Including AEM in Transition-Focused Education Planning for Higher Education

>>All set.>>Okay, thank you. Welcome to today’s AEM Center webinar. It is Thursday, May 31st. If you have come in early, you’ll
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and the link will be available from that same page sometime next week. So today’s webinar is AEM and
Transition-Focused Education Planning. I’m Cynthia Curry. I’m Director of the, the National Center
for Accessible Educational Materials. And with me today is our captioner, Cindy. Cindy, thank you for being here
and providing the captions. And Leslie O’Callahan who’s the
AEM Center operations coordinator. And she is monitoring the chat and will be there
for, for assistance during the presentation. One other comment is that, is that as the
presentation goes along, please go ahead and enter your questions
and comments in the chat. I will be pausing at certain
times during the presentation and asking Leslie if there are any questions. I have my eye on the chat as well. But I may not catch everything. So we will pause at certain
times during the presentation. And there will also be some hopefully
some time for Q&A at the end. So the idea behind this presentation today, this
webinar is the idea that, that kids are moving on from K12, and they’re moving
into post-secondary settings. And regardless of where they
are headed to from K12, we want to make sure that
their learning continues. And that learning can take
many different directions. One of them is higher education. And that’s going to be the focus today. You may be wondering why the director of the AEM
Center is doing a, a presentation on transition. But it’s near and dear to my heart
because I started my career in education as a middle school and high
school science teach. And just before joining Cast in the
AEM Center, I was the coordinator of disability services at
a small private university. So I’ve really had the benefit of seeing
both, both sides of the transition bridge. Both the process of supporting students in,
in my case, middle school and high school. Preparing them as a general educator. And then also seeing students as they,
as they enter post-secondary during that transition from high school. And all of the, all of the complications
and anxieties that come with that. So it’s a pleasure for me to put transition
in the context of another passion of mine which is accessible educational materials. So as we begin, I’d like
you to have in your mind. Some students or a particular student
that is going through this big leap. Of course it is graduation time. Here it is May 31st, and some of
your, where some of you are located, graduations may already have happened. So maybe there’s a particular
student you have in mind today. Perhaps there’s a group of students. Perhaps you’re preparing for next year. This is a fresh start. So if in your setting transition
hasn’t been a strong focus. Perhaps you can be thinking ahead
to the students who are coming up. And of course we need to start way back before
students are on the verge of graduation. And begin as early as, as preschool in terms of
supporting students and developing independence. And the, the self-reflection and
the self-advocacy that they’re going to need once they get to this point
where they’re taking this leap. So no matter where you are along the continuum
of supporting kids as they are transitioning, even from grade to grade, from school to school. And then the big T which is moving
on to post-secondary settings. Be, be having, be having these faces in mind. For the chat, I’d like to know what your
role is in transition-focused planning. As people were coming in
and introducing themselves, I have a sense of a few people who are here. But if you would let me know two things. One is from your, from your
perspective, the role that you have in supporting transition planning. Are you at pre-K? Are you at elementary school,
middle school, high school? Or post-secondary? And it doesn’t matter you
know what your role is. You could be a parent. You could be a teacher. You could be an occupational therapist, higher
ed faculty, a disability services coordinator. What is your role? And at which level do you, do you serve? And of course there may be multiple. Perhaps you serve multiple
roles at multiple levels. So if you’d go ahead and
enter that into the chat. I’m going to take a look. So we have a K12 teacher
of the visually impaired. Middle school and high school,
special ed transition coordinator. Thank you so much for being here. And of course you’re all welcome to, and
I know that, I know that there are a lot of shared passion here in this webinar. So please feel free to enter your own
thought into the chat as we move along. Okay, great. Post-secondary ed and faculty evaluator. Career center for 11th and 12th
grade, transition to employment. All grades AEM specialist for the state. Thank you. I recognized Rachael. Assistant technology specialist K12. Alright. University of Maryland, right? Baltimore County. Maggie [inaudible] the AEM coordinator
in your distract at Cedar Rapids. AT specialist, special ed consultant. AT specialist, multiple disabilities at
the middle school and high school level. Post-secondary education as
a needs assessors, assessor. Pardon me. Making recommendations for AT. I also train post-16 educators in
the UK on inclusive strategies. Great. Thank you for being here, Kelly. Everybody, go ahead as we
move along and add your own, your own thoughts from your own perspective. In addition to any questions
that you may have for me. Alright, assistant director of
special education, Oklahoma. Great. Thank you. And if you didn’t have a
chance, please don’t hesitate. It’s never too late to add
something in the, in the chat. Who you are, where you’re from. In this webinar, we’re going to be working
backward in the transition process. So we’re going to start where we are
looking to prepare students to go to. And in this case, first year
in higher education. And we’re going to move back
to the summary of performance. And then into the IEP. And there’s a lot of things
that go on in between. You know, as the trapeze
moves from one to the other. So definitely not going to be a, a clean
categorization of these three areas. But just the idea that we’re working backward. We’re starting at that first year in higher ed. What students need to be prepared
for, and moving backward to what are, what are the implications for that
as we’re preparing kids in K12? Some of the topics. The differences between special ed in K12 and
disability services in post-secondary settings. And those differences, although,
although in this particular webinar, we’re focusing on higher education
rather than workforce development. Those difference really apply
regardless of the post-secondary setting. Some examples of how learners use
accessible educational materials and accessible technologies to
