Friends, today we are going to discuss another
interesting topic of Sociology and that the education. Since, we already have spent more
time on religion, so I will cut short discuss of education and I will try to summarize everything
in 2 lectures only. In the first lecture I will talk about definition
of education, what is education? As usual whenever we begin discussing any topic, we
start with what is that we are talking about. Then means of education under means of education
several things can be discussed I will briefly touch up on government and private schools.
Type of education what kind of education you want to give to your students where should
you emperies how much of what? And whether they should be matched or they
should be independent institution and universities, for education of different types. Liberal
arts, humanities, philosophy, linguistics, social sciences, sociology, economics, psychology
and sciences, physics, chemistry, maths, biological sciences; and technical subjects engineering
or professional subjects engineering technical may be somebody can also include separately
medical agricultural and so on, where should we emphasize, depends on society.
After all in sociology we are trying to learn, there the connection what we are discussing
and larger society. So, the connection between education and society and the aim I would
just try to write few issues social issues in development of education; so this is what
I intend to do in first lecture. And in the second lecture I will focus on
functions of education or rule of education why education. And certain critical perspectives
which will include a brief discussion of nurses theory of education brief because by now you
can understand what is nurses Fourier, what is nurses perspectives, nurses approach. Like
that we have seen in case of family mass has it is own way of thinking that family has
a emerge because of emergence of private property or class contradiction.
On a state mass have certain perspectives that state always represent the interest on
dominant class. So, in capitalist society state the monopole of power always represent
the interest of capitalist class of bourgeoisie. And in socialist society when means of production
have been collective wise, then environment class is no interest, here only generalize
interest of whole society. So, at that time there will be no perfect equality, humanism,
classlessness and the fullest growth of human potential, peace harmony that time all kind
of problems will be solved. So, in a same perspectives mass will look
at the education that education is the part of ideology of the dominant class. And then
if time permit is I can take up few issues that our country is facing a democratization
of an education and the issue of quality. Democratization or education becoming mass
we are in the process of making the education democratic. Earlier education was confined
only to a few class ages or to a few families caste and sub castes.
Today education have become democratic and we say that everyone have the right to education.
We have also passed right to education does not mean everyone irrespective of age, gender,
level of education, background everybody have the right to higher education. Wherever we
defined rights we defined another specific sense rights for whom? For what kind of education?
Up to what age? It is up to the age of 14 or it is up to the age of 35 or anybody we
know that the people have the right to the education.
When things like right to education will come we will be defined certain way. And only those
entitle to protection of rights under the definition of right has given by the right
to education or right to information or right to human rights we will entitle to certain
things. Now, beginning with definition and ends of education, to make the things bit
interesting I will give you the definition from 2 or 3 sources. First using this verse definition education
means bringing out. According to gisbird and many other writers of Introductive Tax Book
of Sociology human beings
need that their babies are socialize or given certain kind of education or training or information
for a long period of time. Human children on their parents on the previous generation
parents or the other members of previous generation for a longer time birds, snakes, dogs, ants,
mammals, buffalos, oxes, cows. They become independent very soon some become
in few minutes, some in a few weeks, some in a few months, but as we saw in right in
the beginning of course, discussing about socialization. That to make the human being
a human being you require a long period of socialization. Ants are not socialized in
the same sense in which human children are socialized, they do not require. It is a initiative
there behavior there whole action is biologically programmed in the genes, in the biological
make up intrusive. They act according to the intrusive birds,
animal, insects they act according to intrusive. And therefore, immediately after their birth
they become more independent which is not in the case of human beings. Now, at the age
of 20 around you are still not independent. You think that to live an independent life
you must graduate from the IIT Kanpur, and some of you may think that you will still
not become independent. The quality of the life you want to live for
that education in at IIT, Kanpur is not adequate is in sufficient and you must go for M.S.,
PhD, M. Tech, or higher education more professional education, more prudential’s because in
the case of human and this is to not only for the human beings of today. This was always
true in primitive age also when there was little to be learn, even then for becoming
a mature full grown perfect individual infants and children have to learn from previous generation,
from their parents, family member members for a long period of time.
