Improving early child development with words: Dr. Brenda Fitzgerald at TEDxAtlanta


Translator: Sylvia He
Reviewer: Peter van de Ven Thank you very much. There is a profound predictor
of health and wealth that can be determined
by three years of age. And that predictor is language. Language is the essence
of what it means to be human. Now, animals may have noises or gestures
that they can communicate with, I can assure you my cat can get me up out of the bed
at five o’clock in the morning because he is hungry, but human beings are much more adept and much more facile at language. I can tell you that language in
the Oxford Unabridged English Dictionary, there are 600,000 different words that American,
that English people can know. Lots of people spoke,
speak more than one language. So the ability of humans is enormous,
you never really and truly see a chimpanzee or a rhinoceros
reading a book, but humans commonly read books, and we understand language. Babies come into this world acutely programmed
to learn all these different words, to learn the essence of language, because language is what makes
us human, and quite frankly, language is what makes us survive. There is a huge growth spurt, a huge increase in capacity
in the brain by at least a third that occurs in the last part of pregnancy, right before babies come into this world. And I can tell you that babies are
hard-wired to learn different languages. I can tell you that because the important thing about babies
is not only that there is the capacity, but how we learn language
is from our caretakers. That means mothers and babies
have this unique experience. I can tell you from
the maternal point of view that I experienced that in my own life. Now, I’m an obstetrician-gynecologist; I delivered lots and lots
and lots of babies, but the experience of delivering
somebody else’s baby was completely different
than my own pregnancy. Now, I gotta tell you,
I came to pregnancy, and I was already a doctor. I’ve known I wanted
to be a doctor from age eight. I loved it. I was a really good surgeon. I wasn’t really even sure
I wanted children. And then, this pregnancy occurred – by choice – and all of a sudden, I was acutely aware of my unborn daughter. All of a sudden, this woman that had been interested
in the outside world was only concentrated
on my pregnant belly. I wasn’t really interested in anything more than ten feet away from me. The evidence of hard-wire
is even more profound in babies. What you are looking at is
the development of language, because language is the interaction
between caretaker and baby. This experiment from the Harvard
Child Development Center is about the importance
of the hard-wire that is existing. This is called
the “Still Face Experiment.” What happened is the mothers
are instructed to turn away and then turn back to the child
and have a still face. Watch what happens to the baby. What you’ll see happening is,
first, she tries to engage. “Ah-ah,” smiles, coos, points –
that’s to elicit a response. Points, then she coos,
“Ah, ah, ah,” “ma, ma, ma,”
and then she reaches out. This is important, this is hard-wired. And all of a sudden,
she starts to get frustrated, nothing is catching attention,
there is this screech, “Ahhhhh.” She tries to comfort herself. And then she looks away,
tries to disengage, makes one final, one more attempt
to get her mother’s attention. And then she dissolves
into hopeless crying. It’s hard-wired. The Still Face Experiments are
clear indicators that this is hard-wired. So what’s the importance? What’s the long-term consequence
of this kind of biologic stuff? Why is it important that a mother
concentrates on her baby, or that a baby concentrates and demands
the attention of its mother? The long-term effect
of all this primitive stuff was done in some, I think, some kind
of brilliant work by Hart and Risley. And they were experimenters who had been
involved in the war on poverty. They’d been involved
in the war on poverty, and they said, “You know, there’s a problem here, because we are not really seeing, with these early
educational interventions, although they are good,
although there are some results, we are really not seeing
what we wanted to see.” So, they said, “Can we look earlier? Is there something that is happening
before these babies get to kindergarten, before these babies get to first grade? Is there something happening
that is important?” Their work was an extreme,
involved, deep observation of family life. They went into the homes of 42 families, and they had an intense
observation of those families. They looked at those families
an hour a month, every single month, from the time their children
were seven months of age until the end of the third year. And what they found, as by the title of my talk, was really not what they expected. First of all, the children were all well-cared-for. So it wasn’t the changes in the children, the difference in the children
had nothing to do with not having the physical needs met. Secondly, it was not about race, it was not about gender. And here’s the key: it was not about money. It wasn’t determined by the number of toys
that could be purchased by the parent. It wasn’t determined
by the neighborhood they lived in. It wasn’t determined by the size
