Individualized Education Program | Wikipedia audio article

The Individualized Education Program, also
called the IEP, is a document that is developed for each public school child who needs special
education. The IEP is created through a team effort,
reviewed periodically. In the United States, this program is known
as an Individualized Education Program .(IEP), and similarly in Canada it is referred to
as an Individualized Education Plan or a Special Education Plan (SEP). In the United Kingdom, an equivalent document
is called an Individual Education System. In Saudi Arabia, the document is known as
an Individual Education Program.An IEP defines the individualized objectives of a child who
has been determined to have a disability or requires specialized accommodation, as defined
by federal regulations. The IEP is intended to help children reach
educational goals more easily than they otherwise would, four component goals are: conditions,
learner, behavior, and criteria. In all cases the IEP must be tailored to the
individual student’s needs as identified by the IEP evaluation process, and must especially
help teachers and related service providers (such as paraprofessional educators) understand
the student’s disability and how the disability affects the learning process. The IEP describes how the student learns,
how the student best demonstrates that learning and what teachers and service providers will
do to help the student learn more effectively. Developing an IEP requires evaluating students
in all areas related to the suspected disabilities, simultaneously considering ability to access
the general curriculum, considering how the disability affects the student’s learning,
forming goals and objectives that correspond to the needs of the student, and choosing
a placement in the least restrictive environment possible for the student.As long as a student
qualifies for special education, the IEP is mandated to be regularly maintained and updated
up to the point of high school graduation, or prior to the 21st birthday or 22nd birthday. If a student in special education attends
university upon graduation, the university’s own system and procedures take over. Placements often occur in “general education,”
mainstream classes, and specialized classes or sub-specialties taught by a special education
teacher, sometimes within a resource room. An IEP is meant to ensure that students receive
an appropriate placement, not only in special education classrooms or special schools. It is meant to give the student a chance to
participate in regular school culture and academics as much as is possible for that
individual student. In this way, the student is able to have specialized
assistance only when such assistance is absolutely necessary, and otherwise maintains the freedom
to interact with and participate in the activities of his or her more general school peers.==Definition of individualized==
The individual needs of each child in the IEP. Such as resources available to ensure they
receive accurate education according to their needs.==Saudi Arabia==
In Saudi Arabia, all schools must provide an IEP for all students who have disabilities. The process of creating an IEP in Saudi Arabia
may exclude the parents and other providers of services.==United States==
In the US, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA) requires
public schools to develop an IEP for every student with a disability who is found to
meet the federal and state requirements for special education. The IEP must be designed to provide the child
with a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE). The IEP refers both to the educational program
to be provided to a child with a disability and to the written document that describes
that educational program. The IDEA requires that an IEP be written according
to the needs of each student who is eligible under the IDEA; an IEP must also meet state
regulations. The following must be included. The student’s present levels of academic and
functional performance Measurable annual goals, including academic
and functional goals How the student’s progress toward meeting
annual goals is to be measured and reported to the parents
Special-education and related services, as well as supplementary aids to be provided
to the student Schedule of services to be provided, including
when the services are to begin, the frequency, duration and location for the provision of
services Program modifications or supports provided
to school personnel on behalf of the child Least Restrictive Environment data which includes
calculations of the amount of time to be spent each day by the student in general-education
settings as opposed to the amount of time to be spent in special-education settings
Explanation of any time the child will not participate along with non-disabled children
Accommodations to be provided during state and district assessments that are necessary
to the measuring the student’s academic and functional performance
The student should attend when appropriate. If the student is over fourteen, he or she
should be invited to be a part of the IEP team. Additionally, when the student is sixteen
years of age, a statement of post-secondary goals and a plan for providing what the student
needs to make a successful transition is required. This transition plan can be created at an
earlier age if desired, but must be in place by the age of sixteen.An IEP must also include
other pertinent information found necessary by the team, such as a health plan or a behavior
plan for some students.==Canada==
In Canada, an Individual Education Plan (IEP) is often referred to as a Special Education