Quite often this learning was through demonstration or by participation how do you learn language?
You learn language by speaking, this is scholars of language say is not that first learn the
language then speak. You speak the language then learn simultaneously, so that can go
on simultaneously, but for some time for certain things for formal education mathematics, physics
first you have to learn and then apply it. It is not like language even in language,
you have to learn grammar, otherwise there was no need for grammar schools.
The fact that society needed the grammar school, so that something like language also which
is more natural to us. We have to learn the formal rules to become the member of civilized
society. For gis bird education means bringing up the previous generation and any older generation
has to bring up the new generation. And in bringing up the new generation what all in
formation what all is to be thought or is to be imparted for physical development, for
mental development, for spiritual development, for moral development, for various types of
development to make a human being perfect, to make the human being perfect
You require the development at various labor who will teach this. The previous generation
will teach this, the methods of teaching may be different this, but somebody should teach
how to take care of your body. So, education includes even basic thing like toilet training,
even feeding many children resist when you feed them and parents are briefly concern
about how to feed their children. So, from no parents of cows and buffalos have ever
bothered their children are not eating, but this is the common problem of middle class
in our society today. Even feeding comes the problem, you have to
teach our children how to eat, how to drink, how to drink water, what kind of water, what
precaution to be taken while drinking water, how should be water protected. From rules
of maintain sound health and sound health is very important unfortunately in modern
education, we do not pay adequate attention to sound health. Sound health is very important
in the convocation our extreme chief guest in his lecture impasse, how important it is
to maintain sound body. For doing something good, morally good, spiritually
good, scientifically good, for the contribution of the society. So, bringing up physical,
mental, you will see in all the definition that it stays may be in 1 thing or the other
thing, but all this things are covered. Physical training, mental training, contractive, moral,
spiritual, attitude formation, you must have healthy attitude, you must be positive person.
For a good quality of life to live an independent and effective life to become a perfect man,
perfect women. You need some training, some information,
some guidance, some counseling all that is the part of education. So, for gillbird the
term education the dictionary meaning could be to bring up, education means bringing up.
So, this bringing up arises, so many issues. When we bring up the new generation what kind
of training we pro, what do we teach? Why do we teach? What are the implication of that
teaching for over all development of society? Is it good or bad?
What we teach our younger’s? Are we taking them in the right direction? Who will decide
what is direction value? Who will decide what are the values? Then how should younger generation
be trained? I will also give you definition by mild working very similar definition, this
bringing up covers that everything. A mind working define education this is from a book
of sociology written by boto Moreno. Earlier many students who wanted to know more
of sociology either for higher education in sociology or civil services use to read this
boto moreno book. Now it is a very old now we say that Haralambos book is much better
than all these book Haralambos and heald. Here in boto moreno book it is start chapter
in education starts with a definition given by heylay lukin. And it says the action exercise
by older generation again the idea bringing up the action the education is the action
exercise by the older generation upon those who are not yet ready for social life.
So, the process of education going on NIIT in our class room, this means action exercise
by the older generation and I belong to older generation. I am involved in that action this
is what education. Is that the member or a group of people belonging to older generation
act up on those, up on whom who are not yet ready for the social life. Those who are already
ready for the social life do not require for education. It is object is what is the goal
of education aims of education or goals of education. It is object is to awaken and develop
in the child those physical intellectual and moral states which are required of him both
by his society as a whole and by the milieu for which he is especially destined. What
are the components of the definition? First of all the education is an action Education
is an action by older generation on note it ready to take up social life on those not
ready for social life, aimed at physical intellectual and moralist states. Physical state to make
you healthy, full grown, disease free, powerful having muscular, mental strength. Intellectual
whatever we require at the given stage of development or specific society for a intellectual
development. Interestingly why we are discussing these
things in the sociological classes because everything is sources, what is intellectual?
