Lviv | Wikipedia audio article

Lviv (Ukrainian: Львів [lʲwiu̯] (listen);
Old East Slavic: Львіхород; Polish: Lwów [lvuf] (listen); Russian: Львов,
romanized: Lvov [lʲvof]; German: Lemberg; Latin: Leopolis; see also other names) is
the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall,
with a population of 724,713 as of January 2019. Lviv is one of the main cultural centres
of Ukraine. Named in honour of Leo, the eldest son of
Daniel, King of Ruthenia, it was the capital of the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia (also
called the Kingdom of Ruthenia) from 1272 to 1349, when it was conquered by King Casimir
III the Great who then became known as the King of Poland and Ruthenia. From 1434, it
was the regional capital of the Ruthenian Voivodeship in the Kingdom of Poland. In 1772,
after the First Partition of Poland, the city became the capital of the Habsburg Kingdom
of Galicia and Lodomeria. In 1918, for a short time, it was the capital of the West Ukrainian
People’s Republic. Between the wars, the city was the centre of the Lwów Voivodeship in
the Second Polish Republic. After the German-Soviet invasion of Poland
in 1939, Lviv became part of the Soviet Union, and in 1944–46 there was a population exchange
between Poland and Soviet Ukraine. In 1991, it became part of the independent nation of
Ukraine. Administratively, Lviv serves as the administrative
centre of Lviv Oblast and has the status of city of oblast significance.
Lviv was the centre of the historical regions of Red Ruthenia and Galicia. The historical
heart of the city, with its old buildings and cobblestone streets, survived Soviet and
German occupations during World War II largely unscathed. The city has many industries and
institutions of higher education such as Lviv University and Lviv Polytechnic. Lviv is also
the home of many cultural institutions, including a philharmonic orchestra and the Lviv Theatre
of Opera and Ballet. The historic city centre is on the UNESCO World Heritage List.==Names==
Besides its Ukrainian name, and its ancient Ukrainian name of Lvihorod, the city is also
known by several other names in different languages: Polish: Lwów; German: Lemberg,
Yiddish: לעמבערג‎, Lemberg, or לעמבעריק, Lèmberik; Russian: Львов, Lvov; Hungarian:
Ilyvó; Serbo-Croatian: Lavov; Romanian: Liov; Latin: Leopolis (meaning “lion city”, from
Ancient Greek, Λέων Πόλις); Crimean Tatar: İlbav; see also other names.==Geography==Lviv is located on the edge of the Roztochia
Upland, approximately 70 kilometres (43 miles) from the Polish border and 160 kilometres
(99 miles) from the eastern Carpathian Mountains. The average altitude of Lviv is 296 metres
(971 feet) above sea level. Its highest point is the Vysokyi Zamok (High Castle), 409 meters
(1342 feet) above sea level. This castle has a commanding view of the historic city centre
with its distinctive green-domed churches and intricate architecture.
The old walled city was at the foothills of the High Castle on the banks of the River
Poltva. In the 13th century, the river was used to transport goods. In the early 20th
century, the Poltva was covered over in areas where it flows through the city; the river
flows directly beneath the central street of Lviv, Freedom Avenue (Prospect Svobody)
and the Lviv Theatre of Opera and Ballet.===Climate===
Lviv’s climate is humid continental (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with cold winters
and mild summers. The average temperatures are 0 °C (32 °F) in January and 23 °C (73
°F) in July. The average annual rainfall is 745 mm (29 in) with the maximum being in
summer. Mean sunshine duration per year at Lviv is about 1,804 hours.==History==Archaeologists have demonstrated that the
Lviv area was settled by the 5th century. The area between the Castle Hill and the river
Poltva was continuously settled since the 9th century. The city of Lviv was founded
by King Daniel of Galicia (1201—1264) in the Principality of Halych of Kingdom of Rus`
and named in honour of his son Lev as Lvihorod which is consistent with name of other Ukrainian
cities such as Myrhorod, Sharhorod, Novhorod, Bilhorod, Horodyshche, Horodok and many others. Lviv was invaded by the mongols in 1261. Various
sources relate the events which range from destruction of the castle through to a complete
razing of the town. All the sources agree that it was on the orders of the Mongol general
Burundai. The Shevchenko Scientific Society (Naukove tovarystvo im. Shevchenka) informs
that the order to raze the city was reduced by Burundai. The Galician-Volhynian chronicle
states that in 1261 “Said Buronda to Vasylko: ‘Since you are at peace with me then raze
all your castles'”. Basil Dmytryshyn states that the order was implied to be the fortifications
as a whole “If you wish to have peace with me, then destroy [all fortifications of] your
towns”. According to the Universal-Lexicon der Gegenwart und Vergangenheit the town’s
founder was ordered to destroy the town himself.After King Daniel’s death, King Lev rebuilt the
town around the year 1270 at its present location, choosing Lviv as his residence, and made Lviv
the capital of Galicia-Volhynia. The city is first mentioned in the Halych-Volhynian
Chronicle regarding the events that were dated 1256. The town grew quickly due to an influx
of Polish people from Kraków, Poland, after they had suffered a widespread famine there.
Around 1280 Armenians lived in Galicia and were mainly based in Lviv where they had their
own Archbishop. In the 13th and early 14th centuries, Lviv was largely a wooden city,
except for its several stone churches. Some of them, like the Church of Saint Nicholas,
have survived to this day, although in a thoroughly rebuilt form. The town was inherited by the
Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1340 and ruled by voivode Dmytro Dedko, the favourite of
the Lithuanian prince Lubart, until 1349.===Galicia–Volhynia Wars===
During the wars over the succession of Galicia-Volhynia Principality in 1339 King Casimir III of Poland
undertook an expedition and conquered Lviv in 1340, burning down the old princely castle.
Poland ultimately gained control over Lviv and the adjacent region in 1349. From then
on the population was subjected to attempts to both Polonize and Catholicize the population.
The Lithuanians ravaged Lviv land in 1351 during the Halych-Volhyn Wars with Lviv being
plundered and destroyed by prince Liubartas in 1353. Casimir built a new city center (or
founded a new town) in a basin, surrounded it by walls, and replaced the wooden palace
by masonry castle – one of the two built by him. The old (Ruthenian) settlement, after
it had been rebuilt, became known as the Krakovian Suburb.In 1356 Casimir brought in more Germans
and within seven years granted the Magdeburg rights which implied that all city matters
were to be resolved by a council elected by the wealthy citizens. The city council seal
of the 14th century stated: S(igillum): Civitatis Lembvrgensis. In 1358 the city became a seat
of Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lviv, which initiated spread of Latin Church onto the
Ruthenian lands. After Casimir had died in 1370, he was succeeded
as king of Poland by his nephew, King Louis I of Hungary, who in 1372 put Lviv together
with the region of Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia under the administration of his relative Vladislaus
II of Opole, Duke of Opole. When in 1387 Władysław retreated from the post of its governor, Galicia-Volhynia
became occupied by the Hungarians, but soon Jadwiga, the youngest daughter of Louis, but
also ruler of Poland and wife of King of Poland Władysław II Jagiełło, unified it directly
with the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland.===Kingdom of Poland===In 1349, the Kingdom of Ruthenia with its
capital Lviv was annexed by the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland. The kingdom was transformed
into the Ruthenian domain of the Crown with capital in Lwów. On 17 June 1356 King Casimir
III the Great granted it Magdeburg rights. In 1362, the High Castle was completely rebuilt
with stone replacing the previous made out of wood. The city’s prosperity during the
following centuries is owed to the trade privileges granted to it by Casimir, Queen Jadwiga and
the subsequent Polish monarchs. Germans, Poles and Czechs formed the largest groups of newcomers.
Most of the settlers were polonised by the end of the 15th century, and the city became
a Polish island surrounded by Orthodox Ruthenian population. In 1412, the local archdiocese has developed
into the Roman Catholic Metropolis, which since 1375 as diocese had been in Halych.
The new metropolis included regional diocese in Lwow (Lviv), Przemysl, Chelm, Wlodzimierz,
Luck, Kamieniec, as well as Siret and Kijow (see Old Cathedral of St. Sophia, Kiev). First
Catholic Archbishop who resided in Lviv was Jan Rzeszowski.
In 1434, the Ruthenian domain of the Crown was transformed into the Ruthenian Voivodeship.
In 1444, the city was granted the staple right, which resulted in its growing prosperity and
wealth, as it became one of major trading centres on the merchant routes between Central
Europe and Black Sea region. It was also transformed into one of the main fortresses of the kingdom,
and was a royal city, like Kraków or Gdańsk. During the 17th century, Lwów was the second
largest city of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, with the population of about 30,000.
In 1572, one of the first publishers of books in what is now Ukraine, Ivan Fedorov, a graduate
of the University of Kraków, settled here for a brief period. The city became a significant
centre for Eastern Orthodoxy with the establishment of an Orthodox brotherhood, a Greek-Slavonic
school and a printer which published the first full versions of the Bible in Church Slavonic
in 1580. A Jesuit Collegium was founded in 1608, and on 20 January 1661 King John II
Casimir of Poland issued a decree granting it “the honour of the academy and the title
of the university”.The 17th century brought invading armies of Swedes, Hungarians, Turks,
Russians and Cossacks to its gates. In 1648 an army of Cossacks and Crimean Tatars besieged
the town. They captured the High Castle, murdering its defenders, but the city itself was not
sacked due to the fact that the leader of the revolution Bohdan Khmelnytsky accepted
a ransom of 250,000 ducats, and the Cossacks marched north-west towards Zamość. It was
one of two major cities in Poland which was not captured during the so-called Deluge:
the other one was Gdańsk (Danzig). At that time, Lwów witnessed a historic scene, as
here King John II Casimir made his famous Lwów Oath. On 1 April 1656, during a holy
mass in Lwów’s Cathedral, conducted by the papal legate Pietro Vidoni, John Casimir in
a grandiose and elaborate ceremony entrusted the Commonwealth under the Blessed Virgin
Mary’s protection, whom he announced as The Queen of the Polish Crown and other of his
countries. He also swore to protect the Kingdom’s folk from any impositions and unjust bondage.
Two years later, John Casimir, in honour of bravery of its residents, declared Lwów to
be equal to two historic capitals of the Commonwealth, Kraków and Wilno. In the same year, 1658,
Pope Alexander VII declared the city to be Semper fidelis, in recognition of its key
role in defending Europe and Roman-Catholicism from Muslim invasion.
