How to integrate critical thinking at lower levels- Full Webinar



can everybody hear me and see me if you can say yes or hello or maybe type what time it is in your country its midday here and we have over 400 people now from different parts of the world so I'm interested to know what time it is goal sorts of different times 1 o'clock 2 o'clock 9 p.m. for somebody 7 so some of you it's very early in the morning a 6 o'clock start for one person there excellent very nice to see everybody and I'm assuming the sound and image is fine and everybody can see slides that's great ok so in the next hour we're going to look at critical thinking in particular at lower levels now if you've attended my webinars before you know that I've talked about critical thinking before but I've talked about it in quite a general way in terms of defining it and one of the questions that I get a lot from teachers around the world and so on is asking me yeah critical thinking is interesting but can it really work with lower-level learners for example with beginners elementary and pre intermediate so what we thought we'd do today is a session looking particularly at the lower levels and the types of activities we might do now to do this we're going to do a little bit of theory a bit of background methodology so I'm just going to clarify my definition of what critical thinking is then we're going to consider what some of the challenges are for lower level learners and perhaps you can write about some of the difficulties sometimes you have if you have critical thinking tasks with lower-level learners and then the main part of the session is to look at some practical ideas so there'll be about 10 or 15 minutes of and then we'll get on to some practical tips of things you can do with your students to experiment and try to bring in critical thinking into the classroom okay so let's get going because we've got quite a lot to get through there will be time for questions at the end although if you have a particular question during the session feel free to use the chat box and I'm going to ask you to use the chat box at certain times first of all a definition of critical thinking on the slide you can see something which I've shown people before so if you've heard of Bloom's taxonomy can you just type bloom or yes or something in the chat box so everybody knows yet lots of people typing yes good I'm just gonna have a glass of water lovely so what we're looking at here is a an adaptation on this slide this should be a green arrow on the slide as well this is an adaptation or a revision of Bloom's taxonomy which was done in 2001 by a group led by somebody called Creflo and here's the basic theory that when our students are thinking and learning they're either using lower order thinking or they're using higher order thinking yeah now in blooms original theory it was quite hierarchical so he would say that students start by remembering and recalling information so remembering and recalling facts for example then the next level is that they would have to show that they'd understood that information so for him imagine you teach students a new words they have to remember it then they have to show that they've understood it yep and the next step in thinking would be to apply that word maybe they use it in a gap fill or they use it in some kind of controlled situation to demonstrate that they've understood the word so they can apply it yeah and we do this in the classroom a lot so that we present new language students maybe do some control practice and we just check that they know how to use the new word okay it's very straightforward it's what we do every day in lessons however sometimes if we want the students to start using higher-order thinking we might ask them to analyze the language in some way and discover something about the language we might for example give them a reading text and we get them to read it and then analyze language in it and discover a new rule for example we might get them to evaluate the use of language in a text and this is all higher-order thinking it's much more difficult in many ways so it's more challenging to students and then right at the top we get students to create something perhaps produce something maybe we ask them to give a presentation or write a story or make a video even something creative in the classroom which is kind of fun to do but it works much better if they've used their other higher-order thinking skills so this is basically what higher and lower order thinking is about and it's kind of Bloom's taxonomy and it's it's adapted and it originally when Blum invented his taxonomy he saw it very much as a hierarchical he would say that you can't do higher-order thinking until you dumb lower order thinking however in the 21st century we don't necessarily believe that we think we can play around for example I could start a lesson by asking students to do something very creative and then perhaps I could ask them to read a text or learn some new vocabulary and then do other things so I don't necessarily always start at the bottom and finish at the top I can do things in different orders in terms of critical thinking it's useful to look at manoa said as you move to the top of the pyramid does the importance decrease no I think the importance is equal I think it's as important to have remembering and understanding as it is to have creativity if we look at this in terms of critical thinking we can kind of see Bloom's taxonomy like this that the lower order thinking generally is connected with basic comprehension so it might be learning new vocabulary and understanding and applying that vocabulary ok the next three levels apply analyze and evaluate they all involve some critical thinking in which it we're asking students to use their higher-order thinking and think more deeply about language and quite often in classrooms this is the bit that doesn't happen often we miss it out we do the lower order thinking and then we go to the next exercise and we learn more language but the students don't have an opportunity to think critically