meet higher ed requirements. And some strategies for preparing students for,
for this, for this leap into, into adulthood. Couple of notes. SWD in this presentation stands
for students with disabilities. And HE stands for higher education. So I use those two abbreviations in order
to save some space in the PowerPoint slides. So let’s first look at the current landscape
for students with disabilities in higher ed. In this webinar, what, what we’re
defining, what I’m defining as, as higher ed destinations are two-year community
colleges, four-year colleges or universities. And career and technical
education, or CTE programs. And some technical college
car– technical college systems. So just to have a, a shared understanding of the
context of this webinar in terms of transition. This is the, this is the
destination that I’ll be speaking to. It’s the one that I am most, that I am
most knowledge– knowledgeable about. I know we have some workforce
development expertise here as well. So feel free to, to add to this
conversation from your, from your perspective. Through the chat. So some concerning statistics is again
in the higher ed, in the higher ed realm. Is that in the academic year 2014 to 2015, the high school graduation
rate for all students was 83%. Whereas for students with
disabilities, that rate was 65%. This data is, is as recent as 2016. Most recent data that we have. So 83% for all students, but only
65% for students with disabilities. A big gap, obviously. For post-secondary outcomes, the previous– this is talking about student
graduating from high school. Now we’re talking about post-secondary outcomes. Students with disabilities enroll
in college at half the rate of their peers without disabilities. And they are graduating at a lower rate. Of persons with disabilities,
25 years old and greater, about 25% of them have an associate’s degree. Versus 45% of persons without disabilities. About 17% have a bachelor’s degree, versus
about 35% of persons without disabilities. So we’re looking at tremendous gaps in, in the,
the ability to have equal access to employment. Competitive salaries as, as these
students are exiting post-secondary. If they do, if they do graduate. Fourteen percent have bachelor’s
degrees or higher. Versus 33% of people without disabilities. There are some promising statistics, however. The rate of students with disabilities in
post-secondary has almost doubled since 1995. And that may coincide or correlate with
the 1990 Reauthorization of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. Which became IDA in 1990. But it’s almost doubled in 1995
to ’96, it was six percent. And in the 2011-2012 academic year,
it was a little over eleven percent. And of course there are other things that
have been put in place during that time. Of course RTI, response to
intervention was implemented. PBIS, positive behavioral intervention support. So there are some evidence-based
research-associated strategies that have also been put in place in that time. So we know, we know that
it’s making a difference. And I found it interesting to break down
the percentages of where those students who are going on to post-secondary,
where they’re going. So 44% are enrolling in two-year
or community college. Thirty-two percent in a career
technical education schools. And 19% of those students are, are
enrolling in four-year schools. The promise of transition
planning can’t be denied. So we saw some, some concerning
statistics, some promising statistics. And how can we build on that to ensure that those promising statistics
continue to build and outweigh. The concerning is that we know
that transition planning works. There’s research that shows that it does. So it’s not just something instinctually
that we can say, “Well it makes sense to prepare students for life
beyond high school.” When it’s done, when it’s done well, it actually
really does make a difference for these kids. So research has shown that
for students with disabilities who receive effective transition-planning
services in high school and attend, attend higher ed institutions. They’re more likely to self-disclose
their disability earlier. They have higher grade point averages. They earn credits by their sophomore year. Which is really important. A lot of times, students with
disabilities or many students in general will come into higher ed. And they’ll be short, they’ll
be shortened on credits because they need to take remedial courses. Which they don’t earn credit for. The receiving disability specific supports,
the more likely they are to do that. To request and receive those supports. And interestingly, they’re also
more likely to access supports that are available to all students. Most campuses have a tutoring service or they
have a student center where there are tutors and people that have supports
for certain classes. And students with disabilities who have
had transition support are more likely to access those as well as some of the peers. And a lot of campuses, it’s
the smartest, it’s the most, or it’s the most motivated
students that are using the campus. Sometimes it’s called the
academic success center. And we need more students taking more
advantage of those, of those supports. And they need to be prepared to do that. But from your point of view, in your,
you know, in your setting or in, in general are students being
effectively prepared for post-secondary? Somewhat prepared? Or not prepared at all? And this could be true for either
higher ed or moving on to workforce. Whatever, whatever plan is, is been
determined to be jointly with the student. That has been most you know most
likely determined to be a success. A successful post high school
experience for them. Are they being effectively
prepared, somewhat prepared, or not prepared at all for those settings? So somewhat, somewhat, alright,
depends on the disability. That’s very interesting. You might say what, for what disability are
students being most, most successfully prepared? And it looks like it’s mostly,
it’s mostly somewhat– they transition very tremendously
depending on the disability. Alright, for visually impaired, not, not really. Very interesting. So keep those comments coming in. So what are some of the factors
that are contributing to the challenges of the first year? What’s getting in the way of students being
able to enter and complete higher education? So of course we know there
are legislation differences. K12 laws differ from post-secondary. So in K12, the laws are the IDEA,
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. And Section 504 of the Rehab Act. Whereas in post-secondary, the
laws that apply are the American with Disabilities Act, as amended in 2008. Which there are some really important
implications of that 2000 amendment for post-secondary which I’ll speak to. And Section 504. So Section 504 applies to both. Of course that the Anti-discrimination
law of the land. So let’s look at the IDEA versus the ADA. The ADA is the nation’s K12