In 1672 it was surrounded by the Ottomans who also failed to conquer it. Three years
later, the Battle of Lwów (1675) took place near the city. Lwów was captured for the
first time since the Middle Ages by a foreign army in 1704 when Swedish troops under King
Charles XII entered the city after a short siege. The plague of the early 18th century
caused the death of about 10,000 inhabitants (40% of the city’s population).===Habsburg Empire===
In 1772, following the First Partition of Poland, the region was annexed by the Habsburg
Monarchy to the Austrian Partition. Known in German as Lemberg, the city became the
capital of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. Lemberg grew dramatically during 19th century,
increasing in population from approximately 30,000 at the time of the Austrian annexation
in 1772, to 196,000 by 1910 and to 212,000 three years later; while the poverty in Austrian
Galicia was raging. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries a large influx of Austrians
and German-speaking Czech bureaucrats gave the city a character that by the 1840s were
quite Austrian, in its orderliness and in the appearance and popularity of Austrian
coffeehouses.In 1773, the first newspaper in Lemberg, Gazette de Leopoli, began to be
published. In 1784, a latin language university was opened with lectures in German, Polish
and even Ruthenian; after closing again in 1805, it was reopened in 1817. By 1825 German
became the sole language of instruction. During the 19th century, the Austrian administration
attempted to Germanise the city’s educational and governmental institutions. Many cultural
organisations which did not have a pro-German orientation were closed. After the revolutions
of 1848, the language of instruction at the university shifted from German to include
Ukrainian and Polish. Around that time, a certain sociolect developed in the city known
as the Lwów dialect. Considered to be a type of Polish dialect, it draws its roots from
numerous other languages besides Polish. In 1853, street lighting was introduced Ignacy
Łukasiewicz and Jan Zeh. In that year kerosene lamps were introduced as street lights. Then
in 1858, these were updated to gas lamps, and in 1900 to electric ones.
After the so-called “Ausgleich” of February 1867, the Austrian Empire was reformed into
a dualist Austria-Hungary and a slow yet steady process of liberalisation of Austrian rule
in Galicia started. From 1873, Galicia was ‘de facto’ an autonomous province of Austria-Hungary
with Polish and Ruthenian, as official languages. Germanisation was halted and the censorship
lifted as well. Galicia was subject to the Austrian part of the Dual Monarchy, but the
Galician Sejm and provincial administration, both established in Lviv, had extensive privileges
and prerogatives, especially in education, culture, and local affairs. The city started
to grow rapidly, becoming the 4th largest in Austria-Hungary, according to the census
of 1910. Many Belle Époque public edifices and tenement houses were erected, the buildings
from the Austrian period, such as the Lviv Theatre of Opera and Ballet built in the Viennese
neo-Renaissance style, still dominate and characterise much of the centre of the city. During Habsburg rule, Lviv became one of the
most important Polish, Ukrainian and Jewish cultural centres. In Lviv, according to the
Austrian census of 1910, which listed religion and language, 51% of the city’s population
were Roman Catholics, 28% Jews, and 19% belonged to the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church. Linguistically,
86% of the city’s population used the Polish language and 11% preferred the Ruthenian.
At that time, Lviv was home to a number of renowned Polish-language institutions, such
as the Ossolineum, with the second largest collection of Polish books in the world, the
Polish Academy of Arts, the National Museum (since 1908), the Historical Museum of the
City of Lwów (since 1891), the Polish Copernicus Society of Naturalists, the Polish Historical
Society, Lwów University, with Polish as the official language since 1882, the Lwów
Scientific Society, the Lwów Art Gallery, the Polish Theatre, and the Polish Archdiocese.
Furthermore, Lviv was the centre of a number of Polish independence organisations. In June
1908, Józef Piłsudski, Władysław Sikorski and Kazimierz Sosnkowski founded here the
Union of Active Struggle. Two years later, the paramilitary organisation, called the
Riflemen’s Association, was also founded in the city by Polish activists.
At the same time, Lviv became the city where famous Ukrainian writers (such as Ivan Franko,
Panteleimon Kulish and Ivan Nechuy-Levytsky) published their work. It was a centre of Ukrainian
cultural revival. The city also housed the largest and most influential Ukrainian institutions
in the world, including the Prosvita society dedicated to spreading literacy in the Ukrainian
language, the Shevchenko Scientific Society, the Dniester Insurance Company and base of
the Ukrainian cooperative movement, and it served as the seat of the Ukrainian Catholic
Church. Lviv was also a major centre of Jewish culture, in particular as a centre of the
Yiddish language, and was the home of the world’s first Yiddish-language daily newspaper,
the Lemberger Togblat, established in 1904.====First World War====In the Battle of Galicia at the early stages
of the First World War, Lviv was captured by the Russian army in September 1914 following
the Battle of Gnila Lipa. The Lemberg Fortress fell on 3 September. The historian Pál Kelemen
provided a first-hand account of the chaotic evacuation of the city by the Austro-Hungarian
Army and civilians alike. The town was retaken by Austria–Hungary in June the following
year. Lviv and its population, therefore, suffered greatly during the First World War
as many of the offensives were fought across its local geography causing significant collateral
damage and disruption.===Polish–Ukrainian War===After the collapse of the Habsburg Monarchy
at the end of the First World War Lviv became an arena of battle between the local Polish
population and the Ukrainian Sich Riflemen. Both nations perceived the city as an integral
part of their new statehoods which at that time were forming in the former Austrian territories.
On the night of 31 October–1 November 1918 the Western Ukrainian People’s Republic was
proclaimed with Lviv as its capital. 2,300 Ukrainian soldiers from the Ukrainian Sich
Riflemen (Sichovi Striltsi), which had previously been a corps in the Austrian Army, took control
over Lviv. The city’s Polish majority opposed the Ukrainian declaration and began to fight
against the Ukrainian troops. During this combat an important role was taken by young
Polish city defenders called Lwów Eaglets. The Ukrainian forces withdrew outside Lwów’s
confines by 21 November 1918, after which elements of Polish soldiers began to loot
and burn much of the Jewish and Ukrainian quarters of the city, killing approximately
340 civilians (see: Lwów pogrom). The retreating Ukrainian forces besieged the city. The Sich
riflemen reformed into the Ukrainian Galician Army (UHA). The Polish forces aided from central
Poland, including General Haller’s Blue Army, equipped by the French, relieved the besieged
city in May 1919 forcing the UHA to the east. Despite Entente mediation attempts to cease
hostilities and reach a compromise between belligerents the Polish–Ukrainian War continued
until July 1919 when the last UHA forces withdrew east of the River Zbruch. The border on the
River Zbruch was confirmed at the Treaty of Warsaw, when in April 1920 Field Marshal Pilsudski
signed an agreement with Symon Petlura where it was agreed that for military support against
the Bolsheviks the Ukrainian People’s Republic renounced its claims to the territories of
Eastern Galicia. In August 1920 Lviv was attacked by the Red
Army under the command of Aleksandr Yegorov and Stalin during the Polish–Soviet War
but the city repelled the attack. For the courage of its inhabitants Lviv was awarded
the Virtuti Militari cross by Józef Piłsudski on 22 November 1920.
On 23 February 1921, the council of the League of Nations declared that Galicia (including
the city) lay outside the territory of Poland and that Poland did not have the mandate to
establish administrative control in that country, and that Poland was merely the occupying military
power of Galicia (as a whole), whose sovereign remained the Allied Powers and fate would
be determined by the Council of Ambassadors at the League of Nations. On 14 March 1923,
the Council of Ambassadors decided that Galicia would be incorporated into Poland “whereas
it is recognised by Poland that ethnographical conditions necessitate an autonomous regime
in the Eastern part of Galicia.” “This proviso was never honoured by the interwar Polish
government.” After 1923, Galicia was internationally recognized as part of the Polish state.===Interbellum period===During the interwar period, Lwów held the
rank of the Second Polish Republic’s third most populous city (following Warsaw and Łódź),
and it became the seat of the Lwów Voivodeship. Following Warsaw, Lwów was the second most
important cultural and academic centre of interwar Poland. For example, in 1920 professor
Rudolf Weigl of the Lwów University developed a vaccine against typhus fever. Furthermore,
the geographic location of Lwów gave it an important role in stimulating international
trade and fostering the city’s and Poland’s economic development. A major trade fair called
Targi Wschodnie was established in 1921. In the academic year 1937–1938, there were
9,100 students attending five institutions of higher education, including the Lwów University
as well as the Polytechnic.While about two-thirds of the city’s inhabitants were Poles, some
of whom speak the characteristic Lwów dialect, the eastern part of the Lwów Voivodeship
had a relative Ukrainian majority in most of its rural areas. Although Polish authorities
obliged themselves internationally to provide Eastern Galicia with an autonomy (including
a creation of a separate Ukrainian university in Lwów) and even though in September 1922
adequate Polish Sejm’s Bill was enacted, it was not fulfilled. The Polish government discontinued
many Ukrainian schools which functioned during the Austrian rule, and closed down Ukrainian
departments at the University of Lwów with the exception of one. Prewar Lwów also had
a large and thriving Jewish community, which constituted about a quarter of the population.
Unlike in Austrian times, when the size and number of public parades or other cultural
expressions corresponded to each cultural group’s relative population, the Polish government
emphasised the Polish nature of the city and limited public displays of Jewish and Ukrainian
culture. Military parades and commemorations of battles at particular streets within the
city, all celebrating the Polish forces who fought against the Ukrainians in 1918, became
frequent, and in the 1930s a vast memorial monument and burial ground of Polish soldiers
from that conflict was built in the city’s Lychakiv Cemetery.===World War II and the Soviet incorporation
===Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939
and by 14 September Lviv was completely encircled by German units. Subsequently, the Soviets
invaded Poland on 17 September. On 22 September 1939 Lwów capitulated to the Red Army. The
USSR annexed the eastern half of the Second Polish Republic with Ukrainian and Belorussian
population. The city became the capital of the newly formed Lviv Oblast. The Soviets
reopened uni-lingual Ukrainian schools, which were discontinued by the Polish government.
The only change over imposed by the Soviets was the language of instruction, with the
actual net loss of about 1,000 schools in short order. Ukrainian was made compulsory
in the University of Lviv with almost all its books in Polish. It became thoroughly
Ukrainized and renamed after Ukrainian writer Ivan Franko. The Polish academics were laid
off. “Soviet rule – wrote Tarik Cyril Amar (The Paradox of Ukrainian Lviv) – turned
out to be much more oppressive than Polish rule. The rich world of Ukrainian publications
in Polish Lwów, for instance, was gone in Soviet Ukrainian Lviv, and with it, many journalism
jobs.===German occupation===
On 22 June 1941, Nazi Germany and several of its allies invaded the USSR. In the initial
stage of Operation Barbarossa (30 June 1941) Lviv was taken by the Germans. The evacuating
Soviets killed most of the prison population, with arriving Wehrmacht forces easily discovering
evidence of the Soviet mass murders in the city committed by the NKVD and NKGB. Ukrainian
nationalists, organised as a militia, and the civilian population were allowed to take
revenge on the “Jews and the Bolsheviks” and indulged in several mass killings in Lviv
and the surrounding region, which resulted in the deaths estimated at between 4,000 and
10,000 Jews. On 30 June 1941 Yaroslav Stetsko proclaimed in Lviv the Government of an independent
Ukrainian state allied with Nazi Germany. This was done without preapproval from the
Germans and after 15 September 1941 the organisers were arrested. The Sikorski–Mayski Agreement signed in
London on 30 July 1941 between Polish government-in-exile and USSR’s government invalidated the September
1939 Soviet-German partition of Poland, as the Soviets declared it null and void. Meanwhile,
German-occupied Eastern Galicia at the beginning of August 1941 was incorporated into the General
Government as Distrikt Galizien with Lviv as district’s capital. German policy towards
the Polish population in this area was as harsh as in the rest of the General Government.
