Key Critical Thinking Skills for Advanced Learners

that's good there should be lots of comments lots of participation thank you all for coming perhaps you can all just write what time it is in your country and let's see who's got the earliest time who's got the latest 5 o'clock 10 o'clock late at night 11 p.m. for one person a few people later a few people earlier 11 p.m. seems to be the latest we've got 3 p.m. in the afternoon most places thank you all for coming it's 9 o'clock in England it'll soon be my bedtime but good of you all to stay up midnight in Russia Wow ok let's get cracking in the next hour we are going to look at critical thinking but particularly critical thinking skills for advanced learners I've done previous webinars on critical thinking some of you might have come before we've looked at definitions of critical thinking I've looked at critical thinking for lower level learners and but in this session we're going to focus on advanced learners in particular basically there are three parts to the presentation the first two are quite short I'm going to define critical thinking in the context of the ELT classroom so I'm going to give you my definition of what critical thinking is people have different definitions you will have your own idea of what critical thinking is but I'm going to define it and put it into context so we know what we're referring to and the second part of the presentation again quite brief I'm going to contrast the main features of critical thinking at lower levels with those at higher levels so we can see the relationship between learners at beginner to pre intermediate level and learners are intermediate to advanced level okay and then the third part which is the main part of this webinar is going to be practical I'm going to suggest some practical ideas for developing what I think are key critical thinking skills for advanced learners and we're going to try some of the activities and I'm gonna get you participating a bit more in that session we'll stop for a few questions about a third of the way in and hopefully there'll be time for questions at the end let's get going first of all with a quick definition of what I think critical thinking is people are still coming in the room but let's get going okay critical thinking when we talk about thinking lots of you will be familiar with the idea that we talk about lower order thinking and we talk about higher order thinking and we can we can talk about those as if they're on a kind of a scale so you see my scale here the idea is that we can move our students from thinking at one level and get them thinking at a higher level and this originates from the work to some extent of Bloom's taxonomy and the idea of different levels of thinking but since bloom we've moved on to the idea that rather than have six levels of thinking and a hierarchy thinking works as a kind of a continuum and we can break it down into three main categories there's basic comprehension so when we teach students an item of vocabulary or some grammar we then check that they understand it so basic comprehension is about remembering and understanding and then applying right at the top at higher-order thinking is creative thinking we ask students to create things we ask them to produce something new and original with the language they have and the knowledge they have maybe they give a presentation maybe they write a story something creative and in between that is critical thinking where we ask students to analyze and evaluate and quite often in lessons we spend a lot of time dealing with basic comprehension and we get students to think creatively but perhaps we spend a little less time asking students to think slightly more deeply and to get them analyzing and evaluating if you walk into a classroom and you were looking for critical thinking taking place or different levels of thinking you can often identify it by the type of exercise that the teacher is using for example for basic comprehension tasks you might see a teacher giving student things like fill the blank exercises true/false questions matching activities good exercises but they're just checking students understanding of the language and getting them to apply it in quite a basic kind of way if the teacher was developing critical thinking we would probably see more exercises where the teacher is getting students to analyze a text maybe a reading text or they're analyzing sentences maybe they're inferring meaning from a text from a reading or a listening or we're asking them to discover the meaning to something or evaluate the author's opinion for example or evaluate the opinion of their partner in discussion perhaps so it's those kinds of activities with creative thinking we get students to give presentations write essays perhaps make videos those kinds of things and they tend to reflect these different levels of thinking so for me you can't talk about critical thinking without understanding its relationship to basic comprehension also to creative thinking okay people are still coming you're okay you're welcome to join as Marco if you used to have to catch up so that's my definition of critical thinking let's look at this in practice okay first of all critical thinking with lower level learners here's a lesson from an elementary course book it's from life elementary and it's looking at the topic of food and I'm going to use this with elementary students and let's just analyze two of the exercises from this spread here we've got basic comprehension and if we look at this exercise one it's basically matching words to pictures and all we're doing is checking students can remember and understand the words for food yeah so it's a basic comprehension task and rather its life Elementary published by National Geographic learning okay in exercise 2 remembering this is an elementary book we get students to think about what they like and don't like what they eat what they don't don't often eat so they're starting to analyze the foods and think about them a bit more critically it's not really full-blown critical thinking but it's it's making them think a little bit more with higher-order thinking and that would be typical of the sorts of exercises that you'd see with elementary students let's contrast this with material