Great Transitions: The Origin of Humans — HHMI BioInteractive Video

SEAN CARROLL: Explaining
the origins of key traits that distinguish
species has long been one of biology’s
fundamental quests. That’s especially true
for our own species. If we look at humans, as a
biologist would any animal, certain features stand out– our big brains, the way
we get around on two legs, instead of four, and the
way we use our free hands to make tools. Each of those three traits
marks an enormous difference between us and our
primate relatives. But when did they evolve
and in what order? The quest to understand
our past has revealed much about the evolution
of these features– all of the milestones
in the great transition from apes to humans. It was many years
after Charles Darwin had published his
theory of evolution that he finally addressed the
question, “What about us?” He speculated that
we are descended from a common ancestor we
share with African apes. The hope was that some
geologists or paleontologists would one day recover
the fossils that would settle the question. Fossils are essential
evidence when putting together an evolutionary history. But in Darwin’s day, and
for many decades after, few early human fossils
had been found anywhere. Anthropologists
Louis and Mary Leakey thought Darwin was
right about Africa, so they searched for
early human fossils in places like
Tanzania’s Olduvai Gorge. Here, they found
abundant stone tools. But for the longest time, the
bones they sought eluded them. For almost three decades,
all the Leakey’s is found were tools– tools, tools everywhere,
but not their makers. But all that finally changed
the morning of July 17th, 1959. On a hill Mary had walked
by countless times, something caught her eye. Poking through the eroding
sediment was a huge upper jaw. Together, she and
Louis carefully extracted bones from the
skull of an early hominid. [MUSIC PLAYING] Geochemists analyzed the
sediment layer it was buried in and determined this hominid
had lived a stunning 1.76 million years ago. Remarkably, the very
next year, the Leakey’s made another discovery. They designated it
Olduvai Hominid Number 7. It too was almost 1.8
million years old. But the recovered skull pieces,
and finger, and wrist bones led them to conclude it
was a separate species of early hominid. So there were at least two
different evolving lineages of humans alive at this time. These discoveries helped swing
the focus of human paleontology to Africa. Detailed casts of these,
and many other fossil finds, are kept at the Human
Evolution Research Center at the University of
California at Berkeley. Dr. Tim White, the
center’s director, has been involved with many
of the important hominid discoveries of the
past four decades. TIM WHITE: Clearly,
it was a hominid. SEAN CARROLL: I asked
him what the current view is of the Leakey’s
first discoveries. TIM WHITE: Well, I
guess after chasing the toolmaker for so many
years, they initially thought, oh, we’ve found the toolmaker. But it turns out this large
crest, the huge back teeth of this show that it’s on a
side branch of human evolution– probably not the toolmaker. But fortunately,
the next discovery was Olduvai Hominid
Number 7, with a cranium much larger in size, and a
face much smaller in size, and probably the maker of these
very primitive stone tools from the very bottom
of Olduvai Gorge. SEAN CARROLL: The early
humans found at Olduvai were bipedal tool makers with
brains not as big as ours, but larger than those of modern
chimps, our closest primate relatives. So all of these traits
must have evolved between 1.8 million
years ago and whenever the human and chimp
line separated. And when did that happen? At that point, no one could say. But then, Alan Wilson and
colleagues, here at Berkeley, developed a
revolutionary new way to use biomolecules,
including DNA, to estimate the
time of that split. Using this approach,
researchers have estimated that humans
and chimps have been evolving independently
for almost 7 million years. DNA tells us that our lineage
goes back several million years before the Olduvai fossils. What DNA can’t tell
us is where and when the traits that distinguish us,
like bipedality, first emerged. Only fossils and their
ancient environments can address those questions. Eastern Africa is a
fossil treasure trove because of the
geological forces that have created the rift
valleys that scar the region. Over the eons, volcanoes
associated with this rifting regularly blanketed
the region with ash that included
radioactive elements– the steady decay of
which allows geologists to accurately date sediment
layers and the fossils within them. Paleontologist Don
Johanson remembers vividly the first time he visited
the Hadar region of Ethiopia. 1,000 miles north
of Olduvai, it has exposed sediments that are
over a million years older. DONALD JOHANSON: We drove up