special education law. Covers kids from infancy through
high school graduation or age 21, depending on when they are exiting. IDEA requires schools to serve
the educational needs of, of eligible students with disabilities. Requires them to find and evaluate
students suspected of having disabilities. Of course at no cost to families. Also guarantees the free appropriate public
education, FAPE, for students with disabilities in the least restrictive environment. So FAPE and LRE. An individual education program fall under IDEA. So all of those supports under
special education law, under IDEA. Of course, when students move on to, to
post-secondary, IDEA no longer applies. Those supports, those supports
are no longer provided to them. Because the ADA simply requires, and this
isn’t simply but is much less comprehensive than what students are guaranteed in K12. But the ADA requires higher institutions
to provide students with disabilities with accommodations that are necessary to afford
a student with a disability an equal opportunity to participate in the institution’s programs. And there are two titles that apply to
ADA, which is important to, to know. Is that both public and private
institutions fall under the ADA. So Title II covers state and local governments. So that’s your public universities
and community colleges. Title III covers public accommodations, so
that’s your private colleges and universities. So anywhere your students are going to
higher ed, they are covered under ADA. The important distinction between
these two laws is that in K12, the focus is on student progress and success. Whereas as students enter higher ed and they
are covered under ADA, it’s just equal access. There’s no focus on ensuring the students are
making progress or they, or they’re succeeding. So there are no supports in place under the ADA
for things like tutoring, intervention supports. You know, life skills supports. ADA is purely the role of the,
of disability services personnel to identify what is the functional limitation that the student experiences
in the learning setting? And what is the accommodation that
can, that can help address that? I see some comments coming in. I’ll just finish this section
and I’ll take a look. There’s also a shift in responsibility
from the team to the, to the student. So in K12, there’s an adult teen that’s
responsible for developing the program that ensures student progress or success. In post-secondary of course the
shift is towards the student. Now the student is responsible for requesting
and using accommodations for equal access. So they’re not requesting supports
that will help them succeed. They are requesting supports that will allow
them to have equal access to the same curriculum and the same benefits that all students have. Some of those responsibilities that all on them. Of course they need to voluntarily
disclose their disability to the disability support services. Increasingly on campuses, disability support or
the office of support or the office for students with disabilities is being
replaced by “accessibility.” So in some cases it’s the
office for accessibility. Or access. That D-word, disability, increasingly is
being replaced with the A-word: accessibility. So students need to be prepared to
be looking for, for either title. They need to request accommodations
upon self-disclosing their disability. And they need to be prepared to
participate in interactive process to determine the reasonable
accommodations that they need. Which of course can be very intimidating. To, to what essentially are still
teenagers, young adults, they need to be able to provide documentation of their disability. And they need to meet with the, with
the personnel to discuss their request for accommodations and their
associated documentation. So they need to be able to have a
knowledgeable discussion about their, what their history of accommodations has been. Why those accommodations were needed. Very helpful is they have had, if they’re
well versed in their documentation so that they can speak to those accommodations
and why they were, why they were important. So this is part of the, this is part of
the student responsibility in a higher ed. And of course parents are part of this as well. But it’s going to be most successful
when students can speak for themselves. Nobody should replace the
student voice in this process. The parent role or the guardian
role really should be one of support in helping the student prepare for these
conversations and for this process. Some of the barriers that are
research-based that students have experienced. So these are real barriers. They’re not just suspected barriers,
but all of them really make sense. Some things that get in the
way of students seeking. And using accommodations. Because getting the accommodation
is just the first step. Using them is the second step. So lack, lack of self-advocacy skills. The belief that services aren’t needed. I’ve graduated from high school, so
I’ve conquered, I’ve conquered learning. I no longer need them. So there’s lack of understanding that, that these accommodations are
in place for, for a reason. Their desire for self-sufficiency
that is linked to that. The desire to avoid negative social reactions,
which in some settings in some institutions, it’s difficult for students to
keep their accommodations private. Depending on how the accommodations
are provided. Insufficient knowledge about the
services that are available on campus. Fear of future ramifications. So some students are, they’re fearful
that if they use their accommodations, that there’ll be some kind of
a flag on their transcript. And they need to know that that’s not true. The quality and usefulness of
the disability services office. And the accommodations that they’re provided. And of course that is, that’s
a very detrimental situation. When a student who needs accommodations
isn’t effectively provided with them. And then of course negative
experiences with faculty. And that too, that too is real. And we need to make sure that
students are prepared to manage that. I’m going to take a moment and just look
at some of the questions that have come in. And the comments just really briefly. I’m of the opinion that most of the students
fail to understand that the student should and must play an active role in transition. Absolutely. When we get to the recommendations,
that will certainly be highlighted. Talking about the role of the TVI, carrying
the message that the student must know that their IP ends at high school graduation. Most of the team sits around the
table and looks at other participants as though it’s somebody else’s responsibility. Very unfortunate. Janet, this is excellent. Why we, why the need for students
to access [inaudible] supports. Support services is accessed but other
services are for help to succeed. Alright. Welcome from Chile. And then cultivating purposeful