Plan (SEP), Individualized Program Plan (IPP), Student Support Plan (SSP), or an Individual
Support Services Plan (ISSP) depending on the province or territory.The IEP system in
Canada functions very similarly relative to the US, however regulations vary between provinces.==Procedural requirements for development
==The outcome of the IEP development process
is an official document that describes the education plan designed to meet the unique
needs of a child with a disability.===Determination of eligibility for special
education===Before an IEP is written for a child with
a disability, the school must first determine whether the child qualifies for special education
services. To qualify, the child’s disability must have
an adverse effect on the child’s educational progress.To determine eligibility, the school
must conduct a full evaluation of the child in all areas of suspected disability. Based in part on the results of the evaluation,
the school along with the parents meet to review the results and the child’s current
level of performance and to determine whether special education services are needed. In some cases people may go undiagnosed because
of strong visual memories and oral skills they poses, this can mask symptoms of having
of a impaired leaning disorder. If the child is found eligible for services,
the school is required to convene an IEP team and develop an appropriate educational plan
for the child. The IEP should be implemented as soon as possible
after the child is determined eligible. IDEA does not state specific time-frames for
each step. However, each state determines its own laws
for identifying the criteria regarding education and how it should be followed. States have added specific timelines that
schools must follow for the eligibility, IEP development, and IEP implementation milestones. As outlined by IDEA, students can receive
free appropriate education under special education law if they fall under one of 14 categories:1. Autism
2. Deaf-blindness
3. Deafness
4. Developmental delay (for children aged 3–9,
varies by state) 5. Emotional and behavioral disorders
6. Hearing impairment
7. Intellectual disability (formerly referred
to as mental retardation) 8. Multiple disabilities
9. Orthopedic impairment
10. Other health impairment
11. Specific learning disability
12. Speech or language impairment
13. Traumatic brain injury
14. Visual impairment, including blindness
While teachers and school psychologists have the ability to initiate evaluations for special
education service eligibility, they are unqualified to make medical diagnoses. Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD),
autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and physical and developmental delays must be diagnosed
by a physician. Although most children with physical or developmental
delays, who have received consistent medical care, are diagnosed at an early stage by their
pediatricians, it is imperative to include a medical professional in the student’s
evaluation process if one of the aforementioned conditions is suspected, but undiagnosed. When children are diagnosed early, they can
start receiving services at earlier stages of development. State health and/or education departments
offer early intervention services for children under the age of three years. The public school system offers services for
children from ages three through twenty-one.===
Members of the IEP team===The IEP team includes the student, the student’s
parent(s) or legal guardian(s), a special education teacher, at least one general-education
teacher, a representative of the school or of the school district who is knowledgeable
about the availability of school resources, and an individual who can interpret the instructional
implications of the results of the student’s evaluation (such as the school psychologist).The
parent or school may also bring other individuals who have knowledge or special expertise regarding
the child. For example, the school may invite related
service providers such as speech and occupational therapists. The parent may invite professionals who have
worked with or assessed the child, or someone to assist the parent in advocating for the
needs of his or her child, such as a parent advocate or an attorney. If appropriate, the child may also participate
in IEP team meetings. For example, some children begin participating
in their IEP meetings when they reach middle school age. A typical IEP team, and team meeting includes: One or both of the child’s parents. Consistent with the IDEA’s stated policy,
parents should expect to be treated as equal participants with school personnel in developing
the IEP. A case manager or a representative of the
school district (not the student’s teacher) who is qualified to provide or supervise special
education. The student’s teacher(s), and principal(s). If the child has more than one teacher, then
all teachers are invited to attend, with at least one teacher required to attend. If the program to be recommended includes
activities with general education students, even if the child is in a special education
class in the school, a general education teacher is required to attend. Any provider of a related service to the child. Normally this would be speech therapy, occupational
therapy, or adapted physical education. Professionals who are qualified to explain
the results of the testing. Usually this requires at least the presence
of a psychologist and educational evaluator, if an assessment or report is reviewed. This usually occurs at the 3-year review,
or triennial IEP. Parents may bring with them any others involved