Germans during the occupation of the city committed numerous atrocities including the
killing of Polish university professors in 1941. German Nazis viewed the Ukrainian Galicians,
former inhabitants of Austrian Crown Land, as to some point more aryanised and civilised
than the Ukrainian population living in the territories belonging to the USSR before 1939.
As a result, they escaped the full extent of German acts in comparison to Ukrainians
who lived to the east, in the German-occupied Soviet Ukraine turned into the Reichskommissariat
Ukraine.According to the Third Reich’s racial policies, local Jews then became the main
target of German repressions in the region. Following German occupation, the Jewish population
was concentrated in the Lwów Ghetto established in the city’s Zamarstynów (today Zamarstyniv)
district, and the Janowska concentration camp was also set up. In 1931 there were 75,316
Yiddish-speaking inhabitants, but by 1941 approximately 100,000 Jews were present in
Lviv. The majority of these Jews were either killed within the city or deported to Belzec
extermination camp. In the summer of 1943, on the orders of Heinrich Himmler, SS-Standartenführer
Paul Blobel was tasked with the destruction of any evidence of Nazi mass murders in the
Lviv area. On 15 June Blobel, using forced labourers from Janowska, dug up a number of
mass graves and incinerated the remains. Later, on 19 November 1943, inmates at Janowska staged
an uprising and attempted a mass escape. A few succeeded, but most were recaptured and
killed. The SS staff and their local auxiliaries then, at the time of the Janowska camp’s liquidation,
murdered at least 6,000 more inmates, as well as the Jews in other forced labour camps in
Galicia. By the end of the war, the Jewish population of the city was virtually eliminated,
with only around 200 to 800 survivors remaining.===Liberation from Nazis===
After the successful Lvov–Sandomierz Offensive of July 1944, the Soviet 3rd Guards Tank Army
captured Lviv on 27 July 1944, with a significant cooperation from the local Polish resistance
(see: Lwów Uprising). Soon thereafter, the local commanders of Polish Armia Krajowa were
invited to a meeting with the commanders of the Red Army. During the meeting, they were
arrested, as it turned out to be a trap set by the Soviet NKVD. Later, in the winter and
spring of 1945, the local NKVD kept arresting and harassing Poles in Lviv (which according
to Soviet sources on 1 October 1944 still had a clear Polish majority of 66.7%) in an
attempt to encourage their emigration from the city. Those arrested were released only
after they had signed papers in which they agreed to emigrate to Poland, which postwar
borders were to be shifted westwards in accordance with the Yalta conference settlements. In
Yalta, despite Polish objections, the Allied leaders, Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt
and Winston Churchill decided that Lviv should remain within the borders of the Soviet Union.
On 16 August 1945, a border agreement was signed in Moscow between the government of
the Soviet Union and the Provisional Government of National Unity installed by the Soviets
in Poland. In the treaty, Polish authorities formally ceded prewar eastern part of the
country to the Soviet Union, agreeing to the Polish-Soviet border to be drawn according
to the so-called Curzon Line. Consequently, the agreement was ratified on 5 February 1946.===Post-war Soviet Union===In February 1946, Lviv became a part of the
Soviet Union. It is estimated that from 100,000 to 140,000 Poles were resettled from the city
into the so-called Recovered Territories as a part of postwar population transfers, many
of them to the area of newly acquired Wrocław, formerly the German city of Breslau. Little
remains of Polish culture in Lviv. But Polish history and heritage is still visible. Many
buildings in the old part of the city are great examples of Polish architecture, which
flourished in Lviv after opening Technical School (later Polytechnic), the first higher
education technical academy on Polish lands. Polytechnic educated generations of architects
which were influential in the entire country. In Lviv the best examples of their work are:
the main buildings of Lviv Polytechnic, University of Lviv, Lviv Opera, Lviv railway station,
former building of Galicyjska Kasa Oszczędności, Potocki Palace. During interwar period Lviv
was striving to become a modern metropolis, so architects were experimenting with modernism.
It was the period of the most rapid growth of the city, so one can find many examples
of architecture from this time in the city. Great examples are main building of Lviv Academy
of Commerce, the second Sprecher’s building or building of City Electrical Facilities.
The most visible monument of the Polish past is the Adam Mickiewicz Monument at the square
of his name. Many Polish pieces of arts, sculptures and paintings can be found in Lviv galleries,
among them works of Jan Piotr Norblin, Marceleo Bacciarelli, Kazimierz Wojniakowski, Antoni
Brodowski, Henryk Rodakowski, Artur Grottger, Jan Matejko, Aleksander Gierymski, Jan Stanisławski,
Leon Wyczółkowski, Józef Chełmoński, Józef Mehoffer, Stanisław Wyspiański, Olga
Boznańska, Władysław Słowiński, Jacek Malczewski. The Polish history of Lviv is
still well remembered in Poland and those Poles who stayed in Lviv have formed their
own organisation the Association of Polish Culture of the Lviv Land.
According to various estimates, Lviv lost between 80% and 90% of its pre-war population.
Expulsion of the Polish population and the Holocaust together with migration from Ukrainian-speaking
surrounding areas (including forcibly resettled from the territories which, after the war,
became part of the Polish People’s Republic), from other parts of the Soviet Union, altered
the ethnic composition of the city. Immigration from Russia and Russian-speaking regions of
Eastern Ukraine was encouraged. The prevalence of the Ukrainian-speaking population has led
to the fact that under the conditions of Soviet Russification, Lviv became a major centre
of the dissident movement in Ukraine and played a key role in Ukraine’s independence in 1991.
In the 1950s and 1960s, the city significantly expanded both in population and size mostly
due to the city’s rapidly growing industrial base. Due to the fight of SMERSH with the
guerrilla formations of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army the city obtained a nickname with a negative
connotation of Banderstadt as the City of Stepan Bandera. The German suffix for city
stadt was added instead of the Russian grad to imply alienation. Over the years the residents
of the city found this so ridiculous that even people not familiar with Bandera accepted
it as a sarcasm in reference to the Soviet perception of western Ukraine. In the period
of liberalisation from the Soviet system in the 1980s, the city became the centre of political
movements advocating Ukrainian independence from the USSR. By the time of the fall of
the Soviet Union the name became a proud mark for the Lviv natives culminating in the creation
of a local rock band under the name Khloptsi z Bandershtadtu (Boys from Banderstadt).===Independent Ukraine===
Citizens of Lviv strongly supported Viktor Yushchenko during the 2004 Ukrainian presidential
election and played a key role in the Orange Revolution. Hundreds of thousands of people
would gather in freezing temperatures to demonstrate for the Orange camp. Acts of civil disobedience
forced the head of the local police to resign and the local assembly issued a resolution
refusing to accept the fraudulent first official results. Lviv remains today one of the main
centres of Ukrainian culture and the origin of much of the nation’s political class.
In support of the Euromaidan movement, Lviv’s executive committee declared itself independent
of the rule of President Viktor Yanukovych on 19 February 2014.==Administrative division==Lviv is divided into six raions (districts),
each with its own administrative bodies: Halych district (Галицький район,
Halytskyi raion) Zaliznytsia district (Залізничний
район, Zaliznychnyi raion), literally “railway neighborhood”
Lychakiv district (Личаківський район, Lychakivs’kyi raion)
Sykhiv district (Сихівський район, Sykhivs’kyi raion)
Franko district (Франківський район, Frankivs’kyi raion), named after
Ivan Franko. Shevchenko district (Шевченківський
район, Shevchenkivs’kyi raion), named after Taras Shevchenko.Notable suburbs include
Vynnyky (місто Винники), Briukhovychi (селище Брюховичі), and Rudne
(селище Рудне).==Demographics==
Lviv residents live 75 years on average, and this age is 7 years longer than the average
age in Ukraine and 8 years more than the world average (68 years). In 2010 the average life
expectancy was 71 among men and 79.5 years among women. The fertility rates have been
steadily increasing between 2001 and 2010; however, the effects of low fertility in the
previous years remained noticeable even though the birth rates grew. There is an acute shortage
of young people under the age of 25. In 2011, 13.7% of Lviv’s population consisted of young
people under 15 years and 17.6% of persons aged 60 years and over.===Historical populations===Year 1405: approx. 4,500 inhabitants in the
Old Town, and additionally approx. 600 in the two suburbs.
Year 1544: approx. 3,000 inhabitants in the Old Town (number had decreased by about 30%
due to the fire of 1527), and additionally approx. 2,700 in the suburbs.
Year 1840: approx. 67,000 inhabitants, including 20,000 Jews.
Year 1850: nearly 80,000 inhabitants (together with the four suburbs), including more than
25,000 Jews. Year 1869: 87,109 inhabitants, among them
46,252 Roman Catholics, 26,694 Jews, 12,406 members of the Greek Uniate Churches.
Year 1890: 127,943 inhabitants (64,102 male, 63,481 female), among them 67,280 Catholics,
36,130 Judaic, 21,876 members of the Greek Uniate Churches, 2,061 Protestants, 596 Orthodox
and others. Year 1900: 159,877 inhabitants, including
the military (10,326 men). Of these inhabitants, 82,597 were members of the Roman Catholic
Church, 29,327 members of the Greek Uniate Churches, and 44,258 were Jews. As their language
of communication, 120,634 used Polish, 20,409 German or Yiddish, and 15,159 Ukrainian.
Year 1921: 219,400 inhabitants, including 112,000 Poles, 76,000 Jews and 28,000 Ukrainians.
Year 1939: 340.000 inhabitants. Year 1940: 500,000.
July 1944: 149,000. Year 1955: 380,000.
Year 2001: 725,000 inhabitants, of whom 88% were Ukrainians, 9% Russians and 1% Poles.
A further 200,000 people commuted daily from suburbs.