It is sources. What is physical sources? Why we are preparing younger generation are those
not yet ready for social life? There is the name physical, but what is the kind of physical
preparedness or what is the goal of physical trending that depends on society. And what
physical intellectual moral states we want to build in the new generation that also depends
on our understanding the milieu present milieu as well as especially desk time future. So,
this our sociology minder scheme gismbird used a very simple phrase bringing up in case
of human being older generation have the responsibility of bringing up the member of younger generation.
He say that mid wife brings forth, a mid wife helps you to take birth. A nurse brings up
and teacher education, so it is process of bringing up the new generation.
And Imelda theme our founding father of sociology profound thinker a humanist socialist thinker
also, defined that the education is a action a form of action by older generation directed
towards achievement of certain qualities among those who are not yet ready for the social
life, so younger generation, children. What is child definition of child will also vary
from society to society, but for all that flexible period from 0 to 9 or 0 to 14 or
0 to 20 or 0 to 30 during this human children need to get some information trending, counseling,
advise, guidance. For living an independent life substituent
for themselves and also for meaningfully contribute to larger society. All kinds of training physical
training, we have produce certain physical state, we have to produce certain intellectually
state, we have to produce certain moral state. If the older generation goes wrong anywhere,
in any sense physical, moral, intellectual then the education is finished. And then the
next generation will not be effective and this has to be done keeping in mind not only
the present condition, but also the middle. Future contacts for which contact are we preparing
the members of younger generation. Let me also read from Hinduswaraj Gandhi
in the chapter education Gandhi codes Gandhi
was the great scholar, Gandhi is not like news paper editors, not expressing his own
ideas everywhere without supporting them fact figures and reference document. Gandhi write
like a great scholar and writing this small book hinduswaraj, in the chapter on education
Gandhi in some places commenting on education several pages devoted to education.
I am reading only 1 paragraph where, he is quoting the definition given by professor
hustler and the definition says this hinduswaraj is there on net and you need not write the
definition. You just listen try to understand what he wants to says that man I think had
liberal education. So, Gandhi is in the favor of liberal education and what is his idea
of liberal education? That man I think had liberal education who has been so trained
in youth, again youth who has been so trained in youth that his body is ready servant of
his will. Here he also give the definition of what is
physical development? physical development for Gandhi does not mean that you must have
the ideal weight of 65 kg and your blood pressure should be this and sugar level should be this
your pathological your lipid profile shows this. Gandhi had very simple and useable concept
of physical health that is that the body is the ready servant of his will if your body
is capable of helping you. In what you will, you will not others suppose you will your
will is that you become a good hockey player. Then your body must help you to become a good
hockey player if you will that you should get up at 5 O’clock, go for morning walk,
bath, read something do some bajan or any spiritual activities, take breakfast fast
and come to class by 8 O’clock. Then your body should be trained, so it should not happen
that you desire something and will that I should get up at 5 O’clock, but your body
is not permitting to get up at 5 O’clock body says that I will not cooperating with
you. You will like many others live a discipline
life. You go for a walk, but your body do not permit you to go for walk. You want to
take break fast at 07:30 and your body does not follow. So, irrespective of body of weight
is, what is your lipid profile is, what is your height is, how charming you look and
you have failed in acquiring education. Very simple definition, somewhere behind this definition
he selectively quoting, behind this definition Gandhi is carried away by according to which
your soul is like sarathi of a charioteer. And you sense organs are like charioteer,
soul is charioteer and your body your cell organs are organs of action and persecution
like various part of the chariot. And for Gandhiji when charioteer controls the chariot
well then the person live in ram raj. That is the ideal state and if the charioteer is
controlled by the chariot then it is Ravana raj. Now after reading this definition you
must ask yourself that your healthy or not. I do not know how many children’s present
in this class are healthy, healthy not for other say healthy for their own say that you
will something. You want to do something is your body such that you are able to do what
you want to do not others want you to do, but you want to do something. If your body
does not supports you in fulfilling your wishes your will then it means your body requires
education and you must educate your body. That man I think had liberal education who
had, so trained in youth that his body is ready servant of his will and does with ease
and pleasure does all the work that the as the mechanist is capable of with pleasure.