for higher level students let's look at a lesson from life advanced the topic in this advanced book is the ignitor of beauty and it's looking at the fact that different cultures define beauty in different ways so what I'm find beautiful you might find beauty in something different I according to perhaps our culture or perspective on life so compare that with the elementary our lesson on food already the topic and the context is much more complex for the advanced students because they have a higher level of English let's take one of the exercises from this page and just look at it in contrast the lower and higher order thinking so this is exercise 2 from the book and what the writer has done here is ask the students to look at four statements about beauty and to think whether those statements are true or not so we're asking the students what do you think about this topic well these are quite difficult sentences these are difficult to talk about in your first language not just in your second language in English they're quite you know you have to think quite deeply about them so there's some critical thinking going on and then the students have to go back to the article about beauty and find out the author's view so there's an element of comprehension work going on there so what you see here with advanced learners is that the exercise combines higher order thinking and lower order thinking kind of both at the same time with elementary students we tend to separate them because the students don't have the language level they're dealing with language and so they need things much more scaffolded with the advanced students we can challenge them much more with the exercise design okay so let's just sum up the definition and what this means in terms of level with beginner to pre intermediate students we can use topics and contexts which are concrete and known so we can have topics like sport food free time activities those kinds of topics we've intermediate to advanced topics and context can much more abstract we can use more authentic text we can introduce topics that the students don't know much about so that they are talking about topics which they really have to think about more deeply and they have to learn something new about the subject generally in lower level classes there's a lower percentage of critical thinking tasks we can still include critical thinking but we spend a lot more time on lower order thinking and basic comprehension tasks it's logical with advanced students as a higher percentage of critical thinking and creative thinking because they they have the language to cope with that exercises I've just said exercises with lower-level material tend to separate levels of thinking so we'll have an exercise where it's about basic comprehension then we have another exercise which is developing critical thinking but with advanced learners we can asks we can integrate levels of thinking and they can be working both in higher order and lower order thinking almost simultaneously and the two things are working in parallel with some exercises finally lower levels the students much more dependent on the teacher the teacher for example will generally ask the questions if we give students a reading text this teacher will write the comprehension questions or if we teach grammar quite often the teacher teaches the rule with more advanced students they're more dependent on the learner we can develop more learner autonomy and students can discover rules rather than be told rules or they can look at a reading text and come to their own conclusions okay so that was the definition and that was just then contrasting lower and advanced levels now before I go to the next part of the webinar which is much more looking at advanced students and the skills they need and some practical it is are there any quick questions or does anybody want anything clarifying before we move on I'm just gonna have a glass of mouth full of water Elizabeth questions about lower levels I did a webinar a few months ago we National Geographic learning if you go to the InFocus site there's a recording of that webinar and it's all about critical thinking with lower levels I can't answer that question now because it's it's too big but go and watch the webinar okay level integrating levels of thinking what I meant was that in one exercise we might ask students to use their critical thinking and then for example go back to a text and look for the author's view on something so we're combining critical thinking with basic comprehension skills at the same time and with advanced levels they can cope with both of things going on at the same time topics are suggested to advanced pamela and if you look in the advanced levels of books like life we we do all sorts of topics and quite often the texts are taken from authentic sources so it might be things you come across in magazines from newspapers National Geographic is a really good source of interesting articles quite often it's about bringing things into class that students wouldn't normally read but but have some intrinsic interest if you take a look again at the in focused website with National Geographic you'll find more ideas for the text yes TED Talks as well would work well with students particularly advanced level students okay so that was a quick sort of quick recap of definitions and where we are in terms of their advanced student let's get talking about the advanced learner in terms of critical thinking let's think about what what are the key skills for our advanced learners the first key skill for me are questioning skills when I bring in a reading text or listening text into class I want my advanced students to ask the questions I want them to pick up a reading text and think well what's going on here what is the author saying why is the author saying it like this or if I'm listening to a TED talk I want to know more about the TED Talks speaker or what their perspective is so instead of me the teacher always asking or writing the questions and teachers spend a lot of time doing that kind of thing I want that student to come in and start asking the questions yes Karen there's a little bit of critical literacy going on here yeah the second key skill for me is that students particularly advanced students