to the edge of this escarpment, and it just unfolded. And there it was,
all of the sediments getting deeper, and
deeper, and deeper. I could not wait
to get down there. The driving force
was find something. And then we walked out there. SEAN CARROLL: Johanson
recently shared with fellow paleontologist,
Neil Shubin, his memories of the day he discovered
the first small bone fragment of one of the most
famous fossil skeletons ever found. DONALD JOHANSON: My
best recollection is that it was
right in this area. And I looked at it, and
almost instantaneously said, that’s a hominid. Just a fragment of elbow
that led to the skeleton. SEAN CARROLL: An international
team of scientists helped Johanson recover
almost half the bones of an individual who had
lived 3.2 million years ago. They called her Lucy. DONALD JOHANSON:
Finding Lucy was really the first step in this very
long process of description, investigation, evaluation,
hypothesis testing, trying to figure out where
in the world she sat, like we are on the
human family tree. SPEAKER 2: Something like
this, and you put the male– TIM WHITE: This is the
Lucy skeleton, found by Don Johanson in Ethiopia. She’s 3.2 million years
old and very representative of Australopithecus,
the next, earlier phase of human evolution. And they are bipeds, relatively
small brains, and no evidence, so far, of any stone tool use. SEAN CARROLL: So the stone
tool use comes in much later than Lucy and her brethren. TIM WHITE: With early Homo. SEAN CARROLL: What can we
tell about this creature from the fossils? TIM WHITE: When we look
down here into the pelvis, we see evidence for
bipedal walking– a commitment to walking
on two legs that is very different from what
we see among great apes. So when we look at a
chimpanzee, in the hip, we see the hip bones behind. They’re long, they’re tall,
they’re up the creature’s back. Whereas, in a
human, our hip bone is much broader, front to back,
much shorter, and wrapping around the side to
put these muscles that control pelvic
tilt during walking in an advantageous position. Then we can ask the question, is
Lucy more like a human or more like a chimp? She has a very short blade
on the pelvis, much more like a human. She has muscle attachments
much more like a human. It’s a, basically,
biped’s architecture. And that’s how we know that
she walked on two legs. But there was a little bit of
controversy, even after that. Some people said, well, how can
we really be sure about that? SEAN CARROLL: And
how can we be sure? TIM WHITE: Because we found
these incredible things in Northern Tanzania,
older than Lucy, sandwiched between
layers of volcanic ash. And it’s not what you think. It’s not bones. [VOLCANO EXPLODING] There was a volcanic eruption
3.75 million years ago. The volcanic ash came down
on the Serengeti Plain. And animals walked across it. The ash hardened and was buried. In the 1970s, I was lucky
enough to be with Mary Leakey out in this area. And we found the trails of
hominid individuals, left as they walked across that
volcanic ash millions of years ago. It was an amazing
snapshot of time. They went for meters,
and meters, and meters. There are no knuckle
marks, no handprints, just bipedal footprints. It looked, more or less,
like what you and I would leave on a beach. Human feet– we’re
all used to them, but they’re really strange. Our big toe is in line
with our other toes. We don’t have a
grasping big toe. We have arches, transverse
and longitude, in our feet. All these features are
present at 3.75 million years ago in Australopithecus. SEAN CARROLL: So
Australopithecus pushes us all the way back to
3.7 million years or older. She’s small brained, not
using tools, to our knowledge, but walking upright. So that’s telling us that
walking upright is yet still an earlier trait. What do we know about that? TIM WHITE: We didn’t
know very much about it, because Lucy and her species
only went back to 3.75. So to take the next
step back in time, we had to find older fossils. SEAN CARROLL: Just 50 miles
south of where Lucy was found, there are exposed rock layers
reaching back 6 million years. This is where Tim White and
a large international team of geologists, paleontologists,
and archaeologists have focused their combined
efforts since the early 1980s. TIM WHITE: What we
wanted to do was to plumb the unknown
to figure out what came before the Lucy species. SEAN CARROLL: For a
decade, what they’d come for largely
eluded them, until– TIM WHITE: A graduate
student at the time, [? Johannes ?] [INAUDIBLE],,
found two little pieces from the palm of the
hand– just this bone here. And these little pieces,
he picked up and said, this looks like a hominid. SEAN CARROLL: The excitement
of this and other early finds quickly gave way to a
disciplined search for more. And there was, indeed,
much more to find. TIM WHITE: Hand, foot,