about the language that they're working with and then finally at the top you've got the creative thinking which we can treat as its own category as well the important thing to understand about this is that you should see lower order and higher order thinking as a continuum so in any good language lesson or any kind of lesson we're always switching between lower order thinking to higher order thinking and back again and it's continuous and that way we really know that we're tapping into the students different levels of thinking okay now there's a problem here here's the problem quite often when we teach language with lower level students we use a lot of lower order thinking because we're introducing language for the first time and the problem is when we get to the apply stage we often don't get students to think critically and man'll has just made a good point in the chat room it's one of the reasons that we focus on the lower order thinking skills with the lower levels and sometimes we don't get students to think critically and often in higher level course books you'll see special sections on critical thinking but often with lower level books you don't and this presents a problem for the teacher because it's critical thinking something we can only do with higher levels that's my question so what I thought I would do because I want you to think critically some people are typing know we'll see to get you think critically I thought we'd have a poll and I'm gonna ask Emily if she can bring the poll open and the poll is very simple you look at a B C or D you read the descriptor and you decide which you agree with most you might think there's more than one answer but go ahead just click one of the answers and let's see what the 535 people in this room all think I'm really interested to see what your feelings are don't type in the chat box put it into the poll on the screen you should be able to click onto the screen and then we can really see visually what you think I'm getting you to do a little bit of research here because I want to know what teachers around the world think lots of people typing be at the moment some people said B and C I mean it maybe there's more than one answer and it depends on the context and these kinds of things that come up I don't know how many people have answered yet we've got 538 people in the room and I'm looking we've got about over 300 people have answered yet Lynne's made a good point chosen B but it depends on the motivation of the learner yes fit learner we're trying to develop a bit of teacher critical thinking it's very important the teachers think critically as well any more answers lots of people going 4b okay let's let's let's take a look Emily's closing the poll okay so be seems to be the popular answer for me a B and C might be correct in different situations I didn't put the poll up thinking there was one correct answer I just put the poll up because I was sort of interested in different views and D is an interesting answer I don't agree with D personally well if you look at lots of language lessons and you look at lots of course books quite often they don't include critical thinking tasks at lower levels it's as if they believe D because they think that students just need to use lower order thinking so I think you can answer a B and C and it would apply in different contexts my general feeling my own personal feeling is that B is is is quite often incorrect it's more challenging to do I also think yeah guadalupe i'm defining critical thinking as the higher-order thinking skills between comprehension and creativity so it's evaluating and analyzing and so on so it's interesting to see people's response we all seem to agree that critical thinking is good at lower levels but it's more challenging to do let's look at this in more detail now if we go to the next slide I'm going to create what I'm calling the critical thinking paradox this is one of the challenges for teachers and basically what happens quite often with students when they have low level English we often seem to think it means or the way materials are presented is we sometimes think it means they have low-level intelligence so that the kinds of materials we sometimes have to use in the classroom don't really challenge the students critical thinking however I think that just because students have a lower level of English that doesn't mean they have low level intelligence so we need to teach low level language but we also need to give them texts and exercises that challenge their intelligence as though they have higher level intelligence it's a mistake if we confuse low level English only with lower level low level thinking and I'm glad some of you seem to agree exactly discourages them if we do the other there's a problem here and that is that tasks that are often aimed at higher-order thinking in course materials often require higher-level language for example when we give students problem-solving tasks quite often they need a high level of English in order to complete the task or if we for example as students to do look at an authentic reading text then sometimes if it's authentic it means that they need higher-level English so the challenge we have to do is to introduce lower order thinking activities at sorry we have to introduce higher order thinking activities for lower-level learners and that's quite a challenge or it can be sometimes now I think one of the reasons this that teachers often don't do critical thinking tasks with lower levels is because we often seem to use high level language to talk about critical thinking so there is what I would call a false perception of critical thinking the false perception is this we often use words like analyze evaluate bias perspective judgment relevance even a word like elucidation and you see these words used in course books but what level of student do you think what level would they need to be in order to understand those words if you're familiar with CFR levels do they have to be B 1 B 2 C 1 what level do you think yeah and face is saying B 2 some of the words could be B 1 like