Year 2007: 735,000 inhabitants. By gender: 51.5% women, and 48.5% men. By place of birth:
56% born in Lviv, 19% born in Lviv Oblast, 11% born in East Ukraine, 7% born in the former
republics of the USSR (Russia 4%), 4% born in Poland, and 3% born in Western Ukraine,
but not in the Lviv Oblast. Religious adherence: (2001)52% Ukrainian Greek
Catholic Church 31% Ukrainian Orthodox Church – Kiev Patriarchate
05% Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church 03% Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate)
03% Other faiths In the year 2000, about 80% of Lviv’s inhabitants
were primarily Ukrainian-speaking.===The ethnic Polish population===
Ethnic Poles and the Polish Jews began to settle in Lwów in considerable numbers already
in 1349 after the city was conquered by King Casimir of the Piast dynasty. Lwów served
as Poland’s major cultural and economic centre for several centuries, during the Polish Golden
Age, and until the partitions of Poland perpetrated by Russia, Prussia, and Austria. In the Second
Polish Republic, the Lwów Voivodeship (inhabited by 2,789,000 people in 1921) grew to 3,126,300
inhabitants in ten years.As a result of World War II, Lviv was depolonised, mainly through
Soviet-arranged population exchange in 1944–1946 but also by early deportations to Siberia.
Those who remained on their own volition after the border shift became a small ethnic minority
in Lviv. By 1959 Poles made up only 4% of the local population. Many families were mixed.
During the Soviet decades only two Polish schools continued to function: № 10 (with
8 grades) and № 24 (with 10 grades).In the 1980s the process of uniting groups into ethnic
associations was allowed. In 1988 a Polish-language newspaper was permitted (Gazeta Lwowska).
The Polish population of the city continues to use the dialect of the Polish language
known as Lwów dialect (Polish: gwara lwowska).===The Jewish population===
The first known Jews in Lviv date back to the 10th century. The oldest remaining Jewish
tombstone dates back to 1348. Apart from the Rabbanite Jews there were many Karaites who
had settled in the city after coming from the East and from Byzantium. After Casimir
III conquered Lviv in 1349 the Jewish citizens received many privileges equal to that of
other citizens of Poland. Lviv had two separate Jewish quarters, one within the city walls
and one outside on the outskirts of the city. Each had its separate synagogue, although
they shared a cemetery, which was also used by the Crimean Karaite community. Before 1939
there were 97 synagogues. Before the Holocaust about one-third of the
city’s population was made up of Jews (more than 140,000 on the eve of World War II).
This number swelled to about 240,000 by the end of 1940 as tens of thousands of Jews fled
from the Nazi-occupied parts of Poland into the relative (and temporary) sanctuary of
Soviet-occupied Poland (including Lviv) following the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact that divided
Poland into Nazi and Soviet zones in 1939. Almost all these Jews were killed in the Holocaust.
Meanwhile, the Nazis also destroyed the Jewish cemetery, which was subsequently “paved over
by the Soviets”.After the war, a new Jewish population was formed from among the hundreds
of thousands of Russians and Ukrainians that migrated to the city. The post-war Jewish
population peaked at 30,000 in the 1970s. Currently, the Jewish population has shrunk
considerably as a result of emigration (mainly to Israel and the United States) and, to a
lesser degree, assimilation, and is estimated at 1,100. A number of organisations continue
to be active. The Sholem Aleichem Jewish Culture Society
in Lviv initiated the construction of a monument to the victims of the ghetto in 1988. On 23
August 1992, the memorial complex to the victims of the Lwów ghetto (1941–1943) was officially
opened. During 2011–2012, some anti-Semitic acts against the memorial took place. On 20
March 2011, it was reported that the slogan “death to the Jews” with a swastika was sprayed
on the monument. On 21 March 2012, the memorial was vandalized by unknown individuals, in
what seemed to be an anti-Semitic act.==Economy==Lviv is the most important business centre
of Western Ukraine. As of 1 January 2011 until the economy the city has invested 837.1 million
US dollars , accounting for almost two-thirds of the total investments in the Lviv region
. In 2015, the company of Lviv was involved $14.3 million. U.S. foreign direct investment,
which, however, is two times less than a year earlier ($30.9 million in 2014). During January-September
2017 the general amount of direct foreign investment received by the local government
in Lviv is $52.4 million. U.S. According to the statistics administration, foreign capital
was invested by 31 countries (here are some of the main investors: Poland – 47.7%; Australia
– 11.3%; Cyprus — 10.7% and the Netherlands — 6%).The total revenue of the city budget
of Lviv for 2015 is set at about UAH 3.81 billion, which is 23% more than a year earlier
(UAH 2.91 billion in 2014). As of 10 November 2017, the deputies of the Lviv City Council
approved a budget in amount of UAH 5.4 billion ($204 million). The large part of which (UAH
5.12 billion) was the revenue of the fund of the Lviv.The average wage in Lviv in 2015
in the business sector amounted to 7,041 UAH, in the budget sphere – 4,175 UAH. On 1 February
2014, registered unemployment was 0.6%. Lviv is one of the largest cities in Ukraine and
is growing rapidly. According to the Ministry of Economy of Ukraine the monthly average
salary in the Lviv is a little less than the average for Ukraine which in February 2013
was 2765 UAH ($345). According to the World Bank classification Lviv is a middle-income
city. In September 2017, the average wage was amounted to 6,784 UAH (€230), which
is in 41,0% more than in a previous year.Lviv has 218 large industrial enterprises, more
than 40 commercial banks, 4 exchanges, 13 investment companies, 80 insurance and 24
leasing companies, 77 audit firms and almost 9,000 small ventures. For many years machinery-building
and electronics were leading industries in Lviv. The city-based public company Electron,
trademark of national TV sets manufacturing, produces the 32 and 37 inches liquid-crystal
TV-sets. The «Electrontrans» specializes in design and production of modern electric
transport including trams, trolleybuses, electric buses, and spare parts. In 2013 Elektrotrans
JV started producing low-floor trams, the first Ukrainian 100% low-floor tramways. LAZ
is a bus manufacturing company in Lviv with its own rich history. Founded in 1945, LAZ
started bus production in the early 1950s. Innovative design ideas of Lviv engineers
have become the world standard in bus manufacturing.The total volume of industrial production sold
in 2015 amounted to UAH 24.2 billion, which is 39% more than a year earlier (UAH 14.6
billion in 2014).There are several banks based in Lviv, such as Kredobank, Idea Bank, VS
Bank, Oksi Bank and Lviv Bank. None of these banks have bankrupted during the political
and economic crisis of 2014-2016. It can be explained by the presence of the foreign capital
in most of them. Lviv is a major business center between Warsaw
and Kiev. According to the Lviv Economic Development Strategy, the main branches of the city’s
economy till 2025 should become tourism and information technologies (IT), the business
services and logistics are also a priority. In addition, The Nestlé service center has
located in Lviv. This center guides the company’s divisions in 20 countries of Central and Eastern
Europe. Also during 2016 the Global Service Center VimpelCom in Lviv was launched, which
serves finance, procurement and HR operations in eight foreign branches of this company.===Information technology===
Lviv is also one of the leaders of software export in Eastern Europe with expected sector
growth of 20% by 2020. Over 15% of all IT specialists in Ukraine work in Lviv, with
over 4100 new IT graduates coming from local universities each year. About 2 500 tech lovers
attended a major IT event in Lviv.About 20000 IT specialists work in Lviv. In 2009, [KPMG],
one of the famous international auditing companies, included Lviv in top 30 cities with the greatest
potential of information technology development. As of December 2015, there were 192 IT-companies
operating in the city, of which 4 large (with more than 400 employees), 16 average (150-300
employees), 97 small (10-110 employees) and 70 micro companies (3-7 employees). From 2017
to 2018 the amount of IT-companies raised to 317.The turnover of the Lviv’s IT industry
in 2015 amounted to $300 million U.S. About 50% of IT services are exported to the US,
37% to Europe, and the rest – to other countries. As of 2015, about 15 thousand specialists
were employed in this industry with the average salary of 28 thousand UAH. According to a
study of the Economic Effect of the Lviv IT-Market, which was conducted by Lviv IT Cluster and
sociological agency “The Farm”, there are 257 IT companies operating in Lviv in 2017,
that employing about 17 thousand specialists. The economic impact of the IT industry in
Lviv is $734 million U.S.There are many restaurants and shops as well as street vendors of food,
books, clothes, traditional cultural items and tourist gifts. Banking and money trading
are an important part of the economy of Lviv with many banks and exchange offices throughout
the city. Lviv Airlines has its head office on the grounds
of Lviv Airport, but no longer operates any flights.==Culture==
Lviv is one of the most important cultural centres of Ukraine. The city is known as a
centre of art, literature, music and theatre. Nowadays, the indisputable evidence of the
city cultural richness is a big number of theatres, concert halls, creative unions,
and also the high number of many artistic activities (more than 100 festivals annually,
60 museums, 10 theatres). Lviv’s historic centre has been on the United
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage list
since 1998. UNESCO gave the following reasons for its selection: Criterion II: In its urban fabric and its
architecture, Lviv is an outstanding example of the fusion of the architectural and artistic
traditions of central and eastern Europe with those of Italy and Germany. Criterion V: The political and commercial
role of Lviv attracted to it a number of ethnic groups with different cultural and religious
traditions, who established separate yet interdependent communities within the city, evidence for
which is still discernible in the modern town’s landscape.===Architecture===Lviv’s historic churches, buildings and relics
date from the 13th century – 18th century (Polish rule). In recent centuries it was
spared some of the invasions and wars that destroyed other Ukrainian cities. Its architecture
reflects various European styles and periods. After the fires of 1527 and 1556 Lviv lost
most of its gothic-style buildings but it retains many buildings in renaissance, baroque
and the classic styles. There are works by artists of the Vienna Secession, Art Nouveau
and Art Deco. The buildings have many stone sculptures and
carvings, particularly on large doors, which are hundreds of years old. The remains of
old churches dot the central cityscape. Some three- to five-storey buildings have hidden
inner courtyards and grottoes in various states of repair. Some cemeteries are of interest:
for example, the Lychakivskiy Cemetery where the Polish elite was buried for centuries.
Leaving the central area the architectural style changes radically as Soviet-era high-rise
blocks dominate. In the centre of the city, the Soviet era is reflected mainly in a few
modern-style national monuments and sculptures.===Monuments===Outdoor sculptures in the city commemorate
many notable individuals and topics reflecting the rich and complex history of Lviv. There
are monuments to Adam Mickiewicz, Ivan Franko, King Danylo, Taras Shevchenko, Ivan Fedorov,
Solomiya Krushelnytska, Ivan Pidkova, Mykhailo Hrushevskyi, Pope John Paul II, Jan Kiliński,
Ivan Trush, Saint George, Bartosz Głowacki, the monument to the Virgin Mary, to Nikifor,
The Good Soldier Švejk, Stepan Bandera, Leopold von Sacher-Masoch, and many others. During the interwar period there were monuments
commemorating important figures of the history of Poland. Some of them were moved to the
Polish “Recovered Territories” after World War II, like the monument to Aleksander Fredro
which now is in Wrocław, the monument of King John III Sobieski which after 1945 was
moved to Gdańsk, and the monument of Kornel Ujejski which is now in Szczecin. A book market
takes place around the monument to Ivan Fеdorovych, a typographer in the 16th century who fled
Moscow and found a new home in Lviv. New ideas came to Lviv during the Austro–Hungarian
rule. In the 19th century, many publishing houses, newspapers and magazines were established.
