How to use rhetoric to get what you want – Camille A. Langston

How do you get what you want
using just your words? Aristotle set out to answer exactly
that question over 2,000 years ago with the Treatise on Rhetoric. Rhetoric, according to Aristotle, is the art of seeing the available
means of persuasion. And today we apply it to
any form of communication. Aristotle focused on oration, though, and he described three types
of persuasive speech. Forensic, or judicial, rhetoric establishes facts
and judgements about the past, similar to detectives at a crime scene. Epideictic, or demonstrative, rhetoric makes a proclamation
about the present situation, as in wedding speeches. But the way to accomplish change
is through deliberative rhetoric, or symbouleutikon. Rather than the past or the present, deliberative rhetoric
focuses on the future. It’s the rhetoric of politicians debating a new law by imagining
what effect it might have, like when Ronald Regan warned
that the introduction of Medicare would lead to a socialist future
spent telling our children and our children’s children what it once
was like in America when men were free. But it’s also the rhetoric of activists
urging change, such as Martin Luther King Jr’s dream that his children will one day live
in a nation where they will not be judged
by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character. In both cases, the speaker’s present
their audience with a possible future and try to enlist their help
in avoiding or achieving it. But what makes
for good deliberative rhetoric, besides the future tense? According to Aristotle, there are three
persuasive appeals: ethos, logos, and pathos. Ethos is how you convince an audience
of your credibility. Winston Churchill began his 1941 address
to the U.S. Congress by declaring, “I have been in full harmony all my life
with the tides which have flowed on both sides of the Atlantic
against privilege and monopoly,” thus highlighting his virtue
as someone committed to democracy. Much earlier, in his defense
of the poet Archias, Roman consul Cicero appealed to
his own practical wisdom and expertise as a politician: “Drawn from my study
of the liberal sciences and from that careful training
to which I admit that at no part of my life I have ever
been disinclined.” And finally, you can demonstrate
disinterest, or that you’re not motivated
by personal gain. Logos is the use of logic and reason. This method can employ rhetorical devices
such as analogies, examples, and citations of research or statistics. But it’s not just facts and figures. It’s also the structure and content
of the speech itself. The point is to use factual knowledge
to convince the audience, as in Sojourner Truth’s argument
for women’s rights: “I have as much muscle as any man
and can do as much work as any man. I have plowed and reaped and husked
and chopped and mowed and can any man do more than that?” Unfortunately, speakers can also
manipulate people with false information that the audience thinks is true, such as the debunked but still widely
believed claim that vaccines cause autism. And finally, pathos appeals to emotion, and in our age of mass media,
it’s often the most effective mode. Pathos is neither inherently good nor bad, but it may be irrational
and unpredictable. It can just as easily rally
people for peace as incite them to war. Most advertising, from beauty products that promise
to relieve our physical insecurities to cars that make us feel powerful, relies on pathos. Aristotle’s rhetorical appeals
still remain powerful tools today, but deciding which of them to use is a matter of knowing
your audience and purpose, as well as the right place and time. And perhaps just as important is being
able to notice when these same methods of persuasion
are being used on you.

100 thoughts on “How to use rhetoric to get what you want – Camille A. Langston”

  1. We as a society need to transcend beyond the appearance of credibility that allows con artists and the corrupt to rise, instead, we need to be objective. Truth has the authority, not a degree, experience or any other construct. We need to hear what is said for what it is rather than who says it!

  2. What's the Greek word for "clickbait"? The video is nicely done but the title is flat-out deceptive. I expect a "how to" video to include practical instruction.

  3. Rhetoric = The art of effective or Persuasive Speaking or Writing, … Propaganda = Information, especially of a Biased or misleading nature, Used To Promote or Publicize A Particular Political Cause or Point Of View. This video sure Uses a lot of Both.

  4. 2:13 and if you would like to look more into Cicero you can listen to the new big finish series Cicero

  5. The Preacher Spoke 
    The Word
    The Word 
    reaching back
    to the power
    to the past
    to speak
    to a future
    yet unknown
    a meaning
    faith intoned
    despite doubt
    they heard
    him out

  6. Just as doctors once prescribed leeches or draining blood… High amounts of vaccines are definitely unhealthy for humans, and are directly related to Austim.

