Managing Learning Environments PowerPoint


Hello there and welcome back to another
slideshow to supplement your chapter for “Managing Learning Environments”. So. as you
know. my name is Holly Stevenson and I will be guiding you through this
PowerPoint Presentation today. My narration is by no means meant to be the
sole focus of your studying and your learning
with regard to this chapter, and it is only meant to supplement both our
lecture discussion and your textbook reading, as well as your own independent
study. So, as you know by now, I am NOT from here,
hence the accent. But, I thought it might be worthwhile, given that later on we’re
going to be talking about cultural awareness with regard to your students,
so, I thought it might be nice to know a little bit more about where I come from.
So, I am from Dundee which is a city about the same size as Cedar Rapids on
the east coast of Scotland. You can see it here pinpointed on the map. For those
of you who are big golfing fans, I am just about a 15-minute drive from Saint Andrews where they have The Old Course golf course. So, that’s a little bit
about me. I came over to Iowa City about four years ago now to embark on my PhD. So, as you will notice, this individual
exercise is something that we undertook in class on Thursday. I wanted to remind
you of the exercise which we did purely so that you can have some time to
reflect on what we learned by undertaking that exercise and I’d like
you to think about why it was a valuable endeavour and things that you learned and
also what it taught you, not only about different students and how they might
behave in problematic ways in the classroom, but also what it taught us
about being a teacher and how important it is how teachers
respond to students and value students. So, here is a slide about custodial
teaching which is something which you should already be fairly familiar with.
So, I created a little diagram here to try to illustrate the hierarchy which is
present when custodial teaching is at play. So, it is important for your
purposes that you’re able to define what custodial teaching is and what it is
comprised of, the methods which it uses and also to be able to provide examples
of instances where a teacher is custodial, when it might be the most
appropriate teaching style to be using and when it might not be. And then, in contrast to custodial
teaching we have a humanistic teaching approach. So, again, you can see here in
my diagram which I’ve drawn to illustrate a much more even playing
field when it comes to who is responsible and who takes control in the
classroom when humanistic teaching is being adopted. So, again, it’s important
for you to understand what humanistic teaching is, be able to define it, be able
to compare it to custodial teaching, when it might be an appropriate method to be
using, when it might not be and examples of it at play. So, we spent a little bit of time in
class talking about what the aim of classroom management might be. So, we had
our four separate aims which we discussed of classroom management
and the textbook goes into a significant amount of depth as to what each of them
are. Before we get to the four aims of
classroom management, I wanted to include this slide so that you could refresh
your memories and re-familiarize yourselves with classroom cooperation
and its importance as well as what it means to say that classrooms are
multi-dimensional. On the next slide you will see that I’ve included a video from
the very first Harry Potter movie and I think it’s very relevant and applicable
in our discussion of the first aim of classroom management which is access to
learning. So, please do watch the video and write down your thoughts about why I
decided to include this video in terms of our discussion of access to learning. There will be no foolish wand-waving or silly
incantations in this class. As such I don’t expect many of you to appreciate
the subtle science and exact art that is potion making, however for those select
few who possess the predisposition, I can teach you how to bewitch the mind
and ensnare the senses. I can tell you how to bottle fame, grew glory and
even put a stopper in death. Then again, maybe some of you have come to Hogwarts
in possession of abilities so formidable which you feel confident enough to not pay attention. Mr. Potter, our new celebrity. Tell me, what would I get if I added
powdered root of asphodel to an infusion of wormwood?
I don’t know. You don’t know? Well, let’s try again. where Where, Mr. Potter would you look at if I asked
you to find me a Peasle? I don’t know Sir. What is the difference between
monkshood and wolfbane? I don’t know Sir. Clearly, fame isn’t everything is it Mr.Potter?
Clearly, Hermione knows. Seems pity not to ask her. Silence. So here I have taken the chart which is
in your textbook and and I’ve applied it here just to illustrate again how much
time children are mandated to be in school by the state versus how much time
students are in the classroom learning and actually engaged in the task at hand.
So, again, think about, this think about why this is important and think about, as
a teacher, how we might go about trying to remedy the gap which this graph makes
apparent. We spoke at length in our lecture about
how crucial relationships are when it comes to the classroom environment which
you cultivate and the learning which you facilitate. On the next slide I have a
video which i think is very effective at demonstrating what it means when we say
that the final aim of classroom management is management for self
management and how important it is to foster self management within your
pupils so as to facilitate the most effective learning possible for them. Let’s talk about self-management, a set
of skills that are critical to kids’ success in school and beyond.