develop the ability to summarize what they've read or what they've listened to now summarizing skills are particularly challenging even in your own language I find it difficult to do sometimes it's even harder obviously in your second language in English but there are ways in which we can we can help students develop summarizing skills and report back on what they've read about yes getting to the heart of the matter uma is a nice definition of summarizing but there's a lot of analyzing and evaluating that takes place I also want my advanced learners to comment and discuss and if I've brought in an interesting topic to the lesson I want them to have an opinion now fortunately lots of my advanced learners have strong opinions but I still need to help them express their views in a certain kind of way and sometimes I need them to use discussion language that's more subtle that's more sophisticated so I need to help them with that for homework I often set at advanced students research tasks I want them to find out more about the topic and what's wonderful now with the internet and so on is that I can bring in a reading to class we can read about a topic and then I can say to the students for homework can you go off and do some more research so quite often the research happens happens as part of their as a homework task but you can you've with the wonderful thing with Advanced Learner's is you can ask them to do that kind of task and the fifth skill is developing these students and critical reflection skills by this I mean that they they might give a presentation they might write an essay they might do some research and so on and then I want them to reflect on their own work and say well have I been successful now normally teachers give feedback we tell students yes you've made a mistake or this was good or this wasn't so good but with advanced learners I also want them to develop the skills to be able to a self assess their own work and also peer evaluate each other's work and we kind of need to develop that skill and build it into our lessons so those are five key skills I think for advanced learners and their skills that advanced learners are capable of because they obviously have the language skills what we're gonna do now is look at each skill and I'm gonna suggest some practical ways and in which we can help the advanced learners okay and we're gonna try out a few activities okay so first of all questioning what's going on here I said that with lower levels we often write the comprehension questions or the teacher ask the questions and I want my advanced students to ask questions so if I bring in a reading text or a listening text for example a TED talk I need to train my students to automatically start to ask questions and the types of questions I want them to ask our do I already know about the topic so if they're about to read a text or listen to something I want them to subconsciously think about what do I already know about this do I have opinions on it have I read something before about it I also want them to think about who wrote it or if it's a listening who's saying it and how will this affect their opinion for example if it's a speaker who is the speaker and do they have a certain perspective are they going to try and convince me of something and so they will they use language in a certain kind of way quite often if this an author or a speaker gives an argument I want to know what evidence they're providing for that so I'm gonna look for supporting evidence and I want advanced students to look for their evidence so Bianca you're right it could be quotations it could be references to sources it could be research they've done maybe they're done surveys or something but I'm looking for that kind of evidence and I'm looking for the kinds of sources that they're providing to support their evidence this is particularly important if you're teaching advanced learners who are going to go on to university and do their studies in English academic English it's particularly helpful for but also English for work it's it's they're useful skills and then students need to look well do I agree with the conclusion of the author or the presenter having read all of this what do I think about it and often we write the questions for the students but we want advance advance students are capable of just coming to those conclusions themselves and then sharing them with the class and giving their own opinion and then we're really starting to develop their critical thinking Antony yet good comment spotting author bias I mean that's linked to evidence sources what's the author's perspective the whole fake news issue that Simon's just mentioned all comes into this particularly with text taken from the internet it's particularly relevant and finally I want the students to start thinking about where can I find out more about the topic if I've brought a taught a reading into class for example I want them to think about where can I find out more about it and that links with research skills that that's coming later now I said it's important for advanced students to develop questioning skills but it's not enough to say to the students you need to think critically or you need to ask questions it's helpful if I can use an exercise to develop their mindset okay here's a little exercise you can do with your students earlier I showed you a reading text called the Enigma of beauty and the topic was how beauty our idea of beauty changes according to the culture way from okay I'm going to show you a statement about beauty and don't write anything but just think to yourself what's my opinion of this statement do I agree do I disagree what do I think of it okay there's the statement you don't have to write anything just think for 10 or 20 seconds okay now Emily's gonna share a poll with you and you've got six statements there before you answer read all the statements be careful be careful read all the statements and then click the one that best reflects your reaction to the statement about beauty okay it's a little critical mindset exercise bit late in the day for it but see what you think just click it's the reaction that you had we've got over 200 people in the room so nearly half of you have answered so far some of you are thinking critically about it