compare but for example a word like elucidation would be C 1 for example and and what often happens is that these kinds of words appear in course books and they put teachers off from using critical thinking with lower levels but I think this is a false perception I think the real challenge is that we have to grade our language to talk about critical thinking in the same way that we grade our language to talk about anything else let me give you an example of what I mean let's go back to our lower and higher order thinking Laura has answered the question she said grade the activity exactly let's look at some things a teacher might say in a classroom for example an activity involving remembering a teacher might say listen to these words and repeat them now my beginner and my elementary students would understand that instruction yeah because they hear it all the time in class I want them to listen and repeat and it helps with lower order thinking and memory the teacher might want them to understand and would give them a sentence like read the text and answer the true/false questions that kind of exercise is checking their understanding but the language the teachers using is still low level language applying work in pairs plan a holiday with phrases so the students have listened to something and we've pulled out phrases and now I want the students to apply that language so they're starting to use slightly higher order thinking now I want my students to start to use higher-order thinking but there's still low level so what would that test be a teacher might say working groups read a list of ideas on a topic it could be any topic which do you like and why now this language here this is still low level language it's probably a warm a2 language and the important word there is why as Claude has just said why is the key word because we start pushing the students into the higher order thinking and into analysis let's go further than that let's go into evaluate if students are working in a group and they're looking at different ideas or brain storming I might they might the teacher might say choose the best idea in your group this is real higher-order thinking but the language level is still low the instructions are still low level until finally I want the students to do a creative thinking task I want them to present their idea to the class M Ray to some extent yes this is test based learning and task based learning would be a good example of activity types that often require critical thinking and problem-solving skills for example but we can do them with lower-level speakers I think that's a that would be a good example of a good methodology my point is very simple here and I'm sure many of you do these kinds of activities all I'm saying to you is that even at low levels this kind of critical thinking tasks can occur it's all about grading the level of the task carefully in grading the level of the language so I'm not saying anything particularly controversial I'm just reminding us that low level speakers can still do higher-order tasks okay what I want to do now is to look at some very practical ideas so I've done some theoretical work let's have a look at sort of ten ways that we might introduce critical thinking to lower levels some of these activities you'll be familiar with I'm going to go past here so ten ways first of all my tip number one is teach students the key language they need to do critical thinking tasks so in the same way that the teacher grades their language to give instructions I think we can think about the kind of language that students need at low levels for example students often need to ask questions for in critical thinking tasks well that's not a problem because all those questions with one asterisk are a one type question so the type of questions we ask in beginner classes yeah if I want students to give an opinion again the single asterisk represents a one a double asterisk represents an a two word so I can teach students this language and now they can express an opinion and I can give this to elementary students and they can start to give their opinion so the important thing is to think of to do the task what kind of low level language can I give students I don't need to give them that much I can teach them phrases like I think I know that I can teach students that adjectives of opinion are really useful like excellent great good okay really simple level I can also make use of the factor a one level I will teach the words because so an or which is the language for giving reason and options which is also useful for critical thinking tasks comparing and contrasting all of those phrases it's better than the best the most important but however that we use them all at a one level we introduce them and finally adding and giving examples we've got words like and also for example okay in addition has three dots that would be a B one word normally we teach it at b1 level my point is here think about what critical thinking type language you can teach even at the low levels it doesn't have to be high level language okay so that's tip number one teach them that language even at beginner an element level as soon as you can and you can start to give them okay let's have a look at slide number two encourage students to use open questions okay when we teach question forms to students it's really important to teach students open questions as quickly as you can I like to tell my students if you want to be a critical thinker then use open questions more than close questions let me give you a little task here are six questions one two three four five six what is the grammatical connection between those six questions type it in the chat box if you know the answer correct Scott wins the prize cuz he got it first he said there yes no questions or close questions and close questions tend to all they do is get yes/no answers so they're not so useful for critical thinking so a little exercise you can do with your students and this makes a good warmer to any lesson is to write six yes/no questions on the board you could choose questions