with the child who they feel are important for the IEP team to hear; for example, the
child’s psychologist or tutor. Parents may elect to bring an educational
advocate, a social worker, and/or a lawyer knowledgeable in the IEP process. Although not required, if the student is receiving
related services (such as speech therapy, music therapy, physical therapy or occupational
therapy), it is valuable for related service personnel to attend the meeting or at least
provide written recommendations concerning the services in their area of specialty. The student’s guidance counselor may be needed
in attendance to discuss courses that may be required for the student for his or her
education.===Role of the parents===
Parents are to be considered full and equal members of the IEP team, along with school
personnel. Parents have the right to be involved in meetings
that discuss the identification, evaluation, IEP development, and educational placement
of their children. They also have the right to ask questions,
dispute points, and request modifications to the plan, as do all members of the IEP
team. Although IEP teams are required to work toward
consensuses, school personnel ultimately are responsible for ensuring that the IEP includes
the services that the student needs. School districts are obligated by law to make
a proposal for services to the parent. If an agreement cannot be reached, the school
district cannot delay in providing the services which it believes are the best services to
ensure that the student receives an effective educational program. Under IDEA Part D, the United States Department
of Education funds at least one parent training and information center in each state and most
territories to provide parents the information they need to advocate effectively for their
child. Some centers may also provide a knowledgeable
person to accompany a parent to IEP meetings to assist the parent in the process. The school is mandated to make an effort to
ensure that one or both of the parents are present at each IEP team meeting. If parents do not attend, the school is required
to show that due diligence was made to enable the parents to attend, including notifying
the parents early enough that they have an opportunity to attend, scheduling the meeting
at a mutually agreed on time and place, offering alternative means of participation, such as
a phone conference. The school is required to ensure that the
parent understands the proceedings of IEP team meetings, including arranging for an
interpreter for parents who are deaf or whose native language is not English.===Developing the student’s education plan
===After the student is determined to be eligible
for special education services, the IEP team is required to develop an individual education
plan to be implemented as soon as possible after eligibility is determined. Using the results of the full individual evaluation
(FIE), the IEP team works together to identify the student’s present level of educational
performance, as well as the student’s specific academic and any related or special services
that the child needs in order to benefit from their education. When developing an IEP, the team must consider
the strengths of the student, the concerns of the parent for their student’s education,
results of the initial or most recent evaluation of the child (including private evaluations
conducted by the parents), and the academic, developmental, and functional needs of the
child. The team must also consider areas of deficits. Corresponding annual goals and objectives
should be created to improve the deficit areas. In the case of a child whose behavior impedes
the student’s learning or that of other children, the team is required to consider the use of
Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports to address the behavior. An FBA may be required by the team to address
the behavioral concerns. An FBA is conducted by a child psychologist
with input from the IEP team. The IEP team is required to consider the communication
needs of the child. For example, if a child is blind or visually
impaired, the IEP is mandated to provide for instruction in Braille and the use of Braille
unless an evaluation of the child’s reading and writing skills, needs, and future needs
indicate that this instruction is not appropriate for the child. If a child is deaf or hard of hearing, the
team is required to consider the child’s language and communication needs, including the need
to communicate with school personnel and peers, and the child’s need for direct instruction
in the child’s language and communication mode. In the case of a child with limited English
proficiency, the team is required to consider the language needs of the child as those needs
relate to the child’s IEP. A matrix is drafted containing the student’s
present level of performance, indicators about ways the student’s disability influences
participation and progress in the general curriculum, a statement of measurable goals,
including benchmarks or short-terms objectives, the specific educational services to be provided,
including program modifications or supports, an explanation of the extent that the child
will not participate in general education, a description of all modifications in statewide
or district-wide assessments, the projected date for initiation of the services and the
expected duration of those services, the annual statement of transition service needs (beginning
at age 14), and a statement of interagency responsibilities to ensure continuity of services
when the student leaves school (by age 16), a statement regarding how the student’s