of the house they lived in. It was determined by the interaction
of the parents with the child. And the interaction that they saw
after three years of observation was that there were 30 million more words that those families that were
identified as professional families, 30 million more words that those families, those mamas and daddies,
said to their children than the children in poverty. The reality is,
for those families in poverty, those parents were only saying
about 600 words an hour. For the professional families,
it was over 2000 words an hour. Because the professional families were having constant
talking with their baby. “Oh, your diaper needs to be changed. Oh, bless your heart,
I’ll take care of that.” “Oh, look at those toes.
Aren’t those toes wonderful! Oh, and look at that belly button.
That is the cutest thing I’ve ever seen. You are my beloved child.” Thirty million more words. That’s important because
neurological development of the brain, actual physical development
of the brain, depends on words. Each time a word is said, it shoots up the neuron, it stimulates the neuron. And when that word is repeated, that same path is stimulated again, and it’d get stronger
and stronger and stronger, and it branches out
so there’s capability of learning. And if those words are not repeated, the opposite occurs. Those neurons shrink and die and go away. The scientific word is pruning. But what it means is,
it decreases the ability to learn. Now I’ve got to tell you one more thing,
it’s not just hearing the words. Because babies
put in front of televisions, it’s like the Still Face Experiment, they don’t learn. They don’t learn,
because it is the interaction. And children who are deaf
can learn language. “Thank you,” in sign language is language,
it is symbols that mean something. It’s language. So it’s not the hearing, but it’s the interaction
that is most important. And it is enormously important. This is a graph of the effect of those 30 million
different words on these children. At the end of the three years, those babies that were born
to welfare parents knew 500 words, while those babies in the “professional”
families knew over a thousand words. It makes a difference. This whole process is language nutrition. And what it means is that language is absolutely important
for the development of the brain. Language is absolutely the basis
from which all human learning occurs. If you think about it, what language nutrition really is, is the development of neurons, the development of the brain, is absolutely, biologically
dependent on language, which leads directly
to the ability to read, which leads directly
to graduation from high school, which leads directly to college education, or high school education. The importance of learning to read, the importance of this language nutrition, is that there were profound effects
that they observed that were long-term. It wasn’t just short-term, it was long-term. They looked at these same children
five years later, and they found that they could tell
that the gap had increased between those children. It’d gone from 500 to 1000 words to the ability to pass
standardized tests at third grade. And why is that benchmark so important? Third grade is important
in the whole part of human learning because up to third grade
you learn to read. After third grade, you read to learn. If you cannot read on level
by third grade, you can’t read the text, so you can’t keep up. You may never catch up. For those children who are not reading
on level by third grade, they are four times more likely not to be
able to graduate from high school. And remember this language
nutrition model? If they can’t read, they don’t graduate from high school, and that leads directly to a problem
with success in the society. If you are really behind in reading, there’s a six times greater chance
that you won’t graduate from high school. Now, the problem in Georgia is that 70 percent of Georgia’s children
do not read on third grade level. 70 percent. That has profound
implications for the state and profound implications
for the individuals that are involved. There is this ranking called
“American’s National Health Rankings.” And in those health rankings, there are two clusters
that keep me up at night. Two clusters that, as a state health officer, I worry about. One cluster is about infant mortality,
and prematurity, and all that. And we have made some progress there; that’s a talk for another day. The other cluster where they
were at the very bottom of the pack, where we are at the lowest
tenth of the country, has to do with this whole business
about literacy at third grace. We have high numbers
of children in poverty, high numbers of failure
to graduate from high school, high numbers of income disparity, lack of health insurance, underemployment, unemployment. All of this caused by our lack of ability
to read on level at third grade. Also, as a state health officer, I can tell you, that is unacceptable. It is unexpectable, especially since I know
it’s not the neighborhood, it’s not the income, it’s not the genetics, it’s the exposure to language, the early exposure to language. So we are involved in a public-private
partnership called “Talk with me baby.” And this is to solve this problem