arm, leg, teeth, skull– head to toe, we had coverage
of a creature nobody had ever seen before. We nicknamed her Ardi for
the genus Ardipithecus. The species is ramidus. And it’s really a
skeleton that is representative of the earliest
known phase of human evolution. SEAN CARROLL: And
how old is she? TIM WHITE: She’s 4.4
million years old. We know that because
these bones were all found sandwiched between
volcanic horizons, both dated to 4.4
million years ago. SEAN CARROLL: So that’s more
than a million years older than Lucy. TIM WHITE: It was stepping into
that black hole beyond Lucy that nobody had been
able to step into before. SEAN CARROLL: Removing
Ardi from her 4 million year resting place
was a real challenge. Her bones were ready
to turn to dust. TIM WHITE: That little hill had
to be excavated a millimeter at a time. We had to use chemical
hardeners on her, extract her in plaster
jackets, and then work on each bone under a binocular
microscope with a needle to clean the encasing sediment
from the soft bone underneath. But what we got as
a result of that is a really unrivaled
look at the anatomy of a very ancient hominid. We could see the
muscle attachments on the finger bones. We could see the
scratches on the teeth. It’s beautiful anatomy. SEAN CARROLL: With
some real surprises, especially below the neck. TIM WHITE: It was an
extension in the lower pelvis that showed that
she was a climber. In the foot, a large
toe that stuck out to the side of the
foot– the first time this was ever seen in a hominid,
even though all other primates have this. She is this peculiar
mosaic of traits, capable of bipedality
on the ground, but also climbing abilities
far superior to those seen in later Australopithecus. SEAN CARROLL: You couldn’t
possibly have expected this. TIM WHITE: Nobody
could have expected it because you can’t predict
this from looking at chimps and humans and triangulating. Ardi is neither a chimp,
nor is she a human. She is a mosaic 4.4
million years old– the step beyond
Australopithecus, a glimpse into that first
phase of hominid evolution. SEAN CARROLL: Buried
along with Ardi was fossil evidence of the
habitat in which she lived and where bipedality evolved. It wasn’t what anyone
had been expecting. For a long time, scientists
predicted that bipedality had evolved in a grassland. TIM WHITE: The
savanna has always played a big role in
people’s speculations. And what we had with
Ardi was evidence from her body and,
indeed, her chemistry, as well as evidence
from her environment that showed she was not adapted
to an open grassland savanna existence, even though she had
already achieved bipedality. SEAN CARROLL: That evidence
included tens of thousands of animal and plant
fossils, indicating that she was living in
a woodland setting, not an open African savanna. So bipedality evolved while our
ancient ancestors were still spending time in the trees. TIM WHITE: Ardipithecus
took away any doubt that bipedality was ancient. And it was so ancient
that it preceded by over a million
years, the expansion of the brain, the incorporation
of stone tool technology. SEAN CARROLL: We now have
thousands of hominid fossils from the past 6 million years. They reveal several phases
in the biological evolution of humans. TIM WHITE: You have an
early phase, Ardipithecus, whose anatomy allows it
to climb in the woodlands and walk on two legs. We see Australopithecus
is the next phase– Lucy, a representative of this. It’s a committed biped
with a small brain, but still big teeth for
chewing, big robust faces. Their niche has expanded
beyond Ardipithecus. They’re in more open habitats. They’re found throughout
the African continent. And then the third
phase of human evolution is our own genus,
the genus Homo. And here, we have
a creature that really is a technological
primate, depending more and more on culture. SEAN CARROLL: Stone tools allow
early humans to compete, first with scavengers, and
then with predators. They broaden their
diets and, ultimately, their geographic
range, leaving Africa. Recently, in the
Republic of Georgia, hominid fossils were
discovered that are as old as the Olduvai fossils. They include the most complete
early Homo skull ever found. TIM WHITE: That is
going to give us insight into the biology
of our ancestors, the ancestors of Homo sapiens. And it’s a great illustration
of how paleontology is not a dead science. Paleontology is the science by
which we learn about our past– how we became human. SEAN CARROLL: And what
that science shows is that like all
animals, we have a long evolutionary history. Just as four-legged animals
evolved from fish ancestors, and birds evolved from
dinosaur ancestors over a series of small steps
over a long geological time span, we evolved from
small-brained, quadrupedal apes over a long time span that
is now well documented in the fossil record. [MUSIC PLAYING]