progress will be measured and how the parents will be informed in the process. IDEA requires a child’s IEP be developed solely
based on the child’s needs, and not based on pre-existing programs or services available
in the district. Whether particular services are available
in the district should not be considered when identifying the services a child needs to
receive an appropriate education.==Determining the appropriate placement==
After the IEP is developed, the IEP team determines placement—that is, the environment in which
the child’s IEP can most readily be implemented. IDEA requires that the IEP be complete before
placement decisions are made so that the child’s educational needs drive the IEP development
process. Schools may not develop a child’s IEP to fit
into a pre-existing program for a particular classification of disability. The IEP is written to fit the student. The placement is chosen to fit the IEP. IDEA requires state and local education agencies
to educate children with disabilities with their non-disabled peers to the maximum extent
appropriate. A child can only be placed in a separate school
or special classes if the severity or nature of the disability is such that appropriate
education cannot be provided to the child in the regular classroom, even with the use
of supplementary aids and services. When determining placement, the starting assumption
must be the student’s current academic level and needs as evident by the disability. Some of the more common placement settings
include the general education classroom, an integrated class, a resource class, a self-contained
class, and other settings, which include separate schools and residential facilities. A school system may meet its obligation to
ensure that the child has an appropriate placement available by: providing an appropriate program
for the child on its own, consulting with another agency to provide an appropriate program,
or utilizing some other mechanism/arrangement that is consistent with IDEA. The placement group will base its decision
on the IEP and which placement option is appropriate for the child.. The general education classroom is seen as
the least restrictive environment. In addition to the general education teacher,
there will also ideally be a Special Education teacher. The special education teacher adjusts the
curriculum to the student’s needs. Most school-age IEP students spend at least
80 percent of their school time in this setting with his or her peers. Research suggests student’s with special needs
benefit from being included in general education and from participation in the general education
curriculum.An integrated classroom is made up of mostly neuro-typical children with several
children who have IEPs. These are typically higher functioning children
with disabilities that require help in areas of social skills. This setting allows them to model the behavior
of the neuro-typical children. Typically there is an aide in this classroom
setting to assist those children with IEPs. The next setting is a resource class where
the Special Education teacher works with small groups of students using techniques that work
more efficiently with the students. This setting is available for students who
spend between 40- 79 percent of their time in the general education classroom. The term “resource” in this context refers
to the amount of time spent outside general education, not the form of instruction.Another
setting option is a separate classroom. When students spend less than 40 percent of
their day in the general education class, they are said to be placed in a separate class. Students are allowed to work in small, highly
structured settings with a special education teacher. Students in the separate class may be working
at different academic levels. Other settings include separate schools and
residential facilities. Students in these settings receive highly
specialized training to address both special learning and behavioral needs. The students will acquire both academic and
life skills instruction. These schools have the highest degree of structure,
routine, and consistency.==Implementation==
After the IEP is developed and placement is determined, the student’s teachers are responsible
for implementing all educational services, program modifications or supports as indicated
by the individual education plan. Schools are required to have an IEP in effect
at the beginning of the school year. Initial IEPs are required to be developed
within 30 days of the determination of eligibility, and the services specified in the child’s
IEP are required to be provided as soon as possible after the IEP is developed.===Annual review===
The IEP team is responsible for conducting an annual review to ensure that the student
is meeting goals and/or making progress on the benchmarks specified for each objective. If an IEP is not helping the student in the
classroom, an immediate revision is to occur.===Acceptance and amendments===
An initial IEP is required to be accepted and signed by a parent or guardian before
any of the outlined services may begin. Formerly parents had 30 calendar days to take
the paper work home for their consideration. Currently the IEP must be signed or appealed
within 10 days, or the school can implement the most recent version.==Procedural safeguards==
School personnel have an obligation to provide parents with a Procedural Safeguards Notice,
which is required to include an explanation of all of the procedural safeguards built
into IDEA. In addition, the information must be in understandable
language and in the native language of the parent. A copy of the Procedural Safeguards Notice
is required to be presented at an IEP meeting. The school is required to give the parent