and motivated learners is essential and should be reinforced by
teachers as a learning goal. I love that, that it’s something
that’s explicit and is a learning goal. It’s not a soft skill. This is something that students
are, is essential to their success. So let’s move into the role of
accessible materials and technologies. So the first part is just the argument. Why transition services are so important. I know many of you know this, but hopefully this
presentation gives you some, some more resources in order to take back to your schools
in order to make these arguments. What is the role of accessible materials
and technologies in all of this? Because when students use AEM in
the accessible technologies in K12, they’re going to continue to need them. So there’s a functional definition of accessible
that’s really helpful to use as a framework. When making the argument that students
need accessible educational materials. So this comes from the U.S. Department
of Education’s Office for Civil Rights. And, and accessible means that
a, that an individual person with a disability is afforded
the same opportunity. Or is afforded the opportunity
to acquire the same information, engage in the same interactions, and enjoy the
same services as a person without a disability in an equally effective,
equally integrated manner. With substantially equivalent ease of use. As a person without a disability. So this definition comes from 2013. I’m sure it appeared in other, in
other documentation before that. But it’s, it’s in a resolution agreement
with South Carolina Technical College system. This is one of the ways that the
Office of Civil Rights communicates to mostly in higher ed institutions. Although we do know that there’s
increasingly some complaints being lodged against K12 schools, particularly their website
not being in compliance with web accessibility. But this definition is really important. It gives you a framework. This is the bar for accessibility. And the Office for Civil Rights
goes, you know, goes on to say that, that this might not result
in identical ease of use. But whatever the technology, the
material that is chosen for a student with a disability must ensure equal opportunity. Also says to the educational benefits and
opportunities afforded by the technology and equal treatment in the
use of such technology. So this is, it’s a, it’s a high bar. Something accessible doesn’t necessarily
need to be the same as the, as material or technology used by other students. But it needs to be equally
effective, equally integrated. And the student needs to be able to use
it with substantially the same ease of use as the material or technology
that other students are using. So it needs to be seamless. [Inaudible], make sure your
comments are shared with everyone. Oh, thank you Cassie. So a comment just came in. Some people may have come in a
little bit late to the webinar. Unfortunately a little glitch in Zoom. Is when you are entering a message
into the chat, the chat area, you need to make sure the blue box just above
where you enter, where you type your message. There’s a drop down on that
blue, on that blue box. Please make sure that you are
choosing All panelists and attendees. So if you came in late, it’s
not too late to, to choose that. Thank you, Cassie, for bringing,
bringing that up. I’ll continue to, to read the comments as well. As I have the opportunity. So how does this relate to
materials and technologies. It’s really important to, to understand the
distinction between a material and a technology. In addition to what accessible means. Because in order for students to have
full access, both need to be accessible. So the, the, the technical aspect
of this is really critical. A material is the information or the content
that delivers the information to the student. So it’s the eBook, it’s the
website, it’s the simulation. It’s really it’s the content of the curriculum. And it’s accessible when it’s designed
or enhanced in a way that makes it usable by the widest possible range of learner
variability regardless of, of the format. So whether it’s in print,
digital, graphical, audio, video. All of that can be made, can be made
accessible for students with disabilities. And of course, I think most people here know
that there are some significant considerations that need to be made in the design
of the material from the start. To avoid retrofitting. But all of those can be made accessible. And in a, a technology is the
hardware or the software that delivers that content, delivers the material. So things like tablets, learning
management systems, computers, smartphones. So that’s the technologies, the
delivery system of the material. It’s accessible when it’s usable by people with
a wide range of abilities and disabilities. And it’s also accessible when it’s directly
usable without assistive technology. Or usable with it. So even if a technology isn’t
inherently for a student, for example, with, with blindness or low vision. Perhaps that student uses a
refreshable Braille display. If the technology is compatible with that. So for example, perhaps with a
Bluetooth refreshable Braille display. If that technology is Bluetooth-enabled,
then the technology is accessible because it does allow the use
of assistive technology with it. Yes, sounds like the definition
of universal design. Lot of crossover. Here’s an example. This is what I call material
technology and accessible harmony. There’s a figure here of an individual
reading an eBook on a tablet. And there’s harmony, accessible harmony
going on there when the accessible eBook, when the eBook is accessible,
the tablet is accessible. And some examples that make that tablet
accessible is it has some built-in options for access. Such as a screen reader for students
who are blind or have low vision. Text-to-speech. That’s very useful to students
with learning disabilities. ADHD. Display customization so it can
be black on white, white on black. That there can be more white space added. Some other, other color contrasts
are, are options. It’s Bluetooth enabled, like the example I
just gave with the refreshable Braille display. Closed captions can be turned
on as well as video description. And that tablet is also compatible
with students’ assistive technology. Which I’ll have another, an
example of that in just a moment. And of course speaking of universal design. All of this is useful for all students. So when, when a technology and a
material are made to be accessible, just opens up opportunities, options,
choices for, for all users of that material. Technology combination. Justin mentioned alt text. Yes, so if the, if the material
supports alt text, those images can be, can be deciphered by a screen reader. Screen readers users will know what that’s,
what that image is trying to convey. So here’s that interoperability, that
technology is, a demonstration of how that tablet can be made compatible