that you've been teaching in the last three or four weeks yeah so it could be a revision task you put the students into pairs and then you add these open questions at the bottom what where who why and so on student a in there pairs student a asks a close question are you a student student B answers yes or no because it's a closed question and student a has to choose any open question so and then create a new questions for example what do you study and then student B says I study English for example so it's got two purposes it's a grammatical exercise revising questions or revising any of the language you've been doing in the last few weeks because you choose closed questions from recent lessons and for 10 minutes student take turns to ask open and close question so let's try it to test you I want you to turn question 5 into an open question so rewrite question 5 put it in the chat box choose any so what food do you like from different countries would be one question Magdalena yep any other questions what's your favorite which is your favorite Maria can't see the slide sorry when did you try it last and so on okay so very quickly we've generated lots of new open questions and you can just do this with students working in pairs until they work through all six questions it's not it's not hugely higher-order thinking but it's a more higher order than the simple closed yes/no questions it's generating more language and it's a more interesting task in that sense okay let's so tip number two is to introduce open questions as quickly as you can into lower levels because it's good for critical mindset okay exactly Scott it's also generating conversation practice and it's an interesting skill if you teach business English students and you're teaching the skill of networking we often teach business students remember to ask open questions more than closed questions because open questions generate more conversation so yes Antoine it's a really if you teach that English for small talk it's a really useful exercise because it gets students generating more conversation if you only ask yes/no questions conversations just stop okay so open questions are doing a couple of things but they are getting students to develop a critical mindset okay let's look at slide number three I don't have too much to say about this because recently the last webinar I did was on personalization if you're interested in the topic of personalization you can just go and watch my last webinar but I think personalization and applying it to materials is really useful for very basic thinking and it improves students critical thinking and it creates a critical mindset now what we've done with life second edition is I'm currently working on some free grammar worksheets which you can get from the website I'm writing them so that for every units with life second edition there's free grammar worksheets and you'll get more information this later on as a life second edition comes out but I thought it was interesting because I'm writing this at the moment I share with you the beginner this is the very first worksheet that I've written to go with the book so it's life beginner level unit 1a and as you'd expect with beginner level we're doing the verb to be so they're really simple exercises yep it's beginner level nothing complicated but the important thing when teaching grammar or any kind of vocabulary is to introduce personalization as quickly as you can because as soon as you add personalization the students see the relevance but they're also applying language and they're having to think more deeply even at beginner so here they're putting in their own name and here in 5 they're writing and the names of people they're with and they have to communicate with them so even in that really low level personalization just gets the students to start thinking with slightly more higher order thinking and personalization is a nice technique as I say I did a webinar on personalization you can go and watch the recording and there's more activities so I'm gonna go straight to for exercise 4 this is a simple exercise you can use with any of your lessons ok really simple to use in your class so imagine you are teaching the vocabulary of furniture in the house so exercise 1 you've got to fill the gaps with sofa painting curtains cupboard and lamp yep but a really simple way to get students to use their higher-order thinking is not to give another gap fill but to get students to create their own gap fill so for example they have to write their own sentences using the word desk plan to carpet TV a photo and then they give it to their partner the point of this is that if students can create their own exercises they're gonna remember the words so much more but it also requires a lot of higher-order thinking but you can use this with any language exercise if you're do using a course book tomorrow and teach them for Campbell Airy just do this with the students let's try this out we'll have a quick competition could you write a similar gap sentence with the word desk okay let's see you can write the best one in the chat room write me a gap fill with desk the desk comes from Ikea very nice where is your deck a quite a limpet but you need some more context than that because the other students got a right at my desk is nice the book is on the desk the books oh gosh the ideas are rushing by there are lots of books on my desk that's quite a nice one don't sit on the desk very good your desk is a mess yes okay you get the idea it's challenging enough for students to write for teachers to write effective gap fills but it's really nice to let the students have a go at it and I think this links to the theory that if probably the best way to learn something is to try and teach it I'll repeat that one of the best ways to learn something is to try and teach it and what's happening here is in exercise 2 is that students are trying to teach the vocabulary to their partner and it's really using their higher-order thinking so very simple exercise that you can use at low levels you can use it with low levels and