that we have here in Georgia. This is a public-private partnership. It involves United Way, it involves The Anne E. Casey Foundation, it involves Public Health, it involves the Department
of Early Child Care and Learning. But all of it is the same; all of it is to change the paradigm. For example, The Marcus Foundation,
which is one of our partners, they are involved in developing the tools
to teach healthcare providers, to teach nurses, hospitals, and doctors
how to tell their patients about this, the importance of early learning, and also how to tell
their patients how to do it. In public health, we are going directly to the mamas, because in public health, we have an interesting little
program called WIC. WIC is the Women, Infant
and Child Nutrition Program. Now, WIC is different
from a regular food stamp program. In WIC, you don’t just get
a little plastic card and go to the grocery store
and do whatever you want. In WIC, you have to come to see us, every three months to see a nutritionist. And you can only purchase
certain foods with your WIC card. We see this as a unique opportunity
to take food nutrition, which is so important
for our citizens of this state, and talk to them about language nutrition. And there are a lot of people in WIC, 50 to 60 percent of Georgia’s babies
qualify and are in WIC. 50 to 60 percent. And all those low-risk mothers. And WIC is everywhere, there are 159 counties in Georgia, and we have 159 or more
WIC offices in Georgia. We have a WIC office
capable of reaching these people, every single place in Georgia. There is not a single place in Georgia
that you can’t get to a WIC office. We hired the Marcus Foundation
to come up with some videos, and these videos will be played
in the WIC clinics. And they’ll tell these young mothers, these young needy mothers, these poverty mothers that we’re
going back to the original studies, about the importance
of food nutrition. They’ll tell these mothers how to do it, because it is not just straight forward, “Oh, talk to your baby
and you’ll be fine.” There are subtleties
that you need to know, and these videos are designed to do that. It’ll tell them such things as a baby is born recognizing
its mother’s voice, therefore when you start
talking to your baby, it’s when your baby is still in the womb. So this program is designed
to get to all these mothers. So far, what we have done is, we want to know what works. I believe it’ll work, but what we want to know is,
does it really work? So we have evaluated the average number of words
that the children in our WIC clinic know. And we are going to start the videos, and we are going to couple it
with the reinforcement – remember those every-three-month
visits for pregnant women and children? We are going to reinforce that
with the nutrition saying to them, “Food nutrition is important, but language nutrition may be
even more important for your baby.” And when that mama goes home
from the WIC clinic, she’s going to be taking a book. I really think that … this will change the dynamics
here in Georgia. I know for a fact that it is all about language. The most important concept
is the development of language. I know that the Office of the Budget
for the House of Representatives recently did a study, and they looked
at the evaluation of the war on poverty that was started back in the ’60s, and according to our budget office, we’ve spent five trillion dollars on it. And here’s what’s happened
to the poverty rate. In 1965, when it started, the poverty rate was 17.3. In 2012, after five trillion dollars, it is 15. That’s not much progress. I present to you, I think the problem is we didn’t look for the answer
to the problem early enough, and we didn’t – we weren’t including language. We have to include language. Language is the very basis
of solving the problem of poverty. Life expectancy at the time of Christ
was 20 to 30 years. Life expectancy for human beings
a thousand years later was 20 to 30 years. Today, you people sitting out there, your life expectancy is 80 years or more. You survive birth, you survive learning
to drive as a teenager, and you have a great chance
of living to 80 or more. That expected change in life expectancy is not because of
bypass surgery or CAT scans. Bypass surgery and CAT scans are great; they may add a year or two. But those transformational changes are from more basic, primary,
primitive public health initiatives. Those changes in life expectancy
are from clean water, and an effective sewer, and vaccinations, and the developement of antibiotics. I can tell you that in 1900, the things that were killing us, the three killers of human beings in 1900, was pneumonia, TB, and diarrhea. And I can also tell you that the things I mentioned – clean water, sewers,
vaccinations, antibiotics – those are responsible for
the expected change in life expectancy. I can also say to you that I believe that we are on the precipice
of the next transformational change in public health. That transformational change, I truly believe, is the deep understanding
of the importance of language development, and the determination that we have absolutely universal, effective,
early language development. My message to you as a state health
officer of Georgia today is really simple, but I think it is important. And my message to you is: talk with your baby. Thank you. (Applause)