Self-management has several names and many concepts associated with it. We’re
also going to talk about it in terms of marshmallows, stop signs
squeezy balls and teaching. Let’s start with the marshmallows. In the late 1960s,
a Stanford professor named Walter Mischel wanted to gauge young children’s
ability to delay gratification so he conducted a groundbreaking
self-management experiment. He and his researchers took preschool kids and sat
them in a room in front of a marshmallow or other treat. The researcher would say
“I’m going to leave for 15 minutes. If you would like to eat the marshmallow, then
eat it, if you can wait until I come back, I’ll give you a second one and you can
eat them both”. That’s it. That was the whole experiment. Mischel found that, despite their best
efforts, two-thirds of the kids ate the marshmallow before the researcher came
back. In the years since then the experiment has been copied many times
with kids from different communities, ethnicities and backgrounds in a range
of countries all over the world. Typically, two-thirds of the kids eat the
marshmallow. Here’s where the results of Mischel’s experiment get really
interesting. After running the experiment a bunch of times in California, his team
tracked down all the marshmallow test kits they could find 10 years later and
20 years and 30 and 40 and they found some startling results. The kids who were
able to wait for the second treat scored better on the SATs
once he controlled for IQ, were rated as more academically and socially competent
by their parents and had a greater ability to plan, handle stress and
concentrate without becoming distracted. Even decades later, there’s been a bunch
of research that builds on or extends these findings. One larger, more
comprehensive study, followed a thousand children born in the early 70s in
Dunedin New Zealand focusing on self management. Researchers interviewed the
children as they grew from four to eleven. They also gave questionnaires to
parents, teachers and peers. Then, they tracked down the original kids when they
were in their 30s. They found that the children’s ratings on self management
between the ages of 4 and 11 correlated with whether or not they were high
school or college graduates, addicted to alcohol or drugs, economically stable or
living paycheck-to-paycheck, involved in criminal activity. All these results lead
to one big question: What does this mean for the kids who ate the first
marshmallow? For that matter, what does it mean for the kids who don’t have self-
management between the ages of four and eleven? Does this mean if the child
hasn’t developed the right self-management skills early her whole
life path is much worse? Here’s what Walter Mischel says about
this exact issue. “We’re talking about correlations that are significant, we’re
not talking about a destiny for an individual. So, I want to be very clear
that branding would be completely missing the point, particularly since the
most exciting findings about the marshmallow experiments are the ease
with which it is possible to change an individual’s ability to delay
gratification and there are very straightforward ways to do it that
connect with how the brain works. The interpretation to be taken from the
findings is that this is an enormously important skill. It has predictive
qualities, it has protective effects, but it is teachable, it is changeable”. In fact,
Mischel showed that self management could be taught in an experiment similar
to the marshmallow test. In this version, researchers gave the kids helpful ideas
before the test. They said “imagine the marshmallow is actually a flat picture
or a cloud or there is a bug crawling on it”. Suddenly, the kids can wait far longer.
So, there are strategies and techniques you can give kids to help them nurture
and grow their self management muscles, many of which can help students in
longer-lasting, more profound ways. These strategies extend beyond envisioning a
situation differently. They involve teaching kids to avoid certain
situations, modify their surroundings to reduce distractions, manage their
emotions constructively, shift their attention, organize to complete tasks and
plan how to overcome obstacles that may arise. Still, despite growing research on
the topic, we’re in the early days of learning the best ways to help students
build self-management skills. The techniques that work or even just what
to focus on can vary from student to student in a single class. But, one thing
we do know is that teachers in the classroom
and parents at home tend to notice self-management issues the most when
something goes wrong. A student who loses track of his assignments and comes to
class unprepared, a student who constantly interrupts peers and teachers,
a student who fidgets constantly and can’t focus in the classroom. This could
be any kid at any age and any ability level. What adults normally do is see
this behavior and tell the student to stop stop messing around you have to do
your homework, stop fidgeting, or like in Mischel’s experiment, “don’t
eat the marshmallow”.Now, when you do that, you’re basically telling the child “you
have to stop and you have to figure out how to do it”. You’ve just put it all on
the child and the problem is maybe the child doesn’t know how. For whatever
reason, they never learned this particular self-management skill. Saying
“stop” doesn’t fix that. So what if rather than saying “stop”, you say “instead of what
you’re doing now which isn’t working too well, why don’t you do this?”. For that kid
who is fidgeting all the time, what if you give him a squeezy ball and say
“squeeze this ball as much as you want because you need to do something with
your hands and that will make it easier for you to pay attention in class.”