Among these was the Ossolineum which was one of the most important Polish scientific libraries.
Most Polish-language books and publications of the Ossolineum library are still kept in
a local Jesuit church. In 1997 the Polish government asked the Ukrainian government
to return these documents to Poland. Subsequently, in 2003 Ukraine allowed access to these publications
for the first time. In 2006 an office of the Ossolineum (which now is located in Wrocław)
was opened in Lviv and began a process to scan all its documents. Works written in Lviv
contributed to Austrian, Ukrainian, Yiddish, and Polish literature, with a multitude of
Lviv is a city of religious variety. Religion (2012): Catholic: 57% (Ukrainian Greek Catholic
Church 56% and Roman Catholic Church 1%) Orthodox: 32%, Protestantism: 2% Judaism : 0.1% Other
religion: 3% Indifferent to religious matters: 4% Atheism: 1.9%====Christianity====
At one point, over 60 churches existed in the city. The largest Christian Churches have
existed in the city since the 13th century. There are three major Christian groups: The
Ukrainian Catholic Archeparchy of Lviv, the Roman Catholics, and the Armenian Church.
Each has had a diocesan seat in Lviv since the 16th century. At the end of the 16th century,
the Orthodox community in Ukraine transferred their allegiance to the Pope in Rome and became
the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church. This bond was forcibly dissolved in 1946 by the
Soviet authorities and the Roman Catholic community was forced out by the expulsion
of the Polish population. Since 1989, religious life in Lviv has experienced a revival.
Lviv is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lviv, the centre of the Roman Catholic
Church in Ukraine and until 21 August 2005 was the centre of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic
Church. About 35 percent of religious buildings belong to the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church,
11.5 percent to the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church, 9 per cent to the Ukrainian
Orthodox Church – Kiev Patriarchate and 6 per cent to the Roman Catholic Church.
Until 2005, Lviv was the only city with two Catholic Cardinals: Lubomyr Husar (Byzantine
Rite) and Marian Jaworski (Latin Rite). In June 2001, Pope John Paul II visited the
Latin Cathedral, St. George’s Cathedral and the Armenian Cathedral.====Judaism====
Lviv historically had a large and active Jewish community and until 1941 at least 45 synagogues
and prayer houses existed. Even in the 16th century, two separate communities existed.
One lived in today’s old town with the other in the Krakowskie Przedmieście. The Golden
Rose Synagogue was built in Lviv in 1582. In the 19th century, a more differentiated
community started to spread out. Liberal Jews sought more cultural assimilation and spoke
German and Polish. On the other hand, Orthodox and Hasidic Jews tried to retain the old traditions.
Between 1941 and 1944, the Germans in effect completely destroyed the centuries-old Jewish
tradition of Lviv. Most synagogues were destroyed and the Jewish population forced first into
a ghetto before being forcibly transported to concentration camps where they were murdered.Under
the Soviet Union, synagogues remained closed and were used as warehouses or cinemas. Only
since the fall of the Iron Curtain, has the remainder of the Jewish community experienced
a faint revival. Currently, the only functioning Orthodox Jewish
synagogue in Lviv is the Beis Aharon V’Yisrael Synagogue.===Arts===The range of artistic Lviv is impressive.
On the one hand, it is the city of classical art. Lviv Opera and Lviv Philharmonic are
places that can satisfy the demands of true appraisers of the classical arts. This is
the city of one of the most distinguished sculptors in Europe, Johann Georg Pinzel,
whose works can be seen on the façade of the St. George’s Cathedral in Lviv and in
the Pinzel Museum. This is also the city of Solomiya Krushelnytska, who began her career
as a singer of Lviv Opera and later became the prima donna of La Scala Opera in Milan.
The “Group Artes” was a young movement founded in 1929. Many of the artists studied in Paris
and travelled throughout Europe. They worked and experimented in different areas of modern
art: Futurism, Cubism, New Objectivity and Surrealism. Co–operation took place between
avant-garde musicians and authors. Altogether thirteen exhibitions by “Artes” took place
in Warsaw, Kraków, Łódz and Lviv. The German occupation put an end to this group. Otto
Hahn was executed in 1942 in Lviv and Aleksander Riemer was murdered in Auschwitz in 1943.
Henryk Streng and Margit Reich-Sielska were able to escape the Holocaust (or Shoah). Most
of the surviving members of Artes lived in Poland after 1945. Only Margit Reich-Sielska
(1900–1980) and Roman Sielski (1903–1990) stayed in Soviet Lviv. For years the city
was one of the most important cultural centres of Poland with such writers as Aleksander
Fredro, Gabriela Zapolska, Leopold Staff, Maria Konopnicka and Jan Kasprowicz living
in Lviv. Today Lviv is a city of fresh ideas and unusual
characters. There are about 20 galleries (The “Dzyga” Gallery, Аrt-Gallery “Primus”, Gallery
of the History of Ukrainian Military Uniforms, Gallery of Modern Art “Zelena Kanapa” and
others). Lviv National Art Gallery is the largest museum of arts in Ukraine, with approximately
50,000 artworks, including paintings, sculptures and works of graphic art of Western and Eastern
Europe, from the Middle Ages to modern days.===Theatre and opera===In 1842 the Skarbek Theatre was opened making
it the third largest theatre in Central Europe. In 1903 the Lviv National Opera house, which
at that time was called the City-Theatre, was opened emulating the Vienna State Opera
house. The house initially offered a changing repertoire such as classical dramas in German
and Polish language, opera, operetta, comedy and theatre.
The opera house is named after the Ukrainian opera diva Salomea Krushelnytska who worked
here. Nowadays Lviv Theatre of Opera and Ballet
has a large creative group of performers who strive to maintain traditions of Ukrainian
opera and classical ballet. The Theatre is a well-organized creative body where over
500 people work towards a common goal. The repertoire includes 10 Ukrainian music compositions.
It should be emphasised that no other similar theatre in Ukraine has such a large number
of Ukrainian productions. There are also many operas written by foreign composers, and most
of these operas are performed in the original language: Othello, Aida, La Traviata, Nabucco,
and A Masked Ball by G. Verdi, Tosca, La Bohème and Madame Butterfly by G. Puccini, Cavalleria
Rusticana by P. Mascagni, and Pagliacci by R. Leoncavallo (in Italian); Carmen by G.
Bizet (in French), The Haunted Manor by S. Moniuszko (in Polish)===Museums and art galleries===
Museum Pharmacy “Pid Chornym Orlom” (Beneath the Black Eagle) was founded in 1735; it is
the oldest pharmacy in Lviv. A museum related to pharmaceutical history was opened on the
premises of the old pharmacy in 1966. The idea of creating such a museum had already
come up in the 19th century. The Galician Association of Pharmacists was created in
1868; members managed to assemble a small collection of exhibits, thus making the first
step towards creating a new museum. Nowadays, the exhibition has expanded considerably,
with 16 exhibit rooms and a general exhibition surface totalling 700 sq. m. There are more
than 3,000 exhibits in the museum. This is the only operating Museum Pharmacy in Ukraine
and Europe. The most notable of the museums are Lviv National
Museum which houses the National Gallery. Its collection includes more than 140,000
unique items. The museum takes special pride in presenting the largest and most complete
collection of medieval sacral art of the 12th to 18th centuries: icons, manuscripts, rare
ancient books, decoratively carved pieces of art, metal and plastic artworks, and fabrics
embroidered with gold and silver. The museum also boasts a unique monument of Ukrainian
Baroque style: the Bohorodchansky Iconostasis. Exhibits include: Ancient Ukrainian art from
the 12th to 15th centuries; Ukrainian art from the 16th to 18th centuries; and Ukrainian
art from the end of the 18th to the beginning of the 20th centuries.===Music===
Lviv has an active musical and cultural life. Apart from the Lviv Opera, it has symphony
orchestras, chamber orchestras and the Trembita Chorus. Lviv has one of the most prominent
music academies and music colleges in Ukraine, the Lviv Conservatory, and also has a factory
for the manufacture of stringed musical instruments. Lviv has been the home of numerous composers
such as Mozart’s son Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart, Stanislav Liudkevych, Wojciech Kilar
and Mykola Kolessa. Flute virtuoso and composer Albert Franz Doppler
(1821–1883) was born and spent his formative years here, including flute lessons from his
father. The classical pianist Mieczysław Horszowski (1892–1993) was born here. The
opera diva Salomea Kruszelnicka called Lviv her home in the 1920s to 1930s. The classical
violinist Adam Han Gorski was born here in 1940. “Polish Radio Lwów” was a Polish radio
station that went on-air on 15 January 1930. The programme proved very popular in Poland.
Classical music and entertainment was aired as well as lectures, readings, youth-programmes,
news and liturgical services on Sunday. Popular throughout Poland was the Comic Lwów
Wave a cabaret-revue with musical pieces. Jewish artists contributed a great part to
this artistic activity. Composers such as Henryk Wars, songwriters Emanuel Szlechter
and Wiktor Budzyński, the actor Mieczysław Monderer and Adolf Fleischer (“Aprikosenkranz
und Untenbaum”) worked in Lviv. The most notable stars of the shows were Henryk Vogelfänger
and Kazimierz Wajda who appeared together as the comic duo “Szczepko and Tońko” and
were similar to Laurel and Hardy. The Lviv Philharmonic is a major cultural
centre with its long history and traditions that complement the entire culture of Ukraine.
Exactly from the stage of Lviv Philharmonic began their way to the great art world-famous
Ukrainian musicians – Oleh Krysa, Oleksandr Slobodyanik, Yuriy Lysychenko, Maria Chaikovska,
also the musicians of new generation – E. Chupryk, Y. Ermin, Oksana Rapita, Olexandr
Kozarenko. Lviv Philharmonic is one of the leading concert institutions in Ukraine, which
activities include various forms of promotion of the best examples of the music art – international
festivals, cycles of concerts-monographs, concerts with participation of young musicians,
etc. The Chamber Orchestra “Lviv virtuosos” was
organised of the best Lviv musicians in 1994. The orchestra consists of 16–40 persons
/ it depends on programmes/ and in the repertoire are included the musical compositions from
Bach, Corelli to modern Ukrainian and European composers. During the short time of its operation,
the orchestra acquired the professional level of the best European standards. It is mentioned
in more than 100 positive articles of the Ukrainian and foreign musical critics.