100 thoughts on “Improving early child development with words: Dr. Brenda Fitzgerald at TEDxAtlanta”

  1. MY MOTHER WAS THE TEACHER IN OUR FAMILY SHE TAUGHT ME AND MY BROTHERS AND SISTERS TO READ BEFORE PRESCHOOL.OUR FIRST DAY AT PRESCHOOL WERE READING FIRST GRADE LEVEL BOOKS.

  2. We are a literate culture with high technology. In other nations that have a different technology level,, would children there need to be adept at skills other than language, vocabulary and literacy?

  3. I assume by "reading" she means reading and comprehension.? For those using the example that money or being raised in a professional family doesn't matter, then stating that kids from affluent families were far ahead of the others are missing the point. Most can open the dictionary, learn new words, their definitions and how to pronounce them. I think the point is that most in poverty or middle class do not go to the effort to do this for their children. I have a second grader. One of the ways I help him read well.? He gets a word wrong and I say "does that sound like a word you know? You've heard this word before, so you'll know when you've got it right." Want to know if it works? He already reads at a fourth grade level. And follows and understands the story he's reading. I was raised (in poverty) by an English major. My dad would have me read, and then retell the story in my own words- the one stipulation, I couldn't use any of the phrases I'd read in the original text to do so. I guess that's one example where income is not a factor.

  4. This should be shown to more parents, i recieve WIC in California and they are not educating me on anything, they ask a few questions about how i eat and how much i feed my baby and of what but thats it so far… why is this not being taught in EVERY state? smh

  5. This woman does not keep in mind that maybe the parents who live at the poverty level speak only 11 million words, rather than the 43 million of the upper class, because those who are in poverty usually work longer hours and therefore do not have the opportunity to speak with their children as often as the privileged upper class. Not only that, but I call BS on the "if you can't read by third grade, you'll fall behind" and if you fall behind, what she is saying, is that you will become a menace to society. I worked with struggling readers at a school in an upper-class society at the third- fourth- and fifth grade level, and they were simply working out how to decode words. It does not equate to a group of people that will menace society. Some children just have a harder time making the connection between sounds and letters, just like some students have a hard time working out numbers in mathematics.

  6. I think it doesn't matter if you're poor or professional but I think everychild is different and develop in a different way. I think children who's parents speak different languages have better chance to develop and learn two or three languages in a very young age.

  7. Hmm does that mean we need ‘tuition free’ (paid by taxes) public college? YESS!!! It would stimulate not only minds but the economy.

  8. Agree, I even played music and sermons to my daughter from when my wife pregnant by putting my studio headphones on my wife's tummy. And kept talking while doing things. She has grown up and got her dream job: Fashion Designer she does is prophetically while active in youth ministry going to places, singing, dancing, writing songs, designing special prophetic dresses, and playing music: drums, guitar, bass, keyboard. And for sure, she likes talking. Thank you for sharing this video.

  9. Very informative yet extremely out dated. So many college grads from ALL walks of life have lost their jobs & are now on "walfare". If it "free" it walfare.. WIC is that too.

  10. Interact with your child. Talk with your child. Engage with them in play and reading and exploring!

  11. Sign Language and Dunsten Baby Language also support vocabulary development. I have a YouTube Channel and a specific playlist called Baby Perspectives.

  12. When those kids get older, will they be talked to about not having babies out of wedlock? One problem feeds the other.

  13. A child born into poverty, parents, may not dialogue with their children because they are too overwhelmed in poverty…

  14. Although I agree with her estimates, 42 households are not a large enough sample size to statistically deduce conclusions.

  15. The study spoken of has been proven very controversial. Not culturally sensitive and only 42 families. Take it with a grain of salt people, but the achievement gap is real. The reason it continues to grow has much more to do with systemic racism. Additionally those WIC workers are rude and demeaning. Teach them social skills and cultural sensitivity.

  16. Very nicely done. This was a good blend of science, practical solutions, and expert advice. I could not agree more that language nutrition is as critical as food nutrition. Thanks for sharing!

  17. CognitoBaby is Award-winning language development game developed specially for babies and toddlers. Supporting 27 languages 🐷 Come and visit us 🐸

  18. Parents coupled with their own personality imperfections who aren't ready to be present with the children create the cycle to be passed down to next generation.