Instead of just saying “stop” or “no” you’re saying “here’s a strategy to try”. One of
the findings of the original marshmallow test is that it’s primarily a test of
whether a child has learned particular self-management strategies. Kiids who
stare at the marshmallow and simply try their hardest not to eat it, well, they
pretty much always eat it. The kids who have a strategy to shift their attention
by singing a song, walking around, putting their forehead on the table, covering their
eyes or any number of things are best able to wait for the second marshmallow.
As we now know, shifting attention is one of a broad range of self-management
strategies. what works and what to focus on can vary from child to child, but the
self-management strategies as a whole are teachable and, like muscles, they can
be strengthened in all students. So, this brings us to routines and
procedures versus rules and, again, I have inserted this nice little diagram which
illustrates not only examples of both procedures and routines versus rules, but it also shows how important it
is for a teacher to be making use of both within their classroom. Right? And
not solely to have rules or solely to have routines and procedures, but to be
incorporating a good mix of both within their classroom. So, again, think of some
rules, think of some routines and procedures. Which ones when you’ve been a
student have you thought to be beneficial? Which one’s not so beneficial?
As a future teacher, what routines and procedures or which rules would you like
to adopt in your classroom? So, of course with breaking rules, with
transgressing against the routines and procedures which your teacher sets, comes
consequences. Both as a teacher deciding what the consequences are and also
implementing punishments when somebody does transgress a rule or a
procedure which you have in place. So, again, do just reflect on this, but we
spoke about this in class. And, of course, if you have any questions do not
hesitate to get in touch. We also spoke a little bit about the
importance of where students sit and how that can have a monumental impact on their
learning whilst it’s something which we might not consider to be too
crucial in their learning. So, we spoke about two different ways in which you
can organize your classroom. So, horizontal rules versus a cluster four
or circular arrangement. So, it’s important that you’re able to both
identify what these different arrangements look like but also come up
with examples of when each might be appropriate and when you would use the
arrangements versus when it might not be the best suited table arrangement for
your classroom. So, the first week of class is very
important as the teacher for numerous reasons but setting a precedent is
crucial. I cannot stress strongly enough how important it is to set a precedent with regard to how you are as a teacher right off the bat. So, we
spoke about the importance of being organized, to be clear in your rules and
your routines and procedures from the beginning, and to follow through with
consequences if students do transgress. It’s important also to have something
interesting for students to do right away, so you even saw in my lecture last
Thursday we did the exercise which we mentioned at the beginning of this
PowerPoint presentation. You’ve got to grab your students attention right off
the bat, get them on board with you, and it’s also important to ensure that each
student is focused on equally. So, simply because, for example, you have a student
who is very energetic, very extroverted and chatty, and wants to answer every
question you pose to the class, it’s crucial that you don’t, you don’t avoid
engaging this student, because you don’t want that student to become
disengaged, but it’s also important that you don’t neglect other students, perhaps
student who don’t feel so confident in the material or simply don’t feel so
confident in reaching out and answering questions. Be human crack a joke.
Obviously if it’s not in your personality to constantly be cracking
jokes then I don’t recommend you do, it’s important to be yourself, but we’re all
human, we all make mistakes. When things don’t go well it’s important to just say
“hey, i put my hand up, I’ve messed up, but don’t worry we’re gonna sort it”. So, we spoke about withitness with
regard to prevention. So it’s important that you know what withitness is and
how we might implement withitness. So we have the importance of avoiding
timing errors and the importance of avoiding target errors. If you feel that
you need more clarity as to what both of these concepts are then do refer to your
textbook or get in touch with me but they are important concepts for you to
know. Here’s some more concepts which are
important: group focus, overlapping movement management. So, again, important
to know what all of these are, be able to define them and have examples of how you
might implement all of these notions in your classroom. So, caring relationships in the
classroom are so crucial to effective learning and a safe learning environment.
So on the next slide you will see a TED talk video which i think is very good at
demonstrating in a very clear and relatable manner how important it is for
kids to like the people who are teaching them and how monumental an impact it
can have on them to know that the person who is guiding their learning thinks of
them as a real person and really values and cares about them as an individual. So,
please do watch that video. I have spent my entire life either at
the schoolhouse, on the way to the schoolhouse, or I’m talking about what
happens in the schoolhouse. Both my parents were educators, my
maternal grandparents were educators and for the past 40 years I’ve done the same
thing. But one of the things that we never discussed so we rarely discuss is
the value and importance of human connection; relationships.