with an assistive technology device. So in this case, this is known as access. It’s the access for kids switch. It is through Georgia Tech, and they have a
little bit more information about it here. In the digital handout, there’s a
link to this video that you can watch. It’s very, it’s very brief. I think it’s under, it’s under a minute long. But it’s a great example of how
a tablet is made interoperable. Making the technology and
the material accessible. So for this to work, for this AT to operate, the
material on that tablet needs to be accessible. And the tablet needs to be interoperable with the assistive technology
that the student is using. So the student is sitting at a table. And she has what’s known as a pressure switch. It’s three consecutive switches on her forearm. And it’s connected wirelessly to a tablet. And it’s a pressure switch. So in a situation where a student doesn’t
have the fine motor skills to swipe, to pinch, to do various gestures. They can use any voluntary movement and activate
their tablet using this pressure switch. So in this image, the student is using her fist. But a student could use, you
know, they could use an elbow. They could use a foot. They, this switch could be prom– could be placed on a wheelchair and it
could be activated with head movements. So this is an example another example of in this case material technology,
assistive technology harmony. So we know that this access is possible. That learning materials and technologies
can be available to all students. To have, to have the same
opportunities for learning. Some of the [inaudible] post-secondary
accommodations, because all of this carries
over to, to post-secondary. Alternatives formats of printed text books. And inaccessible digital materials. That’s a common combination in higher ed. It’s also known as the alternative
format accommodation. Use of assistive technology,
extended time on exams very common. Note-taking services are also common. Audio recording of lectures. So these are just some of the standard, very
common accommodations in post-secondary. The availability of them doesn’t
necessarily mean that a student who is coming from K12 having had an IEP or a 504 plan
will be provided with these accommodations to these accommodations will
be approved for them. But they are very common and teachers
and students, parents need to know that students have this opportunity
to continue with the, with the accommodations that they need. Oftentimes I think adults make the mistake of taking the accommodations
away from the students. Thinking that it’s going to
interfere with their learning. That they’re not going to be able to, they’re
not going to have access to these accommodations when they go into post-secondary. But under the Americans with Disabilities
Act, they absolutely are covered. As long as they are prepared to
have the documentation and be able to articulate why they need
these accommodations. Which we are working our way to some
strategies to make sure that happens. Some of the accessibility tools that
increase student independence in higher ed. These are some things that
students can start using in K12 because they can easily transition
with them into higher ed. Many cases, minimizing or taking away the
need for a student having accommodation in certain, you know, for certain purposes. If they have these, have
these tools available to them. And they’re proficient in them by the time they
get into, into college or any higher ed setting. So accessible digital versions of textbooks
and course materials and commercial sources. So when I was a disability services coordinator,
I absolutely encouraged students, “Go to Amazon. See if your textbook is there
in a format that you need. Audible, human, you know, human narrated books. Vital Source. I encourage transition teams to look up
some of these commercial sources of books. See what’s there to make sure that
you convince yourself and students that they do have quite a variety of
higher ed textbooks available there. And also the college bookstore will have
digital, digital versions of textbooks. Not all of them are going to
be accessible to all students. It depends on what the student’s
needs are and if these, if these, the eBook reader has the
supports that the student needs. But in my experience, a lot of the
books that are available commercially, digital books that are available commercially
do have the built-in supports that, that a lot of students need. So it’s worth exploring before
students move on to higher ed. And of course their membership services
for Bookshare and Learning Ally. those are also available in higher ed. Bookshare is a free service. So students leave, leave high school
with their individual membership. They’re set to go when they get into
college to use that independently. Learning Ally is fee-based
for human narrated audiobooks. They do have a lot of post-secondary
books, as does Bookshare. But Learning Ally, there’s a fee. And not all higher ed institutions
will have memberships to Learning Ally. But individual students can. Text-to-speech. Of course if students are proficient in using
text-to-speech, knowing how to turn that on in various devices, in various materials. They can find their way to where the
text-to-speech can be activated, all the better. Optical character recognition apps which
are apps on a smartphone or a tablet where students can take a picture
of, of a standard print material. Converts it into digital text
with a text-to-speech reader. Audio recording apps, smart
pens, note-taking apps. All of these are available to students to
start learning how to use independently. There is a cost associated with
them, if they’re going to bring them, bring these tools with them into higher ed. But of course in many cases, very much worth it. So where does, where does accessible
materials and technologies, where do they fall in the transition process? And I’m just going to take a gander over
here at the chat to see what may have come in because I’m doing pretty well on time. Alright, thank you. Okay, yeah. So Leslie’s been busy putting
links into the chat. Thank you Leslie. And also remember, if you came in late,
there’s a digital handout for this webinar. But I highly recommend that you download. It has links to all of the
resources and reference lists within the context of each of the slides. Cassie requesting captioning for videos, learn,
learning to read transcripts, card type– excellent examples of accommodations. Justin uses the Bookshare web reader. Excellent. And of course that is, having
Bookshare is a free membership. For folks who aren’t, who aren’t
familiar with Bookshare by chance. Bookshare is at And it’s a, it’s a membership. Students need to qualify for, for sources
of materials that are in Bookshare. But really worthwhile looking into it for
students who have learning disabilities. Physical disabilities, blindness,
and low vision. If your teams aren’t, aren’t familiar with