Lviv is the hometown of the Vocal formation “Pikkardiyska Tertsiya” and Eurovision Song
Contest 2004 winner Ruslana who has since become well known in Europe and the rest of
the world. PikkardiyskaTertsia was created on 24 September 1992 in Lviv, and has won
many musical awards. It all began with a quartet performing ancient Ukrainian music from the
15th century, along with adaptations of traditional Ukrainian folk songs.
Lviv Organ Hall is a place where classical music (organ, symphonic, cameral) and art
meet together. 50,000 visitors each year, dozens of musicians from all over the world.
Lviv is also the hometown to one of the most successful and popular Ukrainian rock bands,
Okean Elzy.===Universities and academia===Lviv University is one of the oldest in Central
Europe and was founded as a Society of Jesus (Jesuit) school in 1608. Its prestige greatly
increased through the work of philosopher Kazimierz Twardowski (1866–1938) who was
one of the founders of the Lwów-Warsaw School of Logic. This school of thought set benchmarks
for academic research and education in Poland. The Polish politician of the interbellum period
Stanisław Głąbiński had served as dean of the law department (1889–1890) and as
the University rector (1908–1909). In 1901 the city was the seat of the Lwów Scientific
Society among whose members were major scientific figures. The most well-known were the mathematicians
Stefan Banach, Juliusz Schauder and Stanisław Ulam who were founders of the Lwów School
of Mathematics turning Lviv in the 1930s into the “World Centre of Functional Analysis”
and whose share in Lviv academia was substantial. In 1852 in Dublany (eight kilometres (5.0
miles) from the outskirts of Lviv) the Agricultural Academy was opened and was one of the first
Polish agricultural colleges. The Academy was merged with the Lviv Polytechnic in 1919.
Another important college of the interbellum period was the Academy of Foreign Trade in
Lwów. In 1873 in Lviv was founded Shevchenko Scientific
Society from the beginning it attracted the financial and intellectual support of writers
and patrons of Ukrainian background. In 1893 due to the change in its statute,
the Shevchenko Scientific Society was transformed into a real scholarly multidisciplinary academy
of sciences. Under the presidency of the historian, Mykhailo Hrushevsky, it greatly expanded its
activities, contributing to both the humanities and the physical sciences, law and medicine,
but most specifically once again it was concentrated onto the Ukrainian studies.
The Soviet Union annexed the eastern half of the Second Polish Republic including the
city of Lwów which capitulated to the Red Army on 22 September 1939. Upon their occupation
of Lviv, the Soviets dissolved the Shevchenko society. Many of its members were arrested
and either imprisoned or executed.===Mathematics===
Lviv was the home of the Scottish Café, where in the 1930s and the early 1940s, Polish mathematicians
from the Lwów School of Mathematics met and spent their afternoons discussing mathematical
problems. Stanisław Ulam who was later a participant in the Manhattan Project and the
proposer of the Teller-Ulam design of thermonuclear weapons, Stefan Banach one of the founders
of functional analysis, Hugo Steinhaus, Karol Borsuk, Kazimierz Kuratowski, Mark Kac and
many other notable mathematicians would gather there. The café building now houses the Atlas
Deluxe Hotel at 27 Taras Shevchenko Prospekt (prewar Polish street name: ulica Akademicka).
Mathematician Zygmunt Janiszewski died in Lviv on 3 January 1920.===Print and media===
Ever since the early 1990s, Lviv has been the spiritual home of the post-independence
Ukrainian-language publishing industry. Lviv Book Forum (International Publishers’
Forum) is the biggest book fair in Ukraine. Lviv is the centre of promotion of the Ukrainian
Latin alphabet (Latynka). The most popular newspapers in Lviv are “Vysoky
Zamok”, “Ekspres”, “Lvivska hazeta”, “Ratusha”, Subotna poshta”, “Hazeta po-lvivsky”, “Postup”
and others. Popular magazines include “Lviv Today”, “Chetver”, “RIA” and “Ї”. “Lviv Today”
is a Ukrainian English-speaking magazine, content includes information about business,
advertisement and entertainment spheres in Lviv, and the country in general.
The Lviv oblast television company transmits on channel 12. There are 3 private television
channels operating from Lviv: “LUKS”, “NTA” and “ZIK”.
There are 17 regional and all-Ukrainian radio stations operating in the city.
A number of information agencies exist in the city such as “ZIK”, “”, “Гал-info”,
“Львівський портал” and others. Lviv is home to one of the oldest Polish-language
newspapers “Gazeta Lwowska” which was first published in 1811 and still exists in a bi–weekly
form. Among other publications were such titles
as Kurier Lwowski: associated with people’s movement
which existed from 1883 to 1935. Among the writers who cooperated with it were such renowned
names as Eliza Orzeszkowa, Jan Kasprowicz, Bolesław Limanowski, Władysław Orkan as
well as Ivan Franko, Słowo Lwowskie (1895–1939): A right-wing
daily which cooperated with Władysław Reymont, Henryk Sienkiewicz, Kazimierz Tetmajer, Leopold
Staff, Jerzy Żuławski and Gabriela Zapolska. Among its editors-in-chief was Stanisław
Grabski. In the early 20th century Słowo’s circulation was 20,000 and it was the first
Polish newspaper to publish a serialisation of Reymont’s novel Chłopi. After World War
II Słowo was moved to Wrocław with first postwar issue published on 1 November 1946.
Czerwony Sztandar: A Soviet daily published between 1939 and 1941.Starting in the 20th
century a new movement started with authors from Central Europe. In Lviv a small neo-romantic
group of authors formed around the lyricist Schmuel Jankev Imber. Small print offices
produced collections of modern poems and short stories and through emigration a large networkwas
established. A second smaller group in the 1930s tried to create a connection between
avantgarde art and Yiddish culture. Members of this group were Debora Vogel, Rachel Auerbach
and Rachel Korn. The Holocaust destroyed this movement with Debora Vogel amongst many other
Yiddish authors murdered by the Germans in the 1940s.===In cinema and literature===
The 2011 film In Darkness, Poland’s entry in the 84th Academy Awards category for Best
Foreign Film, is based on a true incident in Nazi-occupied Lviv
Some of the Austrian road-movie Blue Moon was shot in Lviv.
Parts of the film and novel Everything Is Illuminated take place in Lviv.
Brian R. Banks’ Muse & Messiah: The Life, Imagination & Legacy of Bruno Schulz (1892–1942)
has several pages which discuss the history and cultural-social life of the Lviv region.
The book includes a CD-ROM with many old and new photographs and the first English map
of nearby Drohobych. The book The Girl in the Green Sweater: A
Life in Holocaust’s Shadow by Krystyna Chiger takes place in Lviv.
Large parts of 1997 film The Truce depicting Primo Levi’s war experiences were shot in
Lviv. Large portions of the film d’Artagnan and
Three Musketeers were shot in central Lviv. The book The Lemberg Mosaic (2011) by Jakob
Weiss describes Jewish L’viv (Lemberg/Lwow/Lvov) during the period 1910–1943, focusing primarily
on the Holocaust and related events. In the book and film The Shoes of the Fisherman
the Metropolitan Archbishop of Lviv is released from a Soviet labor camp and later elected
Pope. The 2015 film Varta 1 (2015 film), a movie
which demonstrates the search for a new cinema features among young Ukrainian directors.
The film uses the radio talks of the automobile patrols of activists of Lviv during EuroMaydan
and it was made to create a better understanding of the nature of the revolution. The movie
was shot and made in Lviv city.===Parks===
Lviv architectural face is complemented and enriched with numerous parks, and public gardens.
There are over 20 basic recreation park zones, 3 botanical gardens and 16 natural monuments.
They offer a splendid chance to escape from city life or simply sit for a while among
the trees, at a nice fountain or a lake. Each park has its individual character which reflects
through various monuments and their individual history. Ivan Franko Park, is the oldest park in the
city. Traces of that time may be found in three- hundred-year-old oak and maple trees.
Upon the abrogation of the Jesuit order in 1773 the territory became the town property.
A well-known gardener Bager arranged the territory in the landscape style, and most of the trees
were planted within 1885–1890. Bohdan Khmelnytsky Culture and Recreation
Park, is one of the best organised and modern green zones containing a concert and dance
hall, stadium, the town of attractions, central stage, numerous cafes and restaurants. In
the park there is a Ferris wheel. Stryiskyi Park, it is considered one of the
most picturesque parks in the city. The park numbers over 200 species of trees and plants.
It is well known for a vast collection of rare and valuable trees and bushes. At the
main entrance gate, you will find a pond with swans.
Znesinnya Park is an ideal site for cycling, skiing sports, and hiking. Public organisations
favour conducting summer camps here (ecological and educational, educational and cognitive).
Shevchenkivskyi Hay, in the park there is an open-air museum of Ukrainian wooden architecture.
High Castle Park, the park is situated on the highest city hill (413 metres or 1,355
feet) and occupies the territory of 36 hectares (89 acres) consisting of the lower terrace
once called Knyazha Hora (Prince Mount), and the upper terrace with a television tower
and artificial embankment. Zalizni Vody Park, the park originated from
the former garden Zalizna Voda (Iron water) combining Snopkivska street with Novyi Lviv
district. The park owes its name to the springs with high iron concentration. This beautiful
park with ancient beech trees and numerous paths is a favourite place for many locals.
Lychakivskyi Park, founded in 1892 and named after the surrounding suburbs. A botanic garden
is situated on the park territory, founded in 1911 and occupying the territory of 18.5
hectares (45.7 acres).===Sport===
Lviv was an important centre for sport in Central Europe and is regarded as the birth–place
of Polish football. Lviv is the Polish birthplace of other sports. In January 1905 the first
Polish ice-hockey match took place there and two years later the first ski-jumping competition
was organised in nearby Sławsko. In the same year, the first Polish basketball games were
organised in Lviv’s gymnasiums. In autumn 1887 a gymnasium by Lychakiv Street (pol.
ulica Łyczakowska) held the first Polish track and field competition with such sports
as the long jump and high jump. Lviv’s athlete Władysław Ponurski represented Austria in
the 1912 Olympic Games in Stockholm. On 9 July 1922 the first official rugby game in
Poland took place at the stadium of Pogoń Lwów in which the rugby team of Orzeł Biały
Lwów divided itself into two teams – “The Reds” and “The Blacks”. The referee of this
game was a Frenchman by the name of Robineau. The first known official goal in a Polish
football match was scored there on 14 July 1894 during the Lwów-Kraków game. The goal
was scored by Włodzimierz Chomicki who represented the team of Lviv. In 1904 Kazimierz Hemerling
from Lviv published the first translation of the rules of football into Polish and another
native of Lviv, Stanisław Polakiewicz, became the first officially recognised Polish referee
in 1911 the year in which the first Polish Football Federation was founded in Lviv. The
first Polish professional football club, Czarni Lwów opened here in 1903 and the first stadium,
which belonged to Pogoń, in 1913. Another club, Pogoń Lwów, was four times football
champion of Poland (1922, 1923, 1925 and 1926). In the late 1920s as many as four teams from
the city played in the Polish Football League (Pogoń, Czarni, Hasmonea and Lechia). Hasmonea
was the first Jewish football club in Poland. Several notable figures of Polish football
came from the city including Kazimierz Górski, Ryszard Koncewicz, Michał Matyas and Wacław
Kuchar. In the period 1900–1911 opened most famous
football clubs in Lviv. Professor Ivan Bobersky has based in the Academic
grammar school the first Ukrainian sports circle where schoolboys were engaged in track
and field, football, boxing, hockey, skiing, tourism and sledge sports in 1906.