high levels but it's just tapping into the higher-order thinking so worth using with your students and nice as a revision exercise let's get a tip 5 tip number 5 this is an important one for critical thinking get students to say why now the question why is one of those questions we need to teach students or get students to answer to develop their critical thinking because quite often for higher-order thinking why is such an important word similarly the word because is really important because it's the word that answers the question why and quite often this is requiring students to use higher-order thinking so let's take this example here we go this is from life elementary second addition and they've got some opinion adjectives fantastic not bad fun nice boring etc you put them they have to put them into the category so this is checking lower order thinking ok it's checking that they understand the vocabulary now we want them to apply it and what they have to do is complete a sentence and there are four sentences here they put an adjective in there and then but the difference is they have to add no reason and where there is because is where you add the critical thinking so today is fantastic because I'm doing a webinar for example ok I'm personalizing it okay so it's Monday you've all just had a weekend so in the chat box can you complete the sentence last weekend was something because and give me a reason just simple sentence tell me about your weekend but give me a reason less oh again was relaxing because I stayed at home it was boring because I stayed at home now it's interesting because we've got two different opinions for the same reason it was boring because it was raining and lots of things are rushing by somebody had a great weekend because they went whitewater river rafting it was fantastic because we had political elections in Italy but it was a very exciting weekend actually it was surreal because of the heavy snowfall and so on and so on and so on so we've got lots of different ideas on the weekend so there's an element of personalization there but what I'm doing is asking you to give reasons why just because of the word because and I've added a little bit of critical thinking and a little bit of creative thinking in order to use that language because the first exercise is just lower order thinking but the second exercise adds some higher-order thinking so it's it's really a simple demonstration of how we can integrate it into lower-level teaching and it's always worth when you do these exercises with vocabulary grammar is how can you add a little bit of higher-order thinking to it so that was tip number 5 well you got 20 minutes left so I'm gonna rush to the next bits with reading skills quite often when we teach reading to low level learners so the text here if you're from Colombia you will like this text the tech the reading text here is about Cali in Southwest Colombia do we have anybody in the webinar from Colombia or from Cali somebody from Colombia Lilliana is from Cali I think or Colombia anyway here's a text about Cali it's quite low level it's very factual okay and if I'm teaching reading skills I can ask basic comprehension questions like this but all I'm doing is checking facts so it's not a very interesting reading exercise it's just checking facts and I'm controlling me in four Oshin okay so it's lower order thinking but it's just fact-checking and they're very basic comprehension questions it's fine to do this they're helping with lower order thinking so you should give these kinds of questions to low level learners and to high level learners but we want to do more with it let me show you a more interesting exercise here's a more interesting exercise you've got two texts about Kelly texts one and then another text about Kelly now I'm not giving comprehension questions here but I want the students to decide who did the writer write each text for and what are the topics so in text number one here what kind of reader is this text for what kind of person is interested in this text a businessperson Antwan saying tourists maybe in fact they tourists but the first text is probably more for business people because it's talking about restaurants hotels and it has a lot of business the second text is more about tourism yep it talks about dance and festivals and so it's going to get people are interested in the arts now what level would you say these two paragraphs what level of student could read these paragraphs do you think some people are saying b1 a2 some people are saying a1 it'll depend a bit on your context and the type of level of students but you would agree they're quite low level texts in general and I think they're more interesting texts than the previous one which was very factual and what we're doing here is we're taking quite low level texts and instead of giving fact-checking comprehension questions we're getting students to compare two different texts about the same place and what students are doing is learning how to write a text for the reader because quite often when students write texts they don't think about the person that they're writing for and the text Alain has used the word there it has to be involving the text is more involving when it's written for a particular person now if we give students text like this about a place and they compare we can then give them an exercise like this now typically when we teach students about pet writing a paragraph we'd say write a paragraph about your town but we don't say why they're writing it for the town so say to the students think about the type of reader think about the type of topic so we're giving them the model as Linda's just said but now they're thinking about who is the reader who are they writing this paragraph for if they just write a paragraph because the teacher said write a paragraph you'll get something very boring with lots of facts if you say write your paragraph for a business person I'll write it for a tourist or write it for a student you'll get much more interesting language used and much better quality writing to be honest