before answering the poll okay I think we've got most of the belly so most of you are opting for a agree it's true and some people have had enough so let's look now I'm going to show you what what the answers say about you in terms of critical thinking do not take it personally it's only an exercise okay but here are how you could interpret the answers okay so just have a look through and you'll see that with answers E&F f in particular what I'm trying to say to students is yes I want you to have opinions you can agree or disagree but I also want you to perhaps go and look for more information before giving a final opinion and what this exercise is doing is raising their awareness of of what I want as a teacher when I say I want you to think more critically I'm saying to you have opinions and find the evidence that will support those opinions okay so it's just raising their awareness of the importance of questioning skills it's particularly good for English for academic purposes student university students but it's a nice exercise if you're preparing students to write argumentative essays or you want students to have debates and discussions it encourages them to think about why they have their opinions and how they're going to support their opinions okay it also just defines what we mean by a critical mindset or being a critical thinker okay it's a slightly fun gamey type of exercise but it's a very effective way of raising their awareness okay so once I've got their questioning skills going I might ask them to read a text or listen to a lecture and then I want students to report back and what often happens in lessons is we set comprehension questions and then students just give me the answers and they tell me a word or they read out a sentence but with summarizing it's much more demanding for advanced students because you're you're getting them to decide what is important information there's a couple of exercises you can do to get students familiar and to develop this skill okay let's imagine that we've been reading a text about healthy eating okay and I'm gonna take a paragraph from that reading text and I'm gonna say to students I want you to delete about 50% of the words in the paragraph but keep the same meaning so this is a good starting point for summary skills so let's look at the first sentence the first sentence here says people usually think that in order to be healthy you need to eat certain foods a balance of fruit meat vegetables bread etc which words if we deleted 50% of that sentence which words can we delete without losing the main meaning just type them in usually okay usually you could get rid of you could say people think to be healthy so you can cut that in order people think to be healthy you need to eat certain foods or you could say you need to eat a balance of fruit meat and vegetables and you could cut to eat certain foods but you get the idea you're basically deleting half the sentences shortening it so you're introducing the idea of analyzing and evaluating what is the main sense of the sentence what I do with students is I give them the whole paragraph they have a go at deleting all the words and then I give them an example answer of what I'm looking for so here's my suggested answer and there you can see I've deleted a load of of words but still tried to keep the main sense of the paragraph and then I could probably say to the students now can you delete another 25% until by the end of the exercise they get the absolute main idea of what the author's saying and that somehow much more manageable for our learners and it's introducing the idea of what summarizing is really about okay remember this is this is a difficult skill even in your own language so we we have to work slowly with students to get them it's no good saying go and summarize a reading text if you haven't introduced how to actually do it as jessica's just said it's challenging yes it's difficult but I think this is quite a helpful step the other thing you're gonna do if you introduce the topic of summarizing is to take something familiar to the students and ask them to summarize it okay now I'm going to introduce an activity to you that's kind of fun to do with students as an introductory activity to summarizing skills I assume everybody here has read or heard about the writer Ernest Hemingway some of you might have read Ernest Hemingway some of you have probably heard of anyway he's very famous because he writes in a very succinct direct way you he in in he was a he was famous as his own editor he used to go through and delete a lot of his writing until he got absolutely yeah the short sentences shortest if a fictional story Jenny's done this exercise so Hemingway was famous for his six word story this is Hemingway shortest ever story for Sale baby shoes never worn okay this story became so famous that actually there's a website called six-word stories dotnet where people write their own six word novels and you can go and read them and it's a very fun creative task to do with students because it gets them to think in very kind of quick short ways but I like to do a YA bit like haiku yeah the Lord touch the water it lush Road I super okay and you could do this in Reverse and this is more of a critical thinking task where you get students to summarize a story that they know in six words so you choose a famous story and you ask students to summarize it in six words this story works very well has everybody in the room either read this story or seen the film or they roughly know what Harry Potter is about lots of people saying yes neither reddit or cedar okay Jasmine you're just gonna have to play on most people have read it some people have read it multiple times okay apologies if you haven't read it you're just gonna have to observe okay here's the exercise you say to students I want you to summarize the story of Harry Potter in six words so let's try it let's see if any of you can write the summarize the story of Harry Potter in using only six words let's try it in the chat room now kid magician and friends face evil very nice though Toro young boy finds stone saves day fantastic Harry on the broom against evil in a nutshell I did not read it okay that was a discovery Maria okay no family new friends become magician magic a