Whatever the body dose does with pleasure, whose intellect is clear cooled logic engine
with all it is part of body strength in smooth order. Whose intellect I am repeating whose
intellectual is clear cold when it comes to intellectual pursuit is it should be cold
intellectual should be cool clear sharp analytical without get biased by sentiments prejudices
emotions. Clear cold logic engine your mind should work
like a logic engine, objective uninfluenced by emotions a spiritual and other conditions.
With all it is part of equal extant and in smooth working order whose mind is stored
with knowledge of fundamental truths of nature. Your mind should be full of knowledge of the
fundamental truths of nature you must understand not only not only your social milieu or the
socially goals applies, but also truth of nature.
Whose persons you should also person it is not the persons are human you must say persons.
So, you must have a good sound body clear mind knowledge of fundamentals truths and
whose persons are trained to come to heel by a vigorous will the servant of the tender
conscience. Conscience is equal important who has learns to hate all wildness and to
respect others as himself. This is also part of education that you must be able than only
a good human order can establish, when we take a humanism equality human order.
It means we have developed capacity to treat other human beings as we treat ourselves.
If this will not happen than no political transformation, no economic transformation
not even collectivity of mean suppose you have. You have seen that as predicted by karlmarx
a collectivization means production solve all problems. It has not solve problem in
USSR it also not solve problem in china, Yugoslavia in bad condition east eastern European communism
has gone. So, that means, mere collective wise mere
economic transformation is not enough you must have something else. And that something
else on with human embrace is
landing to head all wildness and respect others as himself. Such a 1 and no other eye conceived
has had a liberal education for his in harmony with nature when you have this than you are
with harmony in nature. In also circumstances you will be harmony with nature he will made
the best of her at she will of him this is education.
And government of India developed in education policy in 1986 I thought let me also read
it if you lines from there. In 1986 a policy one of the early paragraphs is this in our
national perception an education is essentially for all. In government of India is developing
an approach paper to education. So, they will think of education in certain manner and they
think that the governor responsibility is to provide education for all.
So, the opening of new education policy is that in our national perception education
is essentially for all it has not been for all for human history education not been for
all. In Europe education was confined to novels and aristocrats in India in heyday of caste
system education was confine to certain caste it was not for all. Now in democratic India
of today they will right to 1985 education is essentially for all.
We have to prepare all this is fundamental to our all round development material and
spiritual again both things are covered. The propose of education is to have an all round
development material and spiritual. Education has a culture rating role it in parts culture
it makes the new generation part of the national culture, countries culture, civilizations.
It defines activities to what we should become sensitive or we should not be, so sensitive.
It defines sensitivities and perception that contribute to national cohesion.
So, in this line the define the ends of education national cohesion integration scientific temper
and independence of mind and spirit. Thus furthering the goal of socialism these are
the goals of Indian government socialism secularism and democracy and shrine in our constitution.
That means, the education in India has to be different from what education is in Bangladesh
or Saudi Arabia or in Kenya, South Africa, Bolivia. Because education in India must serve
the propose for other goals for which constitution of India has been created.
So, there is in milieu specially distained what are result what are goals of social construction
in India It has to be in some country education may emphasize religious education in a theocratic
society in or Islamic society. Type of education to be emphasize may be religious education,
but in case of India it has to be guide education which helps in material and spiritual development
and achieving the values of socialism secularism because we are the religiously plural society.
And we been in completely 6 societies per head there were no need for secularism. And
nobody will talk the secularism you live her Buddhist society perhaps nobody talk to secularism.
So, there is a contact milieu that we are the religiously plural society and our growth
and our economic development our power depends on becoming strong nationally integrated and
circular society. So, these thing have to be a goal of education democracy. In some
education is the unique investment in the present and the future. So, government of
India perspective education is the matter of investment, needs investment. Government of India must invest education
and cardinal placement is the key to the national policy an education I think these definition
are enough to understand what education is? Now how to impart education the British thought
that education can be imparted by opening government’s schools in different part of
the country. For a some this was the some new experiment and this production results.