100 thoughts on “Great Transitions: The Origin of Humans — HHMI BioInteractive Video”

  1. The amount of people here just to counter creationistic droning should be kept to a minimum . One thing I have noticed is that when the comments become dominated by creatiionism refutation there is less interaction between reasonable folks looking to learn and the more learned science versed posters . So , in a way they win when we spend all of our time talking to them .

  2. the story of human evolution is a truly beautiful thing. i'm glad to live in a time like this where we are able to learn about our lowly origins.

    started from the bottom, now we're here!

  3. In less than 20 minutes, you taught a usable history lesson that applies to every living human being on Earth. Excellent job. Thank you! This was, by far, one of the best YouTube videos ever done on this subject.

  4. These finds are amazing but I do worry that some of them might just be extinct primates not along our lineage at all. I can see how some of these early discoverers might wish their discoveries to be hominid and therefore interpret them as such with a little bias. Like Lucy's pelvis. Still amazing finds.

  5. I remember being an 11 year old asking my mum to please buy me the book with the strange human like apes in it. Then it was quit difficult to understand but it blew me away. In school we had religion class with God creating everything and here I had this wonderful book that said something totally different. It made me think and go look for other books about fossils. A whole new world opened up for me. I may say that I was a dinosaur enthusiast long before Jurassic Park. I’m so glad that my mother bought that book so many years ago, it changed my way of thinking and made me look with awe at the natural world.

  6. its still human theory. There is no hard evidence that we are evolves from apes ancestor or whatever quadrapality. Because what is the sure is our ancestor can speaka languange and started as bipalpelity.

  7. Good basic video. It's a pity they didn't mention Homo Naledi, found to be in the evolutionary limits between Australopithecus and Homo gens.

  8. Evolution is a systemically incoherent worldview.

    Evolution CANNOT ACCOUNT for the non-material yet the non-material does exist. The laws of logic, like the laws of morality, and language (communication), intelligence, reason are all not material, yet they do exist and are eternal by their very nature. These do not have the power to create themselves and so requires a cause for existence. For this reason The Cause for their existence must also be by nature, eternal.

    To borrow from Dr. Greg Bahnsen; "The laws of logic are not conventional and not sociological. I would say the laws of logic have a transcendental necessity about them. They are universal, they are invariant, and they are not material. The laws of logic, are abstract. As abstract entities, which is the appropriate philosophical term, that is to say, non-individual or universal in character, they are not materialistic."

    This is why evolution is irrational because even to make sense of evolution you HAVE to use a system that evolution CANNOT account for. Evolution is a systemically incoherent worldview.

    [Side Note] —————-
    In a Atheistic worldview there is only naturalism and random chance. So how can there be laws? without laws there cannot be laws of logic. Without the laws of logic & reason the practice of science is not possible. So for the Atheist to even use science to prove Evolution true or the Christian belief wrong, the Atheist must FIRST borrow the laws of logic from the Judeo-Christian worldview in order to do so

  9. Why is there a 4000 year gap between your fossils and actual sighting of modern man there's a big hole in your theory gaps I don't think it happened exactly that why there should not be a gap

  10. Where is all the evidence? they keep finding dinosaurs and what not. Where are all the species, ( should be millions ), of half this and half that ?…….An ape becomes a man ? please……people are really so gullible……Stop lying to me……..Just for once , tell the damn truth.