He has organised the “Ukrainian Sports circle” in 1908.
Much its pupils in due course in 1911 have formed a sports society with the loud name
“Ukraine” – first Ukrainian football club of Lviv.Lviv now has several major professional
football clubs and some smaller clubs. FC Karpaty Lviv, founded in 1963, plays in the
first division of the Ukrainian Premier League. Sometimes citizens of Lviv assemble on the
central street (Freedom Avenue) to watch and cheer during outdoor broadcasts of games.
There are three major stadiums in Lviv. One of them is the Ukraina Stadium which is leased
to FC Karpaty Lviv until 2018. Arena Lviv is a brand-new football stadium
that was an official venue for Euro 2012 Championship games in Lviv. Construction work began on
20 November 2008 and was completed by October 2011. The opening ceremony took place on 29
October, with a vast theatrical production dedicated to the history of Lviv. Arena Lviv
is currently playing host to Shakhtar Donetsk and Metalurh Donetsk due to the ongoing war
in Donbass. Lviv’s chess school enjoys a good reputation;
such notable grandmasters as Vassily Ivanchuk, Leonid Stein, Alexander Beliavsky, Andrei
Volokitin used to live in Lviv.Lviv was originally bidding to host the 2022 Winter Olympics,
but has withdrawn and will now most likely bid for the 2026 Winter Olympics.==Tourism==
Due to a comprehensive cultural programme and tourism infrastructure (having more than
8,000 hotel rooms, over 1300 cafes and restaurants, free WI-Fi zones in the city centre, and good
connection with many countries of the world), Lviv is considered one of Ukraine’s major
tourist destinations. The city had a 40% increase in tourist visits in the early 2010s; the
highest rate in Europe.The most popular tourist attractions include the Old Town, and the
Market Square (Ukrainian: Ploshcha Rynok) which is an 18,300-square-metre (196,980-square-foot)
square in the city centre where the City Hall is situated, as well as the Black House (Ukrainian:
Chorna Kamyanytsia), Armenian Cathedral, the complex of the Dormition Church which is the
main Orthodox church in the city; the St. Peter and Paul Church of the Jesuit Order
(one of the largest churches in Lviv); along with the Korniakt Palace, now part of the
Lviv History Museum; the Latin Cathedral of the Assumption of Mary; St. George’s Cathedral
of the Greek-Catholic Church; the Dominican Church of Corpus Christi; Chapel of the Boim
family; the Lviv High Castle (Ukrainian: Vysokyi Zamok) on a hill overlooking the centre of
the city; the Union of Lublin Mound; the Lychakivskiy Cemetery where the notable people were buried;
and the Svobody Prospekt which is Lviv’s central street. Other popular places include Lviv
Theatre of Opera and Ballet, the Potocki Palace, and the Bernardine Church.==Popular culture==
The native residents of the city are jokingly known as the Lvivian batiary (someone who’s
mischievous). Lvivians are also well known for their way of speaking that was greatly
influenced by the Lvivian gwara (talk).Wesoła Lwowska Fala (Polish for Lwów’s Merry Wave)
was a weekly radio program of the Polish Radio Lwow with Szczepko and Tonko, later starring
in Będzie lepiej and The Vagabonds. The Shoes of the Fisherman, both Morris L. West’s novel
and its 1968 film adaptation, had the titular pope as having been its former archbishop.Lviv
has established many city-feasts, such as coffee and chocolate feasts, cheese & wine
holiday, the feast of pampukh, the Day of Batyar, Annual Bread Day and others. Over
50 festivals happen in Lviv, such as Leopolis Jazz Fest, an international jazz festival;
the Leopolis Grand Prix, an international festival of vintage cars; international festival
of academic music Virtuosi; Stare Misto Rock Fest; medieval festival Lviv Legend; international
Etnovyr folklore festival, initiated by UNESCO; international festival of visual art Wiz-Art;
international theatrical festival Golden Lion; Lviv Lumines Fluorescent Art Festival; Festival
of Contemporary Dramaturgy; international contemporary music festival Contrasts; Lviv
international literary festival, Krayina Mriy; gastronomic festival Lviv on a Plate; organ
music festival Diapason; international independent film festival KinoLev; international festival
LvivKlezFest; and international media festival MediaDepo.==Public transportation==Historically, the first horse-drawn tramway
lines in Lviv were inaugurated on 5 May 1880. An electric tram was introduced on 31 May
1894. The last horse-drawn line was transferred to electric traction in 1908. In 1922 the
tramways were switched to driving on the right-hand side. After the annexation of the city by
the Soviet Union, several lines were closed but most of the infrastructure was preserved.
The tracks are narrow-gauge, unusual for the Soviet Union, but explained by the fact that
the system was built while the city was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and needed
to run in narrow medieval streets in the centre of town. The Lviv tramway system now runs
about 220 cars on 75 kilometres (47 miles) of track. Many tracks were reconstructed around
2006. The price in February 2019 of a tram/trolleybus ticket was 5 UAH (reduced fare ticket was
2.5 UAH, e.g. for students). The ticket may be purchased from the driver.
After World War II the city grew rapidly due to evacuees returning from Russia, and the
Soviet Government’s vigorous development of heavy industry. This included the transfer
of entire factories from the Urals and others to the newly “liberated” territories of the
USSR. The city centre tramway lines were replaced with trolleybuses on 27 November 1952. New
lines were opened to the blocks of flats at the city outskirts. The network now runs about
100 trolleybuses – mostly of the 1980s Skoda 14Tr and LAZ 52522. In 2006–2008 11 modern
low-floor trolleybuses (LAZ E183) built by the Lviv Bus Factory were purchased. The public
bus network is represented by mini-buses (so-called marshrutka) and large buses mainly LAZ and
MAN. On 1 January 2013 the city had 52 public bus routes. The price is 7.00 UAH regardless
of the distance traveled. The ticket may be purchased from the driver.===Railways===Modern Lviv remains a hub on which nine railways
converge providing local and international services. Lviv railway is one of the oldest
in Ukraine. The first train arrived in Lviv on 4 November 1861. The main Lviv Railway
Station, designed by Władysław Sadłowski, was built in 1904 and was considered one of
the best in Europe from both the architectural and the technical aspects.
In the interbellum period, Lviv (known then as Lwów) was one of the most important hubs
of the Polish State Railways. The Lwów junction consisted of four stations in mid-1939 – main
station Lwów Główny (now Ukrainian: Lviv Holovnyi), Lwów Kleparów (now Lviv Klepariv),
Lwów Łyczaków (now Lviv Lychakiv), and Lwów Podzamcze (now Lviv Pidzamche). In August
1939 just before World War II, 73 trains departed daily from the Main Station including 56 local
and 17 fast trains. Lwów was directly connected with all major centres of the Second Polish
Republic as well as such cities as Berlin, Bucharest, and Budapest.Currently, several
trains cross the nearby Polish–Ukrainian border (mostly via Przemyśl in Poland). There
are good connections to Slovakia (Košice) and Hungary (Budapest). Many routes have overnight
trains with sleeping compartments. Lviv railway is often called the main gateway from Ukraine
to Europe although buses are often a cheaper and more convenient way of entering the “Schengen”
countries. Lviv used to have a Railbus, which has since
been replaced with other means of public transport. It was a motor-rail car that ran from the
largest district of Lviv to one of the largest industrial zones going through the central
railway station. It made seven trips a day and was meant to provide a faster and more
comfortable connection between the remote urban districts. The price in February 2010
of a one-way single ride in the rail bus was 1.50 UAH. On 15 June 2010, the route was cancelled
as unprofitable.===Air transport===Beginnings of aviation in Lviv reach back
to 1884 when the Aeronautic Society was opened there. The society issued its own magazine
Astronauta but soon ceased to exist. In 1909 on the initiative of Edmund Libanski the Awiata
Society was founded. Among its members there was a group of professors and students of
the Lviv Polytechnic, including Stefan Drzewiecki and Zygmunt Sochacki. Awiata was the oldest
Polish organization of this kind and it concentrated its activities mainly on exhibitions such
as the First Aviation Exhibition which took place in 1910 and featured models of aircraft
built by Lviv students.In 1913–1914 brothers Tadeusz and Władysław Floriańscy built
a two-seater aeroplane. When World War I broke out Austrian authorities confiscated it but
did not manage to evacuate the plane in time and it was seized by the Russians who used
the plane for intelligence purposes. The Floriański brothers’ plane was the first Polish-made
aircraft. On 5 November 1918, a crew consisting of Stefan Bastyr and Janusz de Beaurain carried
out the first ever flight under the Polish flag taking off from Lviv’s Lewandówka (now
Ukrainian: Levandivka) airport. In the interbellum period Lwów was a major centre of gliding
with a notable Gliding School in Bezmiechowa which opened in 1932. In the same year the
Institute of Gliding Technology was opened in Lwów and was the second such institute
in the world. In 1938 the First Polish Aircraft Exhibition took place in the city.
The interwar Lwów was also a major centre of the Polish Air Force with the Sixth Air
Regiment located there. The Regiment was based at the Lwów airport opened in 1924 in the
suburb of Skniłów (today Ukrainian: Sknyliv). The airport is located 6 kilometres (4 miles)
from the city centre. In 2012, after renovation, Lviv Airport got a new official name Lviv
Danylo Halytskyi International Airport (LWO). A new terminal and other improvements worth
under a $200 million has been done in preparation for the 2012 UEFA European Football Championship.
The connection from Airport to the city centre is maintained by bus No. 48 and No. 9.===Bicycle lanes===Cycling is a new but growing mode of transport
in Lviv. In 2011 the City of Lviv ratified an ambitious 9-year program for the set-up
of cycling infrastructure – until the year 2019 an overall length of 270 km (168 mi)
cycle lanes and tracks shall be realized. A working group formally organised within
the City Council, bringing together representatives of the city administration, members of planning
and design institutes, local NGOs and other stakeholders. Events like the All-Ukrainian
Bikeday or the European Mobility Week show the popularity of cycling among Lviv’s citizens.