Although, from critical prospective Gandhiji and several others said that the education
experiment all the means the by the British government were hostile to the interest Indian
masses. And subsequence there are long correspond betweens some British scholar and Mahatma
Gandhi and what says British education done in India. Mahatma Gandhi was of the view which
he express in England in one of his lectures that India has it own indigenous system of
education which was for all which prepared Indians youth.
For the Indian miliue which provide optimum education to children belong to all section
of society priest, farmers, smith, agriculturist, farmers
agriculturist or using the world terminology
Brahmin chatruvars shoduras. Brahmins for religious education activities chaatrias for
defense, military, democracy for a agriculture. Agriculture was the back bone of Indian economy
and separate class of people calls mukhias to care of agriculture.
And sutras because we had also shed in mechanics engineers unfortunately, we are using this
terms today in several, but actually in the heyday of caste system, where an inter dependent.
It kind of organic solidarity on the bases of which Indian civilization last state for
1000 of years on the bases of contradiction as an hollowness emptiness no society can
survive for such a long period of time. They must have something good also in Indian
society which provided the religious to society in wake of tremendous ecology political changes.
And that where the inter dependence organic solidarity, you require moral and spiritual
and religion development, Brahmins will take care of that. You require defense concuss
peace law order a certain amount of democracy chattrias separate class of people was sign
activity of this type. You need agriculture, so wise people belong to wise community.
They were response for a agriculture and there was also independent class of sutras which
were engineers techniques in drivers fields. Black smith potters goldsmith all engineering
was done by sutras so; obviously, those day meaning of sutras would not be in demanding
kind of the thing, no village could afford to insult a sutra whose activity or blacksmith
was so important for the survival of civilization. For agriculture for house construction for
war for everything that was not different kind of system and that system till the belonging
to different communities we are given different kind of trading. It was really speaking in
more plural from Gandhi prospective it was really more in a real sense a plural kind
of society. Today everybody wants to become a sutra, nobody want to becomes a priest,
nobody want to becomes an agriculturist, no Brahmins, no visor where few people are going
to join defense forces. So, now, chattier all of us want to become
sutra they ones to become engineers and technician. It is different kind of order this kind of
education is not sustain live in which the whole society wants becomes to sutra, because
sutra alone cannot sustain this world. This world has to sustained by sutras with the
help of some people who are willing to scarifies or their life, for religious, moral, spiritual
pursues, for defense and also for other kinds of economic activities which constitute the
infra structure scrod of economic, so government has to decide.
There was a controversy and with encouragement from Jaya Prakash Narayan the Gandhi and dharm
pal produce this large volume the title of the book is Beautiful Tree in which by presenting
reports of British administrators, but training to the period of early 19 century, 18 something
18 something. He is able to show the dear in India before the British use the government
school. Education in India was quite optimal and such a needs of an Indian society.
They also showed how with the opening of governments schools at least for some decades during the
British period in the 20 century. Legal of literacy when down in place of increasing,
why this is happened? Because earlier school was integrated with the largest society, it
was an integral part of society. And if you call school that school was associated with
musk gurudwara, temple and both religious and secular education was given. We also had
super exteriorities takshila now it is Pakistan, nalanda which is in Bihar.
So, we have large university also, but mostly at the village level. Each village had it
is school because each village had temple or musk or a guruduwara and associated with
those. This is in the period during with British administrator came to India and role their
reports. British government destroyed this means integral school being integral part
of society, the system was destroyed by the British government.
And see that they started opening their own school attending those school was expensive
and this is from that stage onwards inequality education started. That education became 1
dimensional what is given in school that became goal of education. And they stated unequal
participation of different caste, communities and classes are born who well in education
system. This is main thesis of dharam pal’s book of with the title beautiful tree.
In Gandhiji time this was only hypnosis kind of and dharam pal which support from jayaprakash
naryan and other Gandhi. It is started collecting data made this reality we also had an issue;
we have to answer what kind of education do we need to provide. Liberal arts in knowledge
when it come to knowledge, physical education is required everyone, nobody will say that
physical education should only given to arts side student.