  19. A prime example of when the data is absolutely correct and scientifically backed up but completely misinterpreted.

  20. Never spoke Spanish. Assumed I didn’t know English and took away art class and cooking away from me and now I’m stuck with ELD. Thanks for lowering my self-esteem!

  21. The talk does an excellent job illustrating the devastating effects of not having enough words spoken to children on both the children and society as a whole. Though while the speaker drove home the point of the importance of language, there is devastatingly flawed logic here. Dr. Fitzgerald is taking statistics and separating them from a larger story, therefore losing the who legitimacy of her argument and attempt to offer a remedy for the situation. This issue of language and words spoken to children is so important, but in order to address the root of the issue, we must ask questions to get to the root of the issue – that is, WHY are less words being spoken to these children in lower economic statuses? The reason why is the most important factor in addressing the issue. Multiple graphic depictions were shown that number of words correlates directly to income level – it is obvious, then, that income level has a DIRECT impact on future success due to its correlation with the factor that impacts success discussed – language. The speaker shows a clear lack of understanding of lower income families – she suggests that higher income families are simply choosing out of their free will to speak all of these words and implies that lower income families are therefore not. As a scientist, especially, to not ask the question of the causes of why less words are spoken as economic status falls is a failure to adequately explore and address the issue.

    Possible explanations for less words being spoken as economic status falls is that low-income parents spend a significant amount more time working to make ends meet for their family, therefore are not able to be around their young children like they would like to be. Another explanation is that lower-income parents are statistically less educated than higher-income parents and therefore do not have the same vocabulary or social skills as a result of their being tangled in this cycle of poverty. Many of these explanations are likely compounded, as well, making this (as most are) a multi-faceted issue that can't be singled out to simply "speak to your child more." These explanations are not studied but are merely examples of important explanations that need to be explored if we truly want to help these children and break the cycle of poverty.

    Her tone overall moves from concern and love for babies to the common ignorance that people of privilege often have when they want to justify the comfortable illusion that all people are born with equal status. Instead of blaming the mothers (clear gender bias here, as well, as the talk puts all the responsibility on the mothers instead of both parents) and families of these babies for their lack of success later in life, it is imperative that we explore and address the societal and other factors involved that are shaping the lives of those in lower economic statuses, and in this specific instance, causing these babies to receive significantly less language interactions, ultimately leading to a continuation of the cycle of poverty.

  22. So the study is based off 45 families. Sounds like genetics and peer group connections would explain the differential much better than one that has a talkative parent.

  23. Dr. Fitzgerald, children in lower economic classes are also more likely to vaccinate, have you looked into that as a correlation with development?

  24. I'm not poor, and I was raising my infant myself, trying to interact as much as I can. Well, I'm not very chatty, but I tried. He's quite late with his speech as a toddler now, and many things he says he's learnt from cartoons, not people.
    So how should I understand this video?

  25. I thought this talk was fantastic. The concepts are excellent!!! I love the idea that this explains why a mom os so compelled to look at her infant and to the baby and make goofy faces. It is natural to help make a baby develop.

  26. Speechless presentation mam…I absolutely  agree with on this matter.I appreciate you very much.Thank you Mam…

  27. One thing she did not discuss was how important other members of the family were to the developing baby. I lived with my daughter and her husband when both of her daughters were born (at home with a midwife by choice). We all talked and played with both girls from the moment they were born> Other family members were often present and talked and played with them also. I did housework and diapers so my daughter had more time with them to read and garden with or take walks. The important thing at an early age is not how many thousands of words you speak to them, but the interaction, eye contact, touch, and response to their needs, which includes talking outloud to them. My daughter gave away their TV and x-box so that they would not be tempted to just sit around not interacting with their children and vice-versa. They do not watch videos on the computer…they read to them. None of this has anything to do with money or education level.

  28. good news, we talk 3 different languages to our 2 years old 🙂 Me hungarian, my husband spanish and we talk english at home.