a copy of the child’s IEP at no cost to the parent.An extensive system of conflict resolution
procedures are set out in the statutory provisions. They include: the right to examine records,
advance notification of intent to change the educational program, the right to engage in
mediation, and a right to an impartial due process hearing.==Services that may be provided to a child
with a disability==Specially designed instruction
Parental involvement Related services
Program modifications Classroom accommodations
Supplementary aids and services Resource room===
Specially designed instruction===Specially designed instruction affects the
instructional content, method of instructional delivery, and the performance methods and
criteria that are necessary to assist the student make meaningful educational progress. This instruction is designed by or with an
appropriately credentialled special education teacher or related service provider. Students may have better success with small-group
instruction as presented in a resource room (mandated by program and placement outlined
in the IEP) particularly with languaged-based instruction.For some students, teachers may
need to present information through the use of manipulatives. For other students, teachers may need to select
and teach only important key concepts and then alter evaluation activities and criteria
to match this content change. The IEP team determines whether a specific
type of instruction is included in a student’s IEP. Generally, if the methodology is an essential
part of what is required to meet the individualized needs of the student, the methodology is included. For instance, if a student has a learning
disability and has not learned to read using traditional methods, then another method is
used. When including such an IEP recommendation,
the Team describes the components of the appropriate type of methodology, as opposed to naming
a specific program.===Parental Involvement===
Researchers have proven the importance of parental involvement in a child’s education. In fact, James Griffith (1996) found that
schools having higher levels of parental involvement and empowerment also had higher student criterion-referenced
test scores. Although much attention has been focused on
ways of involving the parent in school activities, little has been written on how to better involve
parents of special education students. The U.S. Office of Education 1998 revisions
of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (I.D.E.A.) contained major changes specifically
designed to increase the parent’s involvement in the educational process. These revisions required school districts
to invite the parent to be involved in the diagnosis of the disability, determination
of need for special education programs and services and the extent to which the child
would receive these services.===Related services===
If the child needs additional services in order to access or benefit from special education,
schools are required to provide the related services. These are including, but not limited to, speech
therapy, occupational or physical therapy, interpreters, medical services (such as a
nurse to perform procedures the child needs during the day, for example, catheterization),
orientation and mobility services, parent counseling and training to help parents support
the implementation of their child’s IEP, psychological or counseling services, recreation services,
rehabilitation, social work services, and transportation.===Program modifications===
Modifications to the content of the program Lowered success criteria for academic success
Decrease alternative state assessments, such as off-grade level assessments===
Classroom accommodations===Some of a student’s educational needs may
be met using accommodations. Accommodations are typically provided by general
educators within the general education environment. Accommodations do not involve modifying the
material content but do allow students to receive information or to demonstrate what
they have learned in ways that work around their impairment, thereby minimizing the likelihood
of a significant disability. For example, a child may complete fewer/different
parts of a homework assignment or an assessment than other students. They may also write shorter papers or be given
different projects and assignments in replacement of the original task. Accommodations may also include such provisions
as preferential seating, providing photocopies of teacher notes, giving oral rather than
written quizzes, extended time for tests and assignments, use of a word processor or laptop,
taking tests in a quiet room, prompts and reminders for focus, breaks for sensory needs,
and assistance with specific subject areas. Modifications in the curriculum can occur
if a student needs to learn material that the class has moved on from, like working
on exponents while the class is moving on to applying them in the order of operations. They also may occur in grading rubrics, where
a student with an IEP may be assessed on different standards than other students.===Supplementary aids and services===
Assistive technology Teacher’s aide in classroom that provide additional
support for one or more specific students===
Transportation===If necessary a student will be provided with
specialized transportation. This can be the case if the student has a
severe disability and requires a wheelchair, or is identified with an emotional problem.==See also==
Special Assistance Program (Australian education) Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act==Notes

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