  11. Very well made documentary. Although more recent evidence has shown Australopithecus could make a few simple stone tools.

  12. If evolution is true then why do we hold a person accountable if they murder someone, where as we don't hold a lion accountable when it kills another lion? Should we open investigations and hold trials for lions who kill other lions? How about bears who kill other bears? Should we hold them accountable as well? If evolution is true then a human who kills another human is just as accountable as a lion who kills another lion.

  13. Very high-quality video, beautiful work, not too long. Bravo! This is the kind of effective teaching tool that is needed.

  14. Biointeractive!!!
    But there is no biochemist proof that helps evolution!!
    Just a recolección of bones…!!
    No science just folk knowledge.

  15. WRONG, wrong, wrong. There is no transition from Apes to humans. Humans ARE apes. We did not 'became' human, human is a sub category of apes, not something different from apes.

  16. I think the most mind boggling question is : Could contemporary homo sapiens have offspring with Lucy ? She cleary is one of our direct ancestor not another specie but specie changes over time.

  17. Darwin 'speculated' and there is NO way his speculation is now conclusive. We may have evolved from common ancestors, but NOTHING says those ancestors were apes or even neanderthal, the breaks in our line, came SOONER!

  18. Science is full of lies. These clueless people claim as if DNA tracing led them to believe that the human and ape separation occurred well before 1.8 million years ago… and after that, they claim, Lucy was found… as if proving that their DNA prediction was proving right, and making scientist look good. Just googled when lucy was found.. Nov 24th, 1974… DNA tracing was done then before 1974? Fraud alert guys… Scientists, please stop continue to mislead and lying through your teeth.

  19. I used to believe all of this, but after realization what actual science is , now i know all of this is just speculation, but they talk about it like facts and that is what i dont like.

    (Proof evolution is not scientific)
    We are told that science is the knowledge of the material world obtained through OBSERVATION and EXPERIMENTATION.
    We are also told that evolution is the transition of one animal KIND to another KIND over million of years. For example from FISH into AMPHIBIAN into BIRD into MAMMAL.
    ("KIND" equating to the "family" level of the biological classification.)

    Family <> KIND


    Please name me ONE example where one KIND/FAMILY of animal has been
    O B S E R V E D to change into another KIND that doesn't have to be received on FAITH*?

    I'll be waiting for your answer !

  21. i am curious of a mix between a human and a chimp. if you look like from a genetical point of view, i think is possible, I'm surprised that no one tried yet, maybe they did and i don't know, who knows:)

  22. Whales have big brains,kangaroos walk on two legs and crows make tools.
    The first humans were created when logic and elaborate speech were created.
    No offence to the apes.
    So the transition is not biological but spiritual.

  23. Our species is just amazing. The fact that we can know anything about this universe makes our arrangement of atoms special.

  24. Speculation and assumption gone wild. The fossil record alone is fatal to the theory…. Darwin understood this. Macroevolution is headed for the dustbin of history. It is a disgrace this antiquated theory is still being taught in schools.

  25. What's with the she, she, she ?? The bones are too incomplete to determine the gender. Stop with the political correctness already, it makes me sick.

  26. There you go …lol every time an evolutionist talks about the theory they use words like "features of a creature and functionality "

    NOTICE that the discoveries that the Leakey's made in 1959, and the evidence for what is being said
    (1) they talk about the size of the skulls
    (2) They say the the bones were found next some ancient tools
    (3) The huge back teeth
    (4) brains that are small
    ( 5) There is no chemistry or biology … the man at 5:31 says that the human DNA goes back 7 million years … Where in the hell did he grab that number from ??? .lol

    Lucy, Piltdown man, Nebraska Man, Java Man, The Coelacanth deception and the archaeoraptor deception …..HAVE ALL BEEN PROVEN HOAXES ….. WHY ARE THEY STILL LYING ABOUT THEM IN 2014 ?