or aren’t considering Bookshare for students. Please be sure that you,
that you investigate that. And you can also always contact
the AEM Center for, for support. So where does AEM happen in the
transition planning process? So before talking about that,
let’s just get a handle on transition itself as a,
as a planning process. So here’s a timeline of the transition
requirements as they unrolled in IDEA. So of course IDEA was the Education for All Handicapped Children Act
when it was introduced in 1975. In 1990, when the title changed to the
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, when that replaced the EA– EAHCA. Transition planning was required for students
with disabilities beginning at age 16. IN 1997, the transition planning requirement
was expected to begin at the age of 14 with a statement regarding course of study. And at or before age 16 with a
statement regarding the needed services, including outside agencies. And then in 2004, the requirement,
the summary of performance was added. So you can see over time you know the
IDEA has not been reauthorized since 2004. Which I don’t need to tell, tell anybody here. But that is, you know, it will be interesting when we know the IDEA will be reauthorized
again, what will be the addition– what have we learned about the
importance of transition that will build on the incremental emphasis of the, of the transition planning
being part of the IEP process? The basic definition of, of transition
planning as it’s stated in IDEA, so this is really the floor
of transition planning. Is that it’s a coordinated set of
activities for a child with a disability. It’s results-oriented. It’s based on individual need,
taking into account strengths, preferences, and interests of that student. And it includes instruction-related services,
community experiences, employment, et cetera. Anything that’s going to
be relevant for the setting in which the student is being
prepared to enter after high school. So that’s the IDEA definition. But it’s really, like I said, it’s the floor. If we really want to think about the,
about transition being a robust process. We’ll look at the definition as it is, as it is laid out under the term
transition-focused education. And this is from Kohler & Field. It’s a 2003 article, and you’ll
find it in the digital handout. And I wouldn’t be surprised if Leslie
was putting it– I think it’s a citation. I don’t know, I don’t think that there’s
a link to this one in the digital handout. I have links where you’ll be taken to
the articles that are available online. In some cases, you’ll have to get them
through, through a library database. Really worthwhile to read this article. In this, in this definition, fund– transition
planning is a fundamental basis of education. It guides the development
of all educational programs. Including strategies that
keeps students in school. So it’s a retention strategy. It’s a non-add-on activity for
students with disabilities. It’s not something that happens, you
know, on the side or even parallel. It’s actually embedded in
their, in their programming. And it’s based on abilities,
options, and self-determination which is a little bit different than
the floor definition of transition. And a quote that I pulled from the article is
that, “Transition-focused education is a shift from disability focus, deficit-driven
programs to an education and service delivery approach based on
abilities, options, and self-determination.” So much more robust interpretation
of the transition planning process. Some resources to support this again are
provided in the, in the digital handout. If you want to go directly to it,
of course there’s always Google. But if you use the digital handout, you’ll be, it’ll be a little bit more,
little bit more efficient. But this, the transition-focused education. This is the taxonomy for
transition programming 2.0. And it was written– this is from. Again, the author of the article
Transition-Focused Education that I just referred to in the previous slide. With some other coauthors. So a group of you know academics but with some
research that has gone in within K12 schools. This is an image of the taxonomy
for transition programming. It is a, it’s a cycle diagram. It’s sort of a, a flowchart of a circle
with each of the components of the focus, transition-focused education programming
placed at various locations along this circle. So these include student-focused
planning is one of the components. Student development. So that would include things
like student supports. Interagency collaboration, which we know
very commonly lacks in transition planning. Family engagement. So things like the cultural relevance
for, for families is really important. Families understanding transition
as empowerment. That they have a role, that their
children have a role in this. And program structure of course
includes things like the school climate. Which we don’t always realize
how impactful the climate is. And of course through all of these
is the role of the, of the student. And the student being empowered. The student having some self-direction
and some choice in the whole transition, the transition process. The summary of performance and the IEP,
remembering that we’re going backward. That the summary of performance is part
of the transition planning process. And when you look back at the definition of for,
for the summary of performance and transition. Of course there’s, there’s a distinction with
the summary of performance because it used to be completed during the
final year of high school. But the summary of performance
can be started way before that. So the summary of performance
should be something that the, that the transition team has, has
in mind along the IEP process. So even though it doesn’t need to be
completed until the final year of high school. That doesn’t mean that it gets started at the student’s final IEP meeting
before they exit high school. So the summary of performance,
the way it’s defined. If, if it’s, if this is your, the
first time knowing about the summary of performance also know you’ll also
hear it referred to just as SOP. It’s for a child whose eligibility
under special ed terminates due to graduation with a regular diploma. Or due to exceeding the age of eligibility, 21, the local education agency shall
provide the child with a summary of the child’s academic achievement, functional
performance, which shall include recommendations on how to assist the child in meeting
the child’s post-secondary goals. And there are some supports for this. So there’s a nationally endorsed
summary of performance template. Again, that is available
through the, the digital handout. This was developed as a collaboration
among multiple experts. Again, many of them are in academics. But many of them, many of the
organizations that worked on this, on this template also represent
and are from K12 environments. As well as those who are familiar with the