James Comer says that “no significant learning can occur without a significant
relationship” George Washington Carver says “all learning is understanding
relationships”. Everyone in this room has been affected by a teacher or an adult.
For years I have watched people teach. I have looked at the best and I’ve looked
at some of the worst. A colleague said to me one time “They don’t pay me to like
the kids. They pay me to teach a lesson, the kid should learn it, I should teach
it, they should learn it, case closed”. Well, I said to her “you know kids don’t learn
from people they don’t like”. She said “that’s just a bunch of hoo-ey”, and
I said to her “well your year is gonna be long and arduous dear”. Needless to say it
was. Some people think that you could either have it in you to build a
relationship or you don’t. I think Stephen Covey had the right idea. He said
you oughta just throw in a few simple things like thinking first to understand
as opposed to being understood. Simple things like apologizing. You ever
thought about that? Telling a kid you’re sorry? They’re shocked. I taught a lesson once
on ratios. I’m not real good with math but I was working on it. And I got back
and looked at that teacher edition. I taught the whole lesson wrong. So, I came
back to class the next day and I said “look guys I need to apologize I taught
the whole lesson wrong I’m so sorry” They said “that’s okay Miss Pearson you were
so excited we just let you go”. For years I watched my mother take the
time at recess to review, go on home visits in the afternoo,n buy combs and
brushes and peanut butter and crackers to put in a desk drawer for kids that
needed to eat, buy a washcloth and some soap for the kids who didn’t smell so
good. See, it’s hard to teach kids who stink and kids can be cruel. And so she
kept those things in her desk and years later, after she retired, I watched some
of those same kids come through and say to her “you know Miss Walker you made a
difference in my life you made it work for me, you made me feel like I was
somebody when I knew at the bottom I wasn’t and I want you to just see what
I’ve become” and when my momma died two years ago at 92 there were so many
former students at her funeral it brought tears to my eyes not because she
was gone but because she left a legacy of relationships that could never
disappear. Here you will see a little snapshot of
some of my own teaching evaluations from one semester which I taught here. As a
disclaimer, I am NOT adding these in here to gloat in any way or anything
like that. What I would like you to do is I would like you to think about why I
decided to highlight the parts which I did and also to think about any
recurring themes which are apparent. What do students seem to be motivated to talk
about? What did they seem to care about versus what are they not mentioning here
at all which might be surprising to some of you? So, this is something we will
spend some time in class discussing so do think about this and do write
down some answers to prompt discussion. we spoke again in class and your
textbook has this diagram of the hierarchy of behaviours. So we have
democracy at the bottom ,we have cooperation, then bossing/bullying and
anarchy at the top .So at the very bottom, they are bottom not to mean it’s the
worst but bottom to mean that it’s a much more even playing field where
everybody is responsible for their own actions self disciplined. So, as we
go up the pyramid and we get to anarchy at the top, this is purely kind of “everyone
for themselves” and and the environment has transcended into an aimless chaos. So, here are three examples of things
which might occur in school and I would like you to attribute one of the levels
of hierarchy to each of these examples and then we will discuss in class why
you went with what you did and what is indeed correct. Of course, being well-versed in bullying
and cyber-bullying and the different forms which bullying
might take in the classroom is so crucial.So, it’s important to know what
building is versus what cyberbullying is. Communication. So, communication is key in
teaching and we have some phrases here, some concepts, which it’s important
you know. So we have the paraphrasing rule, the empathetic listening,
“I”Messages and assertive discipline. So, please do brush up on these concepts
so that you feel confident in identifying them and defining them
yourself. The importance of being culturally
responsive in our teaching is monumental and so in our lecture we spoke about how
there are some things which appear almost too simple and straightforward to
do but they’re often overlooked by teachers yet they have such an impact on
making students who are perhaps and not from the area which you’re teaching
to feel more connected and included within your classroom environment. Thank you for making it to the end of
this quite long and lengthy PowerPoint Presentation and have a wonderful
weekend. Take care and, as always, if you have any further questions whatsoever
please don’t hesitate to email me. I am happy to help and always at the end of
my email. I’m always, always on my email. So my email address, as always, is here.
Thanks again for listening and I will see you in class.

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