boy who lived and Sean any others wizard boy fights Dark Lord yearly that's nice I like that yeah boy goes to school learns magic pot a magician great one okay lots of nice summaries very good young boy with power and very brave orphan wizard beats off we go lots of them lots of them lots of readers of Harry Potter you get the idea here's my six word story you can compare boy wizard beats Voldemort seven times that's a spoiler alert if you've never read Harry Potter I've just told you what the whole plot sorry about that and spoiler exactly yeah and people are still writing the six words Severus okay but you get the idea it's a nice way to introduce summary writing it and it you take something familiar to the students and they work it that way if you use graded readers with students it's a nice exercise as well because they can they can read the reader and then they try to summarize it in six words but you really have to think critically about this you really have to kind of analyze it and evaluate and think what are the key points of this story Karen thank you your answer was way bit well I had more time to think about it to be honest okay but it's it's a really useful exercise now I met a teacher recently who does something similar and I hadn't done this but I thought it was a really nice idea so I'm gonna tell you about it this teacher did a similar exercise based on something that happens on Twitter you know that in Twitter it used to be 140 characters when you write something in Twitter I think it's 200 now but it was a hundred and forty there was a group of people on Twitter who started to post summaries of famous books in a hundred and forty characters so you could do the same exercise based around the idea of Twitter now I thought I'll show you how this works so this comes from you can look at the link from The Telegraph but it's taking great works of literature and shortens them into tweets so for example somebody on Twitter might summarize the story and you can ask students to do the same thing so look at the first one what do you think the piece of literature is in number one any readers of English literature out there James Joyce man walks around Dublin correct Jasmin 1.2 Jasmin it was Ulysses next one Charles Dickon orphan gives pounced by secret authority thinks it's Miss Havisham Oliver is not correct Jenny great expert exit expectations is correct Jasmine okay JD salinger rich kids everyone is fake except for his little sister has breakdown anybody know the title Catcher in the Rye very well done Arturo very fast okay next one Jane Austen woman meets man called Darcy who seems horrible Pride and Prejudice 1.2 Adriana and for the final points this is a more modern one Helen Fielding women meet one mist man called Darcy who seems horrible he turns out to be a nice guy really anybody know the answer to this one correct Jenny Edwards it's Bridget Jones's Diary okay quick just test of your English literature knowledge there the point is that it's the same principle as the six word story you could ask students to try to write it as as Twitter comments but again it's trying to get them main sense and to summarize the idea it's a fun way to introduce summary skills which students can find quite hard it can sometimes be quite dull to do and so this is a kind of nice way into the topic and get students thinking about how do I actually summarize things okay try it out with your students you could do this activity just as a 15-minute part of your lesson just to kind of get them warmed up if you want as a sort of a lead-in to a lesson there's different ways of using it you could get them to write their own six-word stories or they could also kind of practice summarizing as well so it's it's kind of you could do it with movies and there yeah yeah absolutely right you could summarize movies I'm sure it has lots of applications and so on yeah a TV shows all sorts of ways of using it I'm sure you'll come up with all sorts of variations on it but it's fun to do with students okay next skill discussion skills we want students to express their own views so they might have read something and I want them to express an opinion or have a discussion I don't have too much to say here because I think with advanced learners quite often they have quite a lot to say and quite often their cognitive level is such that you can take in quite complex text and they'll talk about them and they'll have ideas about them I think there are two ways in which we can help them one is with the type of language that they use now typically this is from the life course books but we teach students expressions in the books and life pre intermediate level we would introduce the following language for discussing opinions so what do you think what's your opinion I think we should in my opinion I agree good idea that kind of language yeah the thing is with advanced learners when they have discussions in class quite often they used the same type of language the same functional language as someone's just said but what they don't do is push the level of that language up they stay with the phrases they're comfortable with those pre intermediate phrases because they work Victor said it they tend to always use the same words exactly that's interesting Anthony Italians often do start sentences with for me yes it's true with advanced learners the list over here is also teaching them the language for discussions but it's from life advanced and you'll see the difference in the language there we start to teach students how to propose a point or a viewpoint but it's more tentative language and they're also taught how to concede points because quite often students will express an opinion but won't necessarily admit that they're wrong or they've been proved wrong so they want the language to concede a points or perhaps to save face and so they need this higher level kind of language it's tentative language it's hedging language it's discussion language with more subtlety so I think that's what we need to work on with advanced learners one way to do this is if you're having a class discussion give students the list of phrases and every time they use one of those phrase in the discussion they give it a tick and they try during the course of the discussion to tick all