    In fact it was in 1956 when the world learned that the Piltdown man was a fake !
    And the History Channel did a show about the Piltdown Man hoax, AND LOUIS LEAKEY WAS THE ONE THAT SAID IT WAS A VERY BAD HOAX AT THAT …lol …lol… Leakey said he was 15 feet away from it and he said it was laughable how fake it really was ..

  27. Darwin’s theory has been proved wrong in the science world his theory is ready to go in the bin he knew nothing about genetics ,look at Lloyd pye s vidiosl ,main stream are on government pay checks ,so the lie all the time

  28. Humans didn't evolve from apes. Sorry but the fossil evidence is not there. And every time they think they have found the missing link it turns out to be a false belief.
    What we observe is that humans have always been humans and apes have always been apes.
    Two totally different types of animals. Both present from the beginning of time, less than 10,000 thousand years ago.

    In fact the theory of evolution has been full of fakes and frauds from the beginning. When you try to prove a false theory you get desperate for data, so you just make it up.

    Like Nebraska man. A complete life was built for him, with his clothing, his tools, his wife, what he ate. All there to see. All made up from a single tooth! Later found to be a pig tooth.

    Man didn't evolve from apes. Man was created on day six, by God.
    The truth is the truth. Don't fall for the lies in the textbooks.

  29. If this was correct we would see emergence of the same profile through many different varieties in antiquity or current times fact is we don't.

  30. I find it amusing that, when dealing with ancient hominids and australopithecines, there is constant reference to small brain size as being important evidence of primitiveness. Yet references to Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon brains being larger than our own are always followed by a disclaimer that larger brains don't necessarily mean greater intelligence. Yet there is no evidence whatever that modern humans are smarter than Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons were.

    Indeed their cave paintings suggest the opposite, that they were smarter than we are. Only a tiny minority of modern humans can produce beautiful works of art at all, let alone on cave walls with charcoal and colored clay by torchlight. Without store-bought pre-gessoed canvases, without camel hair brushes, without ateliers with northern light, without ducal patrons. Thrift stores are full of art class daubings by modern humans, hundreds for each of piece worth putting in a museum. Notably no one has found inept kitschy paintings on cave walls, only great art. What does that tell you about which race was smarter?

    There are lots of us, but vanishingly few are great artists. The descendants of the Rubik's cube whiz who had two children and his dumbass cousin who had eight kids, will on average, be dumbasses too. Still human, but no damned good at Rubik's cubes. That would be us. :o) Evolution doesn't select for being intelligent. It selects for being prolific.

  31. There is a contradiction between modern human and prehistoric homo erectus or neanderthal. For example If I am a modern human in 2019 or homo sapiens came from africa wearing Livi's Jean and go to europe as advance civilization than africa. But when I arrive in europe I killed the neanderthal. Now who is advance the homo sapiens or the neanderthal?

  32. Isn't it possible that the common ancestor of us and chimpanzees was more related to us and that the chimp is the "breakaway" line?

  33. Graecopithecus freybergi 7.2 million years old found in Germany, this flys in the face of the 'out of Africa' theory… or does it?

  34. @2:17 It's bad when those tricky bones DELUDE the hunters… I wonder if they encounter the same problems with elusive bones managing to ELUDE them…

  35. At least once, now we can tell, that higher social order among living beings has lead to the planets. We can also tell now that evolution can be so capricious as to reveal its arbitrary nature. But we are sure from long, horrible experience how our species reveals terrible, self-destructive tendencies.

  36. For the smartest species we sure are the dumbest. We are the only species that kills for no reason then to kill. . We will alway want more and more. It will be our down fall. Might be time for the dog to find another best friend. We won’t be here . we will be our own worst enemy and the reason for our own demise. Humans just are made that way .