  29. So what I believe is that people in poverty are at work 40 hours a week or even overtime and trying to get their babies out of poverty and don’t have enough time to talk 2,000 words an hours. Sad to think about actually

  30. My parents didn't talk to me much and I didn't learn to read very well in third grade, I was in a special reading class actually, so I didn't do well in school. (Except math & science) Now I'm in college and I want to do well, but it is hard because I am such a slow reader! I need longer time on tests, but I would have to pay thousands for a reading disability exam.

    I finally found out that a community college out of town offers affordable testing if I enroll in a class, so fingers crossed! (although it doesn't fix my past grades and it was hard to find this resource ALSO I am very disappointed in the help and direction given by my university! Universities are scams. I miss my old community college. They probably did testing 😭)

  31. She needs to reiterate the Word ignorance. Instead of poor no matter how professional you think you are. Is it her southern background.

  32. And what has injecting poisons into our children got to do with language? Nice little, oh al just slip this propaganda in here, no one will notice. DO NOT TRUST A WORD OF THIS WOMAN!!!

  33. She just described tyre most obvious correlation to income/money that I've ever heard. "Professionals" talk to their kids more?

  34. I was unable to read a chapter book until 4th grade. I graduated high school in the top 10% of my class. What I can say is love can be expressed in many ways. There are many arguments in the comments about parents working longer hours and other excuses. I was afforded the oppurtunity to work with a woman that specialized in literature as well as my normal grade teachers. At night I would stumble reading to my parents words like; off, then, too, of, and many more. Now I am bilingual and can read, write, and speak in two languages. Ted is about developing communith. It is not necessarily up to parents solely to develop children, but to the people we leave to care for our children. At the end of the day a teacher is paid by the taxpayers,the parents and family of that child, to help nuture them into a productive individual. So please stop minimizing the effects of attention, love, and individualism. To all peoples who help nuture and love children, Thank you. And to whomever decides they are not in agreement with me, Thank you. Remember Be Kind Always

  35. I agree that communication is key but I disagree with the comparison between “educated” and “poverty”. You said race, gender, AND wealth had nothing to do with the study and yet you include it. Parents in poverty don’t get the privilege of spending that much time with their children.

  36. To say it has nothing to do with environment or income and then turn around and stress how the poverty stricken are the lowest, in regards to their knowledge and use of language nutrition is beyond contradictory…it’s preposterous! Thnx for your diligent research though 🕊

  37. Dr. Brenda Fitzgerald correctly describes how much mental reasoning and brain development occurs during pregnancy and in the first four years of a baby's life. More vocabulary exposure and conversations during this time clearly affects the person for the rest of his or her life. However, she almost sounds as if such is an extremely huge factor in getting people out of poverty and overemphasizes just the vocabulary exposure aspect of cognitive development.

  38. No baby talk! Babies pic up on more than you know, interact in conversation every time they are awake. Start building a library of books from the good will and the dollar store, Read to them befor bedtime, ask them to pick their favourite book and read it to them. Flash card at the dollar store lay them on the floor point to each one and identify them for him to hear and see the picture as he gets older you can now pick the card and when you ask what is on the picture he will try to say the word.They have the ability to learn 7 languages and musical instruments, sports all before the age of seven.I speak from experience my grandson of 3 1/2 is snowboarding, swimming, golfing, gymnastics, loves to read, has a large vocabulary now learning to skate, he has no fear.

  39. Wow… what a marketing! She misunderstood 'Language or word' with 'Interaction'. Just talking is not important, otherwise TV can replace the parents. It is feel, love and care of parents. and Whats very new about it.

  40. She says this had nothing do with neighbour, income, gender, race, class/wealth and then she goes on to divide the study subjects by wealth and class without the desire to explain why this occurs in poor children. Because I refuse to believe to that poor parents simply do not want to speak to or love their children. Please….

  41. I love this video, Im training to be a teacher, and this video is just a friendly reminder on how important interaction and communication is to child development!!!!

  42. babies naturally have alpha waves the majority of their awake time, over stimulation isn't good either, there are children who have rarely heard words and never read to, and those children had high IQ's, so her/this/their theory isn't a 100% naturally

  43. by 42 families, gender, race, money, baby variations are exempted as long as the babies' needs met… am I understanding correctly?

