space, names for reducing the spatial aspects into
functional and geometrical. So, how it break into land parcels, how you
divide into the whole, city into different sectors or the fragments? And, especially if you look at the World War
2, which has a major impact on mainly the whole world especially, if you take London
or Japan or any other places. So, how the urban planning was being often
reduced to the calculation and implementation of physical plans, that enable cities to accessible
by car, because of the same time the car was invented the water ways has a big impact. So, if you today if you go to London you see
how the water ways of then that time was now useful is a popular. So, there is a spaces of leisure and spaces
of labour has been produced. So, that is where it is preferred as a new
the conflicted space. Because, the knowledge economy are also started
up and that is where you know it is not only the gradual process sudden drastic changes,
because invention of car and the whole network has changed the whole ideology of a space. And, now we come to the Doha. So, if you look at just 50 half a century
or a century before Doha is a small fishing settlement. And, it was actually Almaden tribe and Alton
tribe. So, how they started settling there and they
had a kind of rivalry with the kind of al Khalifa then kind of thing. So, it was a very small fishing village. And, especially developed based on the climatic
and zoological conditions. And, if you look at the Doha pre oil section
before the oil was discovered or invented there so, in 20th century hardly about 12000
habitants and in 1930s, the population have dropped from 27000 to 16000. You know, why and that is where we go back
to the capitalist ideologies of somehow a new market also have an impact on the population
size is, because that is where because of invention of cultured pearls in Japan, because
being a seashore settlement there been investing in the traditional pearl diving methods, but
now when the Japan has invented the cultured pearls then this has also impact in the demographic
status. So, it is earlier called Albidaa, which was
8 distinct settlement which spread about 1.23 can see in this map 1.23 square meter, and
you can see all the traditional houses of the courtyard buildings and Albidaa today’s
name is referred as Doha. And, in 1947 time to 1971 and this is where
in the previous place we talk about the absolute space, where the vernacular processes are
involved in it. And, how people have dual themselves on how
people have started developing the built environment? So, here when the oil has started pumping
and; obviously, the foreign migrants especially people from South Asia people from western
countries and Thailand and many people they started investing their businesses, and that
is where it grew from 14000 to 83000 inhabitants almost compressing 67 percent of foreign migrants. And that is where I think as we just discuss
before in the Lefebvre work, how an abstract space they talk about, how a power talks about
administration of the spatial production? So, this is where they started about ministry
of municipal affairs and agriculture the planning, with it is town planning section in 1974 that
is very recent. And, Ministry of Public Works Department and
the similar time I mean the same time around the British Consultant Llewelyn Davis was
appointed to design the first master plan of Doha for 1990. So, what he does was he developed a kind of
this whole master plan was developed on a ring concept, which was the functional distribution
of land uses, and each function has been associated with particular ring, and ring road system,
what you can see is a kind of ring road systems. And, with this development process and implemention
of new master plans, the old Qatari settlement they started moving out and they started they
were replaced. And to the new suburban drive, because if
you look at it this is where the Dukhan, where the oil was found and; obviously, the whole
network is directed towards this the economic network. And, here when this network is developing
and; obviously, there was an airport here which is close to the royal family. So, till 1970s the land subdivision into 2
parcels has been a mostly from the MMAA as well as a PWD, but now it is gradually coming
to the ministry of labour and social welfare as well as minister of public works. And, this is where they are looking at the
kind because the people of floating, people are coming from various places businesses
are expanding and the local people are migrating to the suburbs and huge a drastic expansion
has started taking place. And, this is the time and where American farming
consultants William l Pereira associates commission to develop the Northern District of Doha. This is where we call a diplomatic quarter
and this corniche has been developed. And, also established the Amiri Diwan which
is end of the Qatari, the old Qatari village and it established the kind of the modernistic
and also the independent Doha, the symbolically it was representing the independent Doha. And, and gradually the infrastructure has
started connecting to the new suburbs have started developing in Al Rayyan, khalifa. So, and then the Qatar university in the new
master plan they started the Qatar University. So, they have invested on the education system
of it and the diplomatic quarter. So, this is where we look at the contemporary
Doha. So, from where from a fishing man settlement
and how it expand it to the whole so, you see the Qatar University, and the whole stretch
of new development and the Education city, and you see the whole processes have been
expanding and this itself has become a big economic harm. So, this is where we moved from the abstract
space to a kind of conflicted space, because all of a sudden many things were happening
and many developments to happening and the knowledge economy is building. So, now, the fear is also the planning dimension
is yes we have an oil reserves maybe it can last for 100 to 150 years, but what next? How, we can rely on alternative resources? How we can invest in education? How tourism can be part of it right and that
is where about 5 lakhs inhabitants in 1990s it became to 1.5 million in 2011. So, that is and this is the phase where the
Qatar looked at the liberalization strategies and there and how they have impacted on the
urban structures? So, and in fact they also looked in the kind
of investing on the sport. And, how it can bring the businesses? How it can bring various sectors alternative
mechanism. And, this is the phase where the multi-cultural
activities, multicultural migrants happening little conflicts happening between different
spaces different communities, and this is where the establishment of Qatar a cultural
village this is with the culture is also given priority in the planning processes. So, what we are looking at what we understand
is. So, from and very vernaculars elements of
absolute, then we came to the kind of conceived version of abstract space. And, now how the knowledge economy zone, how
the unexpected challenges are also resulting into a kind of conflict the conflicted spaces
and today what you see is Doha. So Doha with all its tall towers and it is
almost like any other European city. So, Flory and Widmen as we have and Ashraf
Salma, who have worked on this work in fact, they actually related the Lefebvre’s work
on how we categorize the spaces and how, how it is relevant in the study of contemporary
Doha. And, how it is a wall from fisher village,
fisherman village to the today’s global market so in fact, in see in 1800s, he talks
about the absolute space the very first settlement and in 1936, when the oil have started it
gone to the it has conceived and the abstract space evolved. And, when they became the independent state
independence from 1971 towards was under liberalization process have started, and that is there a
huge drastic changes have occurred both demographically, spatially and physically, economically and
that has a resultant the conflicted space. So, now, how they are expecting the future,
what are the threats they are posing and if the business if the oil industry falls down
what are the impacts? So, that is where a kind of economic diversification
is happening and this is where and at the same time they also realize that now that
is coming in the hands of foreign migrants. So, how they looking at the strategic Qatarisation
plan in 2000 and they also talked about, how we can also integrate because we have to work
with we cannot isolate from the migrants because we have to work with them. And, how we can integrate? So, that is why the Qatar national vision
2030 is planned and which has been implemented in the stage by stage processes of the first
5 years strategy of Qatar national development strategy. So, what we understand here is before understanding
transformation of Doha just suggest a phase wise it is very important to relate with the
Lefebvre’s theory, and how is absolute abstract and a conflicted a differentials phase very
relevant in the study of Doha. And, how space is produced and what are the
various factors associated to it. Thank you very much.

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