and that's where the critical thinking comes in so think about how you're teaching reading or what kind of reading skills you're teaching that was tip number six okay here's tip number seven if any of you know about life and here's the live second edition the British English versions just come out and the American English version will come out soon in life you know that if you've used it we have reading pages and we have critical thinking sections in the reading pages and one of the critical thinking tasks we have is for students to decide whether a sentence is fact or opinion and with the second edition we tried to be much more controlled about the critical thinking we think that we've improved our critical thinking syllabus and that we've got a lot more in there for lower-level learners okay now if you look at these two examples I've taken these from two different levels of book example a we're asking the students to look for fact opinion example B comes from a higher level book but they're looking for fact opinion just look at the two exercises what is the difference between the two exercises example B has something different about it and I'll have some water yep Irina and Scott have answered the question so it's this bit in C instead of just looking for fact an opinion I'm looking at the reporting of other people's opinion and the advantage of that is that I'm focusing on reported speech yes Olga of course it's an obvious question I know but we're getting them to look at reported speech and what they're starting to notice is phrases like some people also think that or people said they were bored for example so the critical thinking task is doing two things it's raising students awareness to the difference between fact and opinion in written text but it's also getting students to notice the way language is used and example B exercise introduces reported speech an example B comes from the pre-intermediate book where we introduce reported speech example a is from the elementary book we don't introduce reported speech so my message here is that when you design critical thinking tasks in the same way that you grade the language level you have to grade the critical thinking test you have to think about what is it asking the students to do and can they do it with the language they have and that the level they're at so we have to think these things through as teachers when we're designing these tasks it's about grading the language and it's also grading the critical thinking tasks that's tip number seven okay we're nearly coming to the end now tip number eight information-rich photos okay the picture in front of you comes from life elementary – it is not an information-rich photo there's a reason I used it I use this exercise to teach students vocabulary this comes from the elementary book and students have to match words to the pictures that's fine it's lower order thinking yep okay it's just checking that students understand the words okay that's all it's doing but it's not what I would call information rich the topic is possessions things that you might take away with you or use yeah here is an example of an information-rich photo and you can see why it's information-rich it still has objects to shoes it has balls it has chairs it has different possessions but the pictures are in context and so now instead of just teaching vocabulary I can start to ask students questions I could say what does the photograph show why have they got all the objects there Jack's just suggested it's a garage sale it might be you could say why does the family have all of these objects maybe they decluttering although that's a high level word but yeah they could be I can ask the students what are the objects made of and Julius said they're things made of plastic that's the topic the point is that we've gone from a very simple picture for teaching vocabulary to putting the objects into context and creating classroom discussion and I just think the picture is more interesting because it's information-rich and the objects are in context so what I would say guest is when you're teaching vocabulary teach vocabulary with pictures at low levels but try to find pictures of vocabulary within context and use both use single images and use information rich images because the information rich helps with the critical thinking okay we're coming close to the end tip number nine remember that critical thinking leads into creative thinking and I really like this photograph we use this photograph at the beginning of a chapter called stages in life and I thought it was a good picture because we've got a picture of the much older woman the middle-aged woman and the young woman and so I introduced the topic of age and differences between age groups so it's a nice critical thinking information rich image but I can also use it to generate creativity in this particular image I like to use it with students to get them writing text messages okay so here's the writing situation so we'll have a bit of creativity the two women the two older women the middle-aged woman the older woman are making conversation they're waiting at a train station okay and they're communicating with each other who do you think the younger woman is talking to just right in the chat box she's correct and is writing to a friend okay let's yeah let's just say it's to a friend okay what do you think she is texting about what do you think she's texting about she might be talking about lunch gossip yet somebody just said if she's talking about the two women she sat next to what she's doing is listening to the two women and she's texting her friend so what I want you to do a little bit of creative thinking can you type in the chat box what you think the younger woman is texting to her friend just write me a short text message and let's see what you think she's saying about the two women that they're loud yep could be could be texting they're talking about the health problems they're so cute I wish they'd shut up Costas and reading these as quickly as I can they're talking about politics she's annoyed about