the phrases and use everything up so they kind of get practice so that's one key thing for the advanced students and their discussion skills the other thing is to teach advanced learners strategies now you've probably all done classroom discussions in classroom debates and sometimes they can go really wrong students express their opinion and then there's no real discussion they just stop talking what's really useful is to set aside some time before discussion discussion to let students plan what they're gonna say for example if I was gonna do a discussion on the topic of beauty that we were looking at earlier I might say to the students decide whether you're for or against the opinion and what I want you to do using this table is write three main arguments to support your opinion so students have to think about why they think that and then write their arguments then I say to them think about what a person who disagrees with you what would they say what would be their counter-argument and they write the counter-argument here so what they're doing is they're thinking critically about what the other side thinks it's all about empathizing and understanding and seeing other people's perspective it's a bit like a chess game Anna yeah and then once they've done they counter-arguments they think of their replies so that they've already planned how they're going to have the discussion if they spend about 10 minutes before the discussion filling in this kind of table the quality of this discussion is so much better they could do it as pair work they could plan the things plan it together and then prepare for the debate but it will just be improved the debate yes I mean it's sort of flipping it isn't it it's asking them to do that pre work and then when they come to class to communicate and discuss the quality is so much better you could set it for homework here but you're teaching them a strategy I mean I teach this strategy even to students whose first language is English if they're university students because it's better quality discussion that I get afterwards so it's a useful so those were two tips on discussion skills let's get on to where time is running away with us research skills I want students to go home do homework and maybe research more on a topic maybe I want them to prepare a presentation or I want them to do some research to write an essay those kinds of skills one of the problems that students have nowadays is knowing where to go to do the research what is a good place to do the research now students have access to the Internet but the problem is what is the quality of information on the Internet so before you do research with students and the next two exercises are very useful this one somebody's just mentioned sources Bianca has mentioned sources I might ask them to do this exercise where I give them a list of sources they might use to do research just to give them ideas on where to do research but then I'll also get them to think about whether it's a reliable source or not and they write one if it's not reliable – if it might be reliable or three if it's usually reliable so let's try this if I said to the students a shared post on social media would you give it a score of one two or three just type in the chat box one maybe lots of ones maybe twos it kind of depends doesn't it but they'd certainly have to go and check that the information was good information they couldn't just trust social media what if I said the source was an article in a newspaper what score would you give it then twos ones the question that students usually start asking is well it depends on the newspaper which is obviously a good answer yeah somebody's just written depends on the reputation of the newspaper that's actually the question because it's it's sort of there are some newspapers it might be typically very reliable and others that aren't but that's good useful classroom discussion it means that students have to think about the quality of the of the source so that's one activity to get advanced students thinking about how they're going to do the research and where they're going to look for it the other one is that students will use the internet a lot and for this they need information literacy skills or they need digital literacy skills but really it's information literacy and what I do sometimes is give students a little awareness-raising quiz and I'm going to show you part of the quiz that I give them so this is my information literacy quiz now there's three questions and each question has an ABC answer and I thought we'd do this for a bit of fun just to test your information literacy so emily is gonna put the poll question in front of you and you're gonna answer the question and we'll see what you think so you want to include two sentences from an online article in your essay for homework which is allowed can you answer twos one of the answers let's see what you all decide this one's pretty a pretty easy one but for your students they may never have thought about it before and most of you are going for answer B which yes then is the answer that I would give that you can use sentences with quotation marks and quote the source it's really important that they're aware of that as Jasmine's just said plagiarism is illegal okay question two the poll is coming up from Emily I think it's looking slightly oh there we go Emily you find a photo online that you would like to reuse on a school project which of the following is it okay to do let's see which you think this and the majority of you going for the last one yeah normally if the photo has CC license that tells you whether you're okay to use it because it refers to the copyright question three is a bit more open so let's put questions three and your opinions might be more different with this one you made a short video and posted it online a year later you find your video is reposted on someone else's blog but it doesn't mention you your name how do you feel about it all the some angry people amongst you so the answers are slightly more split here so now we've got the majority of you're a bit annoyed but that's what happens on the internet so you just all accept that this is okay on the internet I think that I would be really angry and probably write to the blogger to complain about