  37. Why do they leave out what really makes us human? "Tool-maker". What a simpleton way of describing how being made in the image of God sets us apart and far above the animals. Really? The ability to sit there and read an article and imagine and ponder our own existence is a ton more than "tool-maker". Creating music, written songs, baby grande pianos, and the ability to play them is a universe ahead of animals. I could list dozens of things that make us unique and ahead of the animals as a group. So let's call inventive, creative, insightful- and that list can go on forever.

    What an insult, categorizing man as a "tool-maker". Why not describe a world-class neurosurgeon and a 'band-aid applier'. If you are going to identify yourself as a glorified monkey tool-maker, then do everyone and God a favor. Go live in the woods and make tools to survive and nothing more. No conversations either, especially of abstract mattes. You'd be bored to death and then dead. No reading, no hobbies, just some skills of a chimp 'evolved' for survival. No looking up at the stars and wondering how you got here, either. No monkey-man would do that, or look at snd admire a sunset like KingKong did. All fabrications to support a demonic lie to deny God as our creator.

    Being human also comes with a sense of justice. If you deny your maker of his role in creating you, be satisfied with dying like a monkey tool-maker with no future life prospects. Humans have so many talents that it would take a million years to fully develop them. Ask a neurologist about the 'accidental' brain complexity.

    A simple 'tool-maker' is a deceptive ploy of the devil to rob us of our true human nature and the rewards. Go along with it and act like a glorified monkey, because by your own words, that's all you are and death is all you get. Nothing special. Fertilizer. Your maker promises life everlasting, and you settle for dirt. Satan is the liar and deceiver – hook, line, and sinker is his specialty. And theory posing as fact is his bait.

  38. There're are humans that don't use their brains, and won't use their hands because they rely on others to give them what they need because of their laziness

  39. So modern Africans are 100 s of thousands of years old…but Neanderthals are still missing a link…who made the pyramids that are over 40 thousand years old….

  40. – we have any kind of food with any kind of taste, we have any kind of drink with any kind of taste, we have any kind of material to build and make anything we want, the world is the place to be, evolution couldn't do this. "Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you:".
    – believe in magic soup of darwin (satan), believe in the frog which became a prince. (bad advice)
    – repent yourselves, read the bible, help poor people.

  41. I have no idea why these people want to be descendants of feces eating Apes yes 1 genealogic trait is still one different and in no way shows that there's any common denominator between the two, as stated before Darwin even knew we weren't evolving from apes our brains took off in this is where we sit today and Most states are in the zoo in conclusion do you really think we're going to sit around and believe this crap

  42. Too bad there is no mechanism that could realistically drive macroevolution. The fossil record and macroevolution are antithetical. The biggest con job in history. Evolutionists lack the embarrassment gene. They believe it is true because they need it to be true.

  43. Organized religion is a business. Science threatens this business. Therefore, most of the trolls here are from religio-political organizations. So sad.

  44. And yet Christians and Muslims still believe in stories invented by scared and ignorant people millennia ago

  45. That was pretty disappointing. There was no summary at the end, not even a final presentation of the chart showing the relative attributes he was touting throughout the video. "Here is everything science has found. Oh, and there are now Homo skulls in Europe as old as the Olduvai Gorge fossils. See ya!"

  46. I just wish they wouldn't call early hominids human. Until Homo-Sapiens, there were no humans. Homo-Erectus is a different species. All other hominids are a different species. The problem with calling all of these creatures human, is it undermines our definition of what makes us human. Upright walking does not a human make. Tool making does not a human make. Large brain does not a human make. What separates us from the other hominid species is our ability to define ourselves. Not just self awareness, but our need to know how the world works. Curiosity and a large brain, plus the sense of individuality combined to give us a self created purpose for being. In a sense, the invention of gods may be the one characteristic that separates us from every other living thing that ever walked this planet.

  47. Could it be possible Autism came from mixing of inter-species? I mean Autism is high IQ too right? our DNA is represented how we think, we represent all species and the more mixed you are the more you feel related to those DNA ancessries? when Vikings invaded who were not Neanderthals then Europe evolved, i.e social skills and intellect.

  48. Sorry but Jesus has clearly stated that God created everything and that Adam and Eve were the first people
    No ancestors
    No evolution

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