environments in which students are going to be entering upon exiting high school. So some of the organizations that
were involved in this template. The Association on Higher
Education and Disability. The Council for Exceptional Children. The National Center on Learning Disabilities. And the Higher Education
Consortium for Special Education. So those are just a few. I wanted to give you an idea of the
credibility of this, of this template. And why it’s worth seeking out and
bringing it back to your, to your teams. And taking a look at it. If you’re not already using a
summary of performance for students, which I know many, many, many schools are not. Start with this one, if you haven’t already. If you already have a summary of
performance template that you’re using. Check out the nationally endorsed
and see if there are some ways that you can strengthen the
template that you’re currently using. The sections of the, of the template. There are five of them. There’s the background section,
post-secondary goals. The summary of performance,
recommendations, and student input. So we’re thinking about where does accessible
education materials and technologies fit? Look at the summ– the sections
three, four, and five. Summary of performance, recommendations,
and student input. These are the three places that have the most
relevance for including students’ needs for, for accessible materials and technologies. So here is, I know it’s hard to see. So go download that, that template
so you can take a closer look. But this is the summary of
performance for the academic area. So in that first column there are
content areas of reading, math, written language, learning skills. Then there’s the second column is to report
present leven– level of performance. And then the third column are
the essential accommodations. The assistive technology modifications that
would be, that have been used in high school. And why they’re needed. So when it comes time to consider the role
of accessible materials and technologies, some things that you might think abbot. Including in that essential accommodations
column would be things like use of text-to-speech tools, speech recognition, the
need for books provided in specialized formats. Accessible formats of classroom materials. Audio recording of class lectures. Use of digital study skills tools. So make sure that anything that the student is
using for academic access and success in K12 because in K12, success does fall under IDEA. In the ADA, in higher ed, success does not. So everything needs to be
placed in the context of need. Why does this student need these as they
move on into, into higher ed equal access? Section four is recommendations. On here, suggestions for accommodations,
adaptive devices, assistive services, et cetera. There are four rows. There’s a higher education or career
technical education, employment, independent living, community participation. In this area, be as specific as possible about
the accessible materials and technologies. Those accommodations that the,
that the student will need. Based on what, in what setting
are they, are they moving on to? And the what, think about the
individuals that are going to be receiving this summary of performance. What do they need to know
about the student’s need for any related accommodations
in any number of settings? Then of course there’s the student input. This is so important. The student input section of
the summary of performance. This gives, gives, this gives the student
opportunity to speak for themselves. Really great practice for them to
prepare themselves for, you know, having a verbal conversation with the person
receiving this summary of performance. So the prompt here is in the past. What supports have been tried by teachers
or by you to help you succeed in school? Such as aids, adaptive equipment,
physical accommodations, other services? And then which of these accommodations
and supports has worked best for you? So that’s the role for, of course the
student has a role in all of these sections. This is their, this is where the, where they
really need to make sure they have their, their reasons for their need for
aid and accessible technologies. And assistive technologies. Gives them opportunity to lay that out
in a coherent, comprehensive narrative that they can then apply when they are having
you know verbal conversations in person. To advocate for themselves. Another resource for the summary
of performance that pulls all of this together is the Ohio Packet. It has, it has Ohio’s summary
of performance form. Has guidance for completing the form. Has a sample cover letter and some resources. And that sample cover letter is really a gem. It has, it’s a cover letter
for the student to to prepare to accompany the summary of performance. So it has sections for the student to talk
about their ba– their background information. The information on the diagnosis
of their disability. The service and supports they’ve received
from agencies outside of their school. Their post-secondary goals
that are wide ranging. Summary of their high school
academic achievement. Functional performance. Their essential accommodations,
modifications, and assistive technologies that they have used in high school. Recommendations from high school professionals. Based on the regarding the
supports and accommodations that may enhance my access
in post school settings. And my perceptions of my
disability, what works best for me. And accommodations that may be
addressed in post-school settings. So that sample cover letter really is a great
benefit of, of this packet, in and of itself. If there’s nothing else that
you grab from this packet, that sample cover letter can be really powerful. Where AEM falls in the IEP. Of course, as you can imagine,
we’re close to the end of time. So I didn’t even go down the
road of talking about the IEP. I’m going to let, I’ve chosen to let Joy
Zabala and Dianna Carl do that for me. They just gave a webinar on this
topic on May 1st, and the recording and the associated materials are
available in the digital handout. I’m not sure whether Leslie
is grabbing that or not. It’s in the digital, it’s
in the digital handout. They talk about where so accessible
materials and technologies fit in the IEP. Keeping in mind when you’re
watching that webinar, what are the implications
for the transition plan? What is it, you know, as you’re thinking
about where, where these pieces go in the IEP in the context of the, of the goals
of the student and their objectives. How does this relate to their post,
their post high school experiences? So some final recommendations. Set high expectations and provide
accessible materials to reach them. So in many cases, we do put
high expectations on students. But then we don’t give them the
supports to succeed and they fail. So they need to have the supports
to reach those high expectations. They need both. So ensure IEP goals are aligned with the