it to be honest but it depends it depends on the video and how I feel about it the point is with that exercise it's just it's it's a nice vocabulary exercise because it contains a lot of interesting vocabulary for students and but it's also raising their awareness of information literacy in terms of doing research on the Internet and you can create more questions and in fact I have a book coming out next year called critical thinking in ELT that I wrote with Paul dummy it'll be available next year and the full quiz is in that book plus some other ideas on research skills for students okay so but you'll hear more about that if you're interested at the beginning of next year but it's a useful task to give students before doing their research particularly because students will go to the int go to the Internet okay we're nearly finished we've got a few minutes critical reflection skills very quickly teachers give feedback we tell students what they were successful if the students have written an essay I tell them what I liked about the essay what they need to work on and so on but with Advan it's learners I want to develop autonomous learners who can reflect on the quality of their own work as part of the writing process or if they're preparing a presentation I want them to reflect on the quality of the presentation and then decide what action they're going to take next very quickly a simple way of doing this is if for example if you ask students to write an essay I would typically then ask the students to swap the essays over and use this checklist to evaluate each other's work this particular checklist is aimed at getting them to focus on the structure of a for and against essay and to check that it contains evidence and so on so you just design the form according to whatever it is they're writing or you could design the form for presentation skills if students was giving a presentation they could also do it yet Jessica has done it with academic writing it's not a new activity and we use it quite a lot in the life books on the writing pages where students give peer feedback but you can also with the critical of reflection you can also add a new layer where you give the students a blank checklist and as a class they define what they think makes a good essay so you discuss it as a class and they write in what they think makes a good essay and then they use those criteria to analyze their essays after they've written the essays now this does a number of things it means that students think very deeply about what makes a good essay they then think very deeply about their own writing while they're writing because they know what they're being assessed for because they defined it and then afterwards they use it they used it to assess each other and that's what I mean by critical reflection in the sense it's quite a simple approach but it really develops those critical reflection skills and it you need to set aside time it takes time to do it with the students but it's as you say blank it's really motivating and it's it's a way of raising the quality of their work I think in the long term so I would really recommend it which brings me to the end we've looked at the advanced learner and I've said the key critical thinking skills for me there are others questioning summarizing discussion research critical reflections okay and there are other critical thinking skills but I think with advanced students those are the particularly the key ones okay Pauline is asked about writing books I know that National Geographic has a book on writing I can't remember the exact title also the life books have big writing section and that we also have additional writing exercises as well if you go to the life web site you'll find additional ideas for writing as well thank you all for attending do we have any we've got four minutes left any kind of quick questions or comments from anybody I've given you a lot of information very quickly so I know you had a lot to take on thank you all for attending I hope it was useful and worth staying up till one o'clock in the morning for some of you okay all right Emily I think we're gonna stop there everybody seems happy enough and ready to go to bed so perhaps you can take over okay sounds great thanks so much John it was really a great webinar and like John said thank you all of you who have stayed up or if it's early in the morning thank you for coming on and we're so glad you could join us here today and we really hope it was useful for your teaching practice just a few last notes before we wrap up here and several of the examples John use today were from life second edition as he mentioned and for more information on that I can put the link in the chat box right here but it's a six level series and these are the British English covers on the that you see on the slides right now they're really beautiful so I'm going to put that right there and check out more into download samples um you can definitely check it out there and also we'd love for you to join us again at another webinar we do have one next week and that's actually with the co-author of life Paul dumb it and that will be more geared towards young learners but you can register on the website link right on just get the arrow here so you can see right here and then we'd love for you to follow us follow our blog too john is a frequent contributor to the blog and so definitely be sure to check out his post there it's ELT ngl comm slash in focus and we love for you to be part of our online social community too for teachers of English we are on Facebook LinkedIn and YouTube so thank you everyone for joining I'm going to send you all now to a short survey oh yes in the certificate I'm so sorry I didn't mention that we will be sending that within five days following this webinar so just stay tuned for that you'll also get the slides and the recording as well and the recording and slides are always posted on our webinar websites you can find them there too I'm glad you enjoyed the webinar Andrea that's great I hope you all did I'm going to send you all to a quick survey now to get your feedback so we can help keep bringing you helpful webinars in the future all right bye everyone have a good night you

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