And engineers do not require physical education nobodies says that the doctor not require
physical education and only engineers requires value education, everybody requires physical
education. So, physical, morel, spiritual that education is for all, but when it is
come to intellectual part or curative part or technical part, what education some youths
need to trained in liberal arts in humanities in languages.
Some should take the studies of Sanskrit, Italy, Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, Bengali, if nobody
studies Bengali nobody studies Tamil nobody studies Hindi than much of the cultural endowment,
much of the recourses, cultural recourses, history resources that our society has will
not be part on the relaxentration. This all will be lost, thousands of years of development
in arts, in history, in literature, in music will be lost. So, the required liberal art
they required music of course, you required science from the prospective of the future
destiny or future mellew. They requires science and we also require
technical, but they has to be balance society most to be able to identify what are requirement.
And accordingly, this education should be provided whether in government school and
government resources are known panel if government does not have enough money to inverse education.
Then privates schools private school must be encourage and some point initially government
depends more on government money on government schools.
There have been lots of studies of comparison government and private schools are also. And
finally, government has adopted policy that education will be imparted through public
private partnership. There will be governments schools, there will be private school, there
will be added schools, school by managements, but with add of government, state government,
central government. And so we are all we cannot decide in abstraction
that for all society, and for all types, all times to comes. This should be the mean this
should be that type of education depends on the social contest. Then they are some issues
in development of education, the most of important issue today is the issue of what education
policy said education for all. Are we giving education to all? If we broadly
divide education into 3 parts, primary means up to 8th, secondary up to 12th, higher, graduation,
post graduation, primary, secondary, tertiary. You can call it tertiary or higher education,
then what are the rates of enrolment at this levels? What are the roles of enrolment according
to age? How many children are going to primary school? How many to secondary school? How
many to university? There are very high dropout rate at various
levels, the current situation is that at the level of primary, we have always reach the
enrolment rate of more than 100 percent. Almost all children are going to school, but this
is not a same at the secondary level. There is a very high dropout more than 30 percent
children dropout after primary, then more the 50 percent dropout after secondary. They
are very few 10 to 20 percent who do graduation. So, this situation change and if this situation
is not changing at the fast rate, how to make composition of enroll is more inclusive. An education planner has to think about this,
if it is 100 percent like primary school 100 percent, now more than 100 percent more than
100 percent because of some technical reason, if defining gross enrolment rate. So, it is
assume that at the primary level today in India in everybody is going to school, but
at the higher level if there is very high dropout and everybody is not going to school.
Then should enrolment in secondary and higher education nor way inclusive, inclusive means
should it not include proportionately youths from all category urban, rural, males, females,
general category, other backward caste or classes schedule caste and schedule tribes.
And reasons when education expired in India, like any other development activity it was
more focus on Calcutta, Madras, Bombay mostly port cities which are so vital to British
economy education also develop there. So, people belong into certain regions of
the country got more education, other regions or the hinterland in backward. Now time as
come for us to think of inclusive education, in which as a at least till the stage we are
able to reach 100 percent enrolment at all the levels. The enroll is old in schools,
must represent all section of society, had the moment this is not I was reading your
name and out of 100 student. There would only 2 Muslims that does not justify
that something is done specifically to promote higher education to among Muslim. In this
class of 100 students I am not sure may be 5 or 6 are girls that it is not mean the government
of India should do something. Specifically, to promote education to a girls that has to
be done at the school level, at the community level by using media, by using law, by changing
people attitude, by making interventions in culture. If we have a patriarchal, patrilineal,
patri fcaol kind of culture results would be this.
So, along with raising and enrolment of girls and schools it is governments responsibility
also to adept the patriarchal culture of the society directly. If you see how society and
education are inter collected, to promote education in a inclusive flavor. You have
to destroy the patriarchal aristocratic and caste and communist tendency in society in
absence of that you will not able to do.