challenging education content standards. Aligned to the grade that the student is in. And just a couple of research findings here. Students with disabilities who took
rigorous high school academic courses, were more likely to enroll in college. Earned more college credits,
had higher college GPAs, were more likely to earn a bachelor’s degree. And those students, students with disabilities who took more general ed
classes were more likely to be actively involved in
their transition planning. That cited Newman et al, 2016. That’s in the digital handout. So do that, and provide students with the,
the AEM and accessible technologies they need to reach those high expectations. Give students a record of their AEM use. Many institutions don’t accept an
IEP as a form of documentation. In the 2008 amendments to the, to the ADA. There is some language that IEPs should be
considered as documentation for higher ed. But we’re still, many institutions
are in transition on that. So make the student’s need
for AEM explicit in the IEP. And in the summary of performance. Because you want to make sure
that students have that, you know, have that as additional,
additional documentation. Explain documentation to students. Make sure that they know about their, their
scores and the impact of their, you know, the functional impact of their disability. On their performance. So whether it’s a neuropsych or
psychoeducational evaluation. Whether it’s doctors’ records. Whatever it is that a student’s going to need
accommodations for, whatever is the evidence for that, make sure that they understand it. Provide lots of opportunities
to use accessible materials. So when they get to higher ed,
they’re going to have a lot of different materials coming at them. A lot of different technologies. And the better they are prepared to cope with
those, you know, with the various materials and technologies they’re
going to be asked to use. The better prepared they are in, in K12,
the more likely they are to succeed. So give them opportunities to use
accessible materials and technologies across purposes, content areas, environments. And various technologies and various materials. Of course give them an active
role in any related decisions. So make sure that they have an opportunity
to try various formats and various features. Let them take some risks. Don’t penalize them if they’re
trying a new format. Only to realize, “Gosh, I wasn’t able to
learn that through that format, but I tried.” Make sure they have input on their goals,
their services, make sure they’re empowered to self-evaluate and communicate
effect, effectiveness over time. They need to be able to say, “Is
this working for me, or is it not?” They need to be able to do that
in K12 because with support. Because when they get into higher ed, they’re
going to need to do that independently. And of course actively contribute
to their transition plans. Teach self-determination. It needs to be explicit regardless
of whether a student is in preschool, or just about to graduate from high school. There are, there are explicit strategies along
the way to make sure that they are growing. And that they are actively able to demonstrate
how they can show their self-determination. Foster family engagement. Parents need to be prepared, as
prepared as their children are. In order to make sure that they’re
supporting them appropriately. Both to be active, actively supportive. And also to know when they need to back off and
why they need to back off and let, let their, let their child really, really
steer this process. So in conclusion, I just grabbed
this, this quote from Kohler & Field. Transition to adult roles is a complex
process all youths must negotiate. And that a myriad of factors work together to influence students’ lives
after school completion. So in other words, it’s really complex but so
important, so rewarding when it’s done right. Here’s my contact information: [email protected] And I’m going to take a look at the, some
comments that have come in, in the chat. And I’m sure we’re pretty close. We are at 3 o’clock. So I’m going to, I’m going to take
some, some questions and comments that have come up in the, in the chat. If you need to leave, there is the link
to the survey on your, on your screen. And I think that Leslie has
also dropped that in the chat. So I’m going to take a look for anybody
who wants to stay for a few minutes. I’m going to take a look at the, some of
the comments that have come up in the chat. Let me pick up where I left off. Alright, Debbie said the link
doesn’t work to the, okay. It looks, Debbie, it looks like, if you’re still
here, it looks like you’re just missing an L. At the end of that, at the end of that link.>>Yeah, I responded to her.>>Oh great, thank you. Oh, you know what? I’ll just skip over those then. [Laughter] Okay so we use [inaudible] we use
the taxonomy with our regular transition teams for planning their activities at the
annual Oklahoma Transition Institute. That’s great to know. It’s always good when sharing resources to
know that others have had success with them. Alright, [inaudible] also adds I
agree strongly that the summary of performance can be an
ongoing, living document. Addressed at the annual IEP
meeting throughout high school. Students often have different teachers
or case managers throughout high school. So the senior year teacher
may not be aware of many of the transition-related activities
the student may have participated in. And this is such a great point. That, you know, the documentation
needs to go with the student. And if, if the professionals are doing,
are doing a good job at the elementary, at the middle level as the
student transitions to high school. And then on to college, you
can see how the documentation, as it travels with the student
really informs the re– , you know, the receiver of that student. As they, as they cross these bridges
across the, you know, the lowercase t’s and the big T where they leave us. They leave the protection of IDEA and
they move on to the protection of the ADA. Alright. And it looks like other
than some, some thanks, that’s it. So really appreciate your time today. Remember that the AEM Center’s is here to
provide technical assistive on transition and whatever other supports you may need. And we really appreciate
that you were here today. Thank you to Leslie for monitoring the chat. Thank you to Cindy for your captioning service. I hope everybody has a great rest of your day.>>Hi, this message is to Shirley. Shirley, if you just send me an email at [email protected], I
can send you a certificate. I’m sorry, Shirley, I think
I called you Shelley. First day back after vacation, I apologize. [Laughter] Have a great day, everyone.>>I think you did call her Shirley, Leslie. I think you’re good.>>Fabulous! Okay, I’m going to end the
recording now if that’s alright?>>That’s great. Thank you.

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