  7. If there was no link between the mercury in vaccines and autism there would be no need to bring it up in here!


    The narrator states, "Unfortunately, speakers can manipulate people with false information that the audience thinks is true".

    Then, as her example, refers to the vaccine/autism correlation controversy, claiming it has been "debunked" 😒

  9. Gün gelecek amerikada politikalarına dini karıştırarak başkan seçilcek ve dünyanin dengesi alt üst olcak barış için gelen bir toplum kanla son bulcak.

  10. The inclusion of your autism/vaccine non-relatedness comment coming right after your statement about false information being presented as fact is disingenuous. Get educated. The closing quote from the 2011 published research article abstract (J Inorg Biochem) on that topic is "…a more rigorous evaluation of Al adjuvant safety seems warranted." Has it been done? No, it has not. Why not? Because someone does not want it done. Get educated:

  11. Lol, fast forward to 2019 and the quote from Reagan, that "Medicare would lead to socialism" has been proven true! You have egg on your face Ted-Ed.

  12. Their is a link between vaccines and autism. Using rhetoric is not the same as lies.what you did their is propaganda my dear ..shame on you and your lack of logos

  13. you did not need to say the autism part. you just didn't.. have one of your family members die from a vaccine, then re-upload the video

  14. YouTube videos make us not more intelligent bcouse we tak in too much information and we dont think about it that long

  15. From time to time I'm telling people that I don't stop to walking behind them till get what I need.


  17. Hey so this video is wonderful but now I have to go in a corner and cry bc it brought back memories from debate class

  18. Cicero's entire speech is basically "I am amazing, therefore by association by client must be pretty alright too." And damn of the guy doesn't love his ablative absolutes.

  19. VACCINES DONT CAUSE AUTISM BIT🤔🧐Was that just me that thought that it was weird that VACCINES were thrown in there out of nowhere..Bit Suss Ted

  20. Rhetorical devices are loosely organized into the following FOUR categories:

    Logos. Devices in this category seek to convince and persuade via logic and reason, and will usually make use of statistics, cited facts, and statements by authorities to make their point and persuade the listener.

    Pathos. These rhetorical devices base their appeal in emotion. This could mean invoking sympathy or pity in the listener, or making the audience angry in the service of inspiring action or changing their mind about something.

    Ethos. Ethical appeals try to convince the audience that the speaker is a credible source, that their words have weight and must be taken seriously because they are serious and have the experience and judgment necessary to decide what’s right.

    Kairos. This is one of the most difficult concepts in rhetoric; devices in this category are dependent on the idea that the time has come for a particular idea or action. The very timeliness of the idea is part of the argument.

  21. I find this very interesting. It is possible that this whole " helpful" educational bit was done by people who support vaccines? I am not taking one side or the other, that is not my intention here.

    Simply to point out that in the middle of teaching about persuation they talk about Martin Luther King, Sojourner Truth( appeal to those who have a identification with truth and justice) then they sneakily couch their words about vaccines and autism in an absolute as if " we all know that it is a done debate" no question.

    But is it? I dont know- do you? Before we do any research on it should we just trust this person because she sounds so knowledgeable, friendly and professional and is so nice to give us the free education?

    Just sonething that popped out to me as I listened to this. Beware the helpful, friendly persuader. Do your own research and even once you do decide that you trust someone, stay awake and present in the momentary situations where a decision needs to be made by you.

    Don't just jump in the canoe that they are rowing. It may be fine at first but persuation can escalate and it has happened often that it is down the road after the decision to trust that most tragic events have happened to followers.

    Trusting a person and trusting everything they say are two different things.
    Think for yourself.

  22. The levels of rhetoric and such linguistic mastery found in the Holy Qur'an is so unparalleled that within the Quran itself stands a 1400 year undisputed challenge. The Qur'an states "if one thinks this book was not from God then bring a book like it, you will not be able to. least, you will not even to bring forward a chapter like it" (Quran). The smallest chapter in the Qur'an is comprised merely of three, yes, three verses. Yet, it's been 1400 years and the only task one has to do to disprove the claim of Islam and the Muslims is to bring three verses matching the linguistic phenomenon paralleling the sciences of rhetoric and language demonstrated in the Holy book of the Muslims. History testifies, many have tried but only to end in vain. Something to look into I guess when it comes to the world of language.

  23. I've just read a 40 page paper describing the same concepts in a 4 minute video…. I love wasting money in college!

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