  44. It is important to engage with children at younger age. But I believe there is weak correlation between this and success. I know people who are illiterate and can’t speak properly having a limited vocabulary. However, there are very successful people and have highly educated people working for them. Trump is an example of someone who has very low IQ and very successful.

  45. Proffesionalfamilis often give ther kids to daycare, where there are trained ppl and a load of kids, guss what, talking. I had a highly qualivied, high earning mom, I gave her her 5month old baby boy back avter a long day of daycare for him. He was bubbeling and I interacted with him while he was on mums arm. She looked at me with a baffeld look and saied, oh, yes I heard that you should be talking to them… that was so sad to me. She dident know, she dident even think of it…

  46. My father worked three jobs and my mother worked two and was severely and debilitatingly mentally ill. She’s been hospitalized ALOT. I was put in LD classes as a child. It all worked out I am now a nurse and although I can say I love to read and I don’t disagree that words are important and talking to your babies is important BUT SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS EFFECTS DEVELOPMENT. Because you can be the most loving parent in the world but if you don’t have time to spend with your baby except about once or twice at night or you are so mentally ill (untreated due to cost) and you are just trying to make ends meet or keep yourself well then that effects development. POVERTY AND INCOME EFFECT DEVELOPMENT. Why does it seem like she is saying that it’s just people aren’t interacting with their kids? Sometimes people don’t have the opportunity to do as much and Georgia is one of the poorest states with high levels of poverty. Maybe if they focus on that and establishing some relief these parent’s would be able to spend more time interacting with their babies.

  47. The babies which people are always talking about the nationality wise. Always I am as an Indian. I don’t want to be care about my baby. It’s just be a word I text above from my mind who. But I am a father who get a baby more than 7 years to get a child . Gender is not a matter. But I will ask always what mean by developments

  48. I can't share this on facebook because it has been flagged for abuse? I get it, I know what part do they mean, but this is educational to help prevent bad behavior.

  49. I am not convinced that this is pure causation and not simply a very predictable correlation. ? I'd like some comment on that

  50. I just wish I there had been a reduction in size in the womb size between pregnancies, Oh, hard..
    I need a support system! I did't get to go to school, I wish I knew how to get together with the people who can work together and help me at the coffee shop or the hospital, or the pregnancy massage foundation, lol.

  51. Hello , I need some help my wife is studying MECD (Masters Early Childhood development) in Private BRAC University in Bangladesh . She would like to do PHD with full scholarship to study more and It will be blessing for our nation . we already serving our Country in Bangladesh it is in the southern part of Bangladesh the fisherman villages with me . We need some link or University name , which University in the world or USA is providing this opportunity those who are from Develop country. As Bangladesh we want to serve more to raise the next generation who will serve this World !!! greetings to you all .

  52. Look at your children See their faces in golden rays Don't kid yourself they belong to you They're the start of a coming race

  53. With due respect to the work done by this speaker, I think this shows how scientists can often interprete/manipulate data to come to any conclussion they so choose. Studying families 1hour in a month is by no means sufficient to come to any significant conclussions. That's 1hour out of at least 720hrs in a month, that's less than 0.0014% of time spent with these families. The assumption that language is the main determinant of future wealth both overstates its effect and underscores the roles that other factors play. What about innate abilities, good nutrition, health status, sound education, safety and security at home, faith to name a few. That's not even looking into more debatable factors.

  54. MY STORY WOULD BE DIFFERENT IF WOULD OF LEFT THE HOSPITAL WITH A MILESTONE PAMPHLET OR THE IMPORTANCE OF TALKING TO MY CHILD. AT hospital they more worry about you suing them then really informing you, they are very vague in their answers. My daughter was diagnosed with speech delay at 27 months. I felt so guilty so shameful about it but then I thought about it again: what wouldn't I give my child? Answer is i would give her everything. I f i would know, if would have a foot print of how to do what am supposed to do I would have had done it. Unfortunately i happen to be at a bad mental place and a VERY slow and LONG recovery I definitely needed to hear all this. I feel guilty for being misinformed. Thanks God things are going better. She is progressing very fast.

  55. Raising a baby is not so easy….not just interacting…not just language…..still more things we have to completed…..

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