them they're weird okay they're talking talking talking they're like my mum they're talking about their pets okay they haven't seen each other for a long time okay they're talking about their health yes I'm similar aged to the woman in the middle and I probably talk about my health a lot okay all right you get the idea what my message here is that when you choose information-rich photos they also allow you to generate creativity if you choose the right kind of photo and this example is interesting because it actually generates writing practice quick texting practice and it gets the students to think creatively so I can ask critical thinking questions about this picture I can ask students about the difference I can ask them to compare the people I can ask them to evaluate the differences between those people but it also generates some creative thinking as well the other thing about tech photographs in the classroom is quite often I ask students also to take photographs so that the title of this the title of this photograph is stages in the life I could then say to students for homework can you take a photograph called stages in life and maybe they'd photograph members of their family at home and bring them into class and present their photographs so photographs are a great way to introduce creative thinking into the classroom and it takes us from critical thinking into creative thinking okay here we go my final tip the final tip in this session is that as teachers we have to think critically and we have to teach using lower order and higher order thinking here's an example from a course book it's from the grammar of a course book now we've got to way of presenting the grammar yeah in the one at the bottom we're telling the students how to form the past simple regular verbs yep it's the kind of things you see in grammar study books we give students the rule yep in the one above students have to read the sentence and then they have to answer the questions about the sentences in order to learn the rule is there one that you prefer more than other as a teacher do you won't like the one at the top of the one at the bottom there isn't a correct answer here I'm just asking you okay some people okay some people are saying it depends on the student I think that's a really good answer because some students hate it as teachers quite often we like the one at the top because students are discovering the answer students often just say tell me the answer and we need to just tell them and explain the grammar here's what I think is that we need to basically teach both the one lower down we called adaptive learning the one above we call inductive so with deductive learning we tell students the room with inductive learning they learn the rule the deductive tends to draw on lower order thinking okay I mean this is low-level grammar I could teach this at elementary and pre intermediate and with lower levels we often use deductive reasoning to give students the rule but we might even translate it for them for higher order thinking we also need to give them rules with which are in inductive so for me actually as many alots if you said the important thing is to use both techniques for example often I might give the top one to students first and then I'd say now look at the bottom one and check your answers because the bottom one's giving you the answer and what we do in life second addition quite often we put the inductive grammar in the front of the book and students read it and then they can look at the back of the book and check using the deductive grammar and in that way we're using lower or higher-order thinking and we're combining basic understanding with critical thinking in in the way we approach in the way we approach the grammar layer I'm going to give you some more links at the end Clawd mentions a good points some students have learned the rules through deductive means before being exposed to the inductive tissue that's absolutely fine if students have learnt this way the lote the one the deductive way then it makes it interesting to use the inductive approach in class but the important thing is to get the balance between the lower on the higher-order thinking okay that's my tip number 10 I'm coming to the end of my session so my summary slide is this those are the 10 practical ways to integrate critical thinking at lower levels try some of them out with your students see how they work in particular my favourites are make students create an exercise I think it's a lot of fun 5 get students to say why when you teach vocabulary also think about going beyond the basic comprehension question with readings and also when you teach use more than one approach for teaching teach the grammar one way one day and teach it again the next day use a different approach okay to sum up at the beginning I talked about the critical thinking paradox and I said there's a problem because with higher-order tasks quite often students have to use higher-level language actually the solution to this is quite straightforward and it's here the critical thinking solution is that task that aimed at higher-order thinking they don't always have to use higher-level language okay grade your language and you're still using higher-order thinking with the students and critical thinking okay thanks very much for attending if you have time you will get a recording there'll be a recording of this webinar I would like to invite you to complete a critical thinking survey which is on the InFocus website it would be great if you would take part because I'm doing some research with my colleague Paul dumb it'd be really helpful if you could participate and answer the questions in the survey ok you'll find that on the InFocus website ok and just to let you know that life second edition is out in all six levels the British English version is out the American English version will be out very soon and you'll see that we've done a lot with the critical thinking thanks very much for taking part and I'm going to hand over to Emily because I

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