By September 2011, 8 km (5 mi) of new cycling infrastructure had been built. It can be expected
that until the end of the 2011 50 km (31 mi) will be ready for use. The cycling advisor
in Lviv – the first such position in Ukraine – is supervising and pushing forward the
execution of the cycling plan and coordinates with various people in the city. The development
of cycling in Ukraine is currently hampered by outdated planning norms and the fact, that
most planners didn’t yet plan and experience cycling infrastructure. The update of national
legislation and training for planners is therefore necessary.
In 2015, the first stations have been set up for a new bike-sharing system Nextbike
– the first of its kind in Ukraine. New bike lanes are also under construction, making
Lviv the most bike-friendly city in the country. The City Council plans to build an entire
cycling infrastructure by 2020, with cycle lanes (268 kilometres or 167 miles) and street
bike hire services.==Education==Lviv is an important education centre of Ukraine.
The city contains a total of 12 universities, 8 academies and a number of smaller schools
of higher education. In addition, within Lviv, there is a total of eight institutes of the
National Academy of Science of Ukraine and more than forty research institutes. These
research institutes include the Centre of Institute for Space Research; the Institute
for Condensed Matter Physics; the Institute of Cell Biology; the National Institute of
Strategic Studies; the Institute of Neuro-mathematical Simulation in Power Engineering; and the Institute
of Ecology of the Carpathians. In Soviet times, the city of Lviv was the
location where the software for the Lunokhod programme was developed. The technology for
the Venera series probes and the first orbital shuttle Buran were also developed in Lviv.
A considerable scientific potential is concentrated in the city: by the number of doctors of sciences,
candidates of sciences, scientific organisations Lviv is the fourth city in Ukraine. Lviv is
also known for ancient academic traditions, founded by the Assumption Brotherhood School
and the Jesuit Collegium. Over 100,000 students annually study in more than 50 higher educational
establishments. Educational level of residents:
Basic and complete secondary education: 10% Specialized secondary education: 25%
Incomplete higher education (undergraduates): 13%
Higher education (graduates): 51% Ph.D. (postgraduates): about 1%===Universities===Ivan Franko National University of Lviv (ukr.
Львівський національний університет імені Івана
Франка) Lviv Polytechnic (ukr. Національний
університет “Львівська політехніка”)
Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University (ukr. Львiвський національний
медичний унiверситет iм. Данила Галицького)
Lviv Stepan Gzhytsky national university of veterinary medicine and biotechnologies (ukr.
Львівський національний університет ветеринарної
медицини та біотехнологій імені Степана Гжицького)
National Forestry Engineering University of Ukraine (ukr. Український національний
лісотехнічний університет) Ukrainian Catholic University (ukr. Український
католицький університет) The Lviv National Academy of Arts (ukr. Львівська
національна академія мистецтв) Lviv National Agrarian University (ukr. Львівський
національний аграрний університет)
Lviv State University of Physical Training (ukr. Львівський державний
університет фізичної культури) Lviv Academy of Commerce (ukr. Львівська
комерційна академія) Lviv State University of Life Safety (ukr.
Львівський державний університет безпеки життєдіяльності)
Lviv State University of Interior (ukr. Львівський державний університет
внутрішніх справ)==Notable people=====
Writers and authors===Sholem Aleichem, Jewish, Yiddish author and
playwright Bohdan-Ihor Antonych, Ukrainian poet
Muhammad Asad, writer Ivan Franko, Ukrainian writer, philosopher
Aleksander Fredro, Polish poet, playwright Uri Zvi Greenberg, Yiddish/Hebrew poet
Zbigniew Herbert, Polish poet, writer Jan Kasprowicz, Polish writer, a foremost
representative of Young Poland Maria Konopnicka, Polish poet, writer
Kornel Makuszynski, Polish writer Stanisław Lem, Polish writer
Jan Parandowski, Polish writer Joseph Roth, Jewish writer
Leopold von Sacher-Masoch, Austrian writer Pinchas Sadeh (born Pinchas Feldman, 1929–94),
Polish-born Jewish Israeli novelist and poet Markiyan Shashkevych, Ukrainian writer
Leopold Staff, Polish modernist poet Vasyl Stefanyk, Ukrainian writer
Iryna Vilde (1907–1982), Ukrainian writer Debora Vogel (1902–1942), Jewish writer,
poet Adam Zagajewski, Polish poet
Simon Wiesenthal, Jewish author, Holocaust survivor and Nazi hunter===
Musicians and composers===Emanuel Ax, pianist
Yuri Bashmet, viola player Wojciech Bobowski, Polish musician and dragoman
in the Ottoman Empire, first translated the Bible into Ottoman Turkish
Albert Franz Doppler (1821–1883), flute virtuoso and composer
Volodymyr Ivasiuk, Ukrainian composer Tadeusz Kassern, composer
Wojciech Kilar, Polish classical and film music composer
Filaret Kolessa, Ukrainian ethnographer, composer Oleh Krysa, Ukrainian violinist, professor
Stanislav Liudkevych, Ukrainian composer Karol Mikuli (1819–1897), Polish pianist,
Chopin’s student Gabriela Moyseowicz, Polish composer, pianist
Franz Xavier Mozart, composer Moriz Rosenthal (1862–1946), Jewish pianist,
composer Myroslav Skoryk, Ukrainian composer===Philosophers, scholars, and doctors===
Stefan Banach, Polish mathematician Martin Buber, Austrian born Jewish Israeli
philosopher Solomon Buber (1827–1906), Jewish banker,
writer, philosopher Julian J. Bussgang, Polish mathematician
Benedykt Dybowski, Polish naturalist and physician Ludwik Fleck, Polish medical doctor and biologist
Maurice Goldhaber, physicist Ivan Krypiakevych, Ukrainian historian, academic,
professor of Lviv University Ludwig von Mises, Jewish American economist
Jakub Parnas, Jewish biochemist Faina Petryakova, Ukrainian ethnographer and
academic Adam Ulam, Polish historian
Stanisław Ulam, Polish mathematician Ivan Vakarchuk, Ukrainian physicist, rector
of the Lviv National University Liubomyr Vynar (1932), historian
Hersch Lauterpacht (1897-1960), jurist, used the term “Crimes Against Humanity” to describe
Nazi atrocities Raphael Lemkin (1900-1959), jurist, inventor
of the term “genocide”===Chess and gaming===
Alexander Beliavsky, Ukrainian chess grandmaster Danylo Ishutin, Ukrainian professional gaming
player Vassily Ivanchuk, Ukrainian chess grandmaster
Kateryna Lagno, Ukrainian chess grandmaster Anna Muzychuk, Ukrainian chess grandmaster
Mariya Muzychuk, Ukrainian chess grandmaster Oleg Romanishin, Ukrainian chess grandmaster
Andrei Volokitin Ukrainian chess grandmaster===Actors, singers, and directors===
Krystyna Feldman, Polish actress Leo Fuchs, Jewish actor
Solomiya Krushelnytska, Ukrainian opera singer Les Kurbas, Ukrainian movie and theatre director,
actor Paulina Lavitz, Jewish actress
Paul Muni, Jewish actor Aleksander Myszuga, Polish opera singer
Ruslana (1973), Ukrainian pop singer Mariana Sadovska, Ukrainian actress, singer,
musician, recording artist, composer Svyatoslav Vakarchuk, Ukrainian rock musician
Gabriela Zapolska, Polish playwright, actress Andrzej Żuławski, Polish film director,
Painters===Roman Bezpalkiv (1938–2009), Ukrainian painter
Zefiryn Ćwikliński, Polish painter who moved and spent most of his life in Zakopane in
Poland Artur Grottger, Polish romantic painter
Eugeniusz Geppert, Polish painter Jaroslava Korol, Ukrainian painter
Witold Manastyrski, Ukrainian painter Tadeusz Rychter, Polish painter
Jan Styka, Polish painter Ivan Trush, Ukrainian painter===
Military leaders===Tadeusz Jordan-Rozwadowski, Polish military
leader and one of the founders of modern Poland, buried in Lychakivskiy Cemetery
Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski, Polish military leader Michał Karaszewicz-Tokarzewski, Polish military
leader Adam Epler, Polish military leader===Government officials and politicians===
Tadeusz Brzeziński, Polish consular official; father of President Jimmy Carter’s national
security adviser, Zbigniew Brzeziński Vyacheslav Chornovil, Ukrainian politician
Agenor Romuald Gołuchowski, Minister of Interior in the Austro-Hungarian Empire and governor
of Galicia Mykhailo Hrushevsky, Ukrainian academic, politician
Faina Kirschenbaum, Israeli politician Jacek Kuroń, Polish politician
Ignacy Moscicki, Polish president Karl Radek (1885–1939), political activist===
Clergy===Aaron Abba ben Johanan ha-Levi, rabbi
Michał Piotr Boym, Polish preacher, sinologist, traveler, cartographer, translator, diplomat,
philosopher, philologist, botanist, biologist, doctor
Lubomyr Husar, Major archbishop of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church and a Cardinal of the
Catholic Church Josaphat Kotsylovsky, Ukrainian Greek Catholic
bishop and martyr Roman Lysko, Ukrainian Greek Catholic priest
and martyr Andrey Sheptytsky, Ukrainian philanthropist,
benefactor, founder of Lviv National Museum, Metropolitan Archbishop
Josyf Slipyj, Major archbishop of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church and a Cardinal of the
Catholic Church. Casimir Zeglen, inventor of the bulletproof
vest David HaLevi Segal (d. 1667), author of Turei
Zahav Tzvi Hirsch ben Yaakov Ashkenazi (“Chacham
Tzvi”) (d. 1718) Jacob Joshua ben Tzevi Hirsch (d. 1756, Offenbach
am Main); officiated until 1731 Joshua Falk ha-Kohen (Katz) ben Alexander
(d. 1614), author of Sefer Me’irat ‘Enayim===
Sports===Vladislav Bykanov (born 1989), Israeli Olympic
short track speed skater Victor Chukarin, a Soviet gymnast, he won
eleven medals including seven gold medals at the 1952 and 1956 Summer Olympics, an assistant
professor at the Lviv Institute of Physical Culture.
Kazimierz Górski, Polish soccer coach Danil Ishutin, Dota 2 player
Oleh Luzhny, Ukrainian former professional soccer player
Elena Vesnina, Ukrainian tennis player==
International relations=====Twin towns and sister cities=====
See also==List of Leopolitans
Polish football clubs established in Lviv: Pogoń Lwów, Czarni Lwów, Lechia Lwów,
Hasmonea Lwów Great Suburb Synagogue

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