Evolution: It’s a Thing – Crash Course Biology #20


Congratulations! This is our last
episode of our section on Evolution and Genetics,
which puts us at the halfway mark of CrashCourse Biology. So far we’ve learned about DNA,
genetics, natural selection, how cells multiply, populations,
speciation, replication, respiration, and
photosynthesitation. I’m so proud of you. But I couldn’t let this section
end without discussing the iscussion that everybody can’t
help but discuss these days: Evolution. It’s a thing. It’s not a debate. Evolution is what
makes life possible. It allows organisms to adapt to
the environment as it changes. It’s responsible for the enormous
diversity and complexity of life on Earth, which not only provides
organisms with sources of food and some healthy competition. It also gives us some truly
awesome stuff to marvel at. And even though evolution makes
living things different from one another, it also shows
us how we’re all the same. All of life, every single thing
that’s alive on the Earth today, can claim the same shared heritage,
having descended from the very first microorganism when life
originated on this planet 3.8 billion years ago. There are people who will say
that this is all random- It’s not. And that this clumsy process could
not be possible for the majestic beauty of our world. To them, I say, well at least we
agree that our world is beautiful but, well you’re probably
not going to enjoy the rest of this video. To me, there are two sorts
of people in the world, those who are excited about
the power and beauty and simplicity of the
process of evolution, and those who don’t understand it. And somehow, I live in a country
where only 40% of the population believes that evolution is a thing. The only possible reason for that
that I can accept is that they just don’t understand it. It’s time to get real, people. First, let’s understand what we
mean when we talk about the theory of evolution. Evolution is just the idea that
gene distribution changes over time, which is an indisputable
fact which we observe all the time in the natural world. But the THEORY of evolution is a
large set of ideas that integrates and explains a huge mass of
observations from different disciplines including embryology,
paleontology, botany, biochemistry, anatomy and geophysics. In every day language, the
word “theory” means “hunch” or even “hypothesis.” But in science, a theory is an
idea that explains several phenomena at once. Thus, The theory of evolution is
a bunch of ideas that explain many things that we, as humans,
have observed for thousands of years. It’s the theory that meticulously
and precisely explains the facts, and the facts are indisputable. So let’s spend some time going
through the facts, and how evolution explains them
all so well. First, fossils: The fossil record shows that
organisms that lived long ago were different from
those that we see today. Sounds obvious, but two
hundred years ago it seemed a little bit crazy. When scientists first
started studying dinosaur fossils in the 1820s,
they thought that all dinosaurs were basically giant iguanas. That’s why the first fossil
dinosaur was named Iguanodon. It wasn’t until the fossils of
two-legged dinosaurs started showing up in the 1850s that
scientists had to grapple with the idea that organisms of the past
were somewhat similar to ones today like, dinosaurs were reptiles, but
many of them took on a diversity that’s barely recognizable to us. And of all those ancient
not-really-iguanas were all extinct, either dying out
completely or evolving into organisms that survive
today, like birds. Fossils make it clear that only
evolution can explain the origin of these new kinds of organisms. For instance, fossils taught us
that whales used to walk. Whales are cetaceans, a group of
mammals that includes porpoises and dolphins, and biologists long
suspected that whales descended from land mammals. Partly because some modern whales
still have the vestigial remnants of a pelvis and hind-limb bones. But it wasn’t until recently,
the 1990s and 2000s, that the pieces really came together. First, paleontologists discovered
fossils of DOR-oo-dons, cetaceans that had different
skulls from modern whales but still had the same
vestigial leg bones. Then they found even older fossil
remains of another cetacean that actually had hind
legs and a pelvis. The pelvis wasn’t fused to
the backbone like ours is, so it did swim like a whale,
but more importantly, it still had ankle bones And they were ankle bones that
are unique to the order that includes bison, pigs,
hippos and deer. So by following these clues left
behind in fossilized bones, paleontologists were able to track
the origin of whales back to the same origin as bison and pigs. This leads us to another series of
facts that evolution explains: Not how animals were different, but
how they are incredibly similar. Last week we talked about
Carl Linnaeus and how he classified organisms by their
structural similarities. Well he didn’t know anything
about evolution or genetics, but when he began grouping
things in this way, he hit upon one of evolution’s
most prominent clues: homologous structures. The fact that so many organisms
share so many finely detailed structures shows us
that we’re related. Let’s go back to the whale. Like my dog, Lemon, and me,
the whale has two limbs at the front of its body,
its front flippers. And so does this bat, its wings. Inside our limbs we all have the
very same structure: one longish bone on top, connected to two thin
bones at the joint, followed by a cluster of small bones called
the carpals, and then our fingers, or digits. We each use our forelimbs for
totally different purposes: the bat flies, the whale swims,
Lemon walks and I… you know, jazz hands! Building limbs like this isn’t the
most efficient way to swim or fly or walk. Our limbs have the same structure
because we descended from the same animal, something like
this more-gan-uh-cah-don here, which, yeah, has the
same forelimb structure. In the first stage of
our existence, every vertebrate looks almost
exactly the same. Why? Because we’re all descended from
the same initial vertebrates. So our structures are the
same as other mammals and other vertebrates, sure, but it
also turns out that our molecules are the same as, like, everything. In fact, if we were ever to
find life on Mars or something, the sure fire way of knowing
whether it’s really extra-terrestrial is to check and
see if it has RNA in it. All living things on our planet use
DNA and/or RNA to encode the information that makes
them what they are. The fact that we all use the same
molecule itself suggests that we are all related,
even if very distantly. But what’s more, by sequencing
the DNA of any given creature, we can see precisely
how alike we are. The more closely related
species are, the more of the same DNA sequences they have. So the human genome is
98.6% identical to that of the chimpanzee, our closest
evolutionary relative, and fellow primate. But it’s also 85%
the same as a mouse. And I wonder how you’re going to
feel about this, about half of our genes are the same as in fruit
flies, which are animals, at least. So, just as your DNA proves that
you descended from your parents, your DNA also shows that you
descended from other organisms and ultimately, from that one
prokaryotic microorganism 3.8 billion years ago that
is the grandparent of us all. Now when it comes to species
that are very similar, like say, marsupials, their
distribution around the world or their biogeography, is also
explained extraordinarily well by the theory of evolution. Animals that are the most similar,
and are the most closely related, tend to be found in the same
regions, because evolutionary change is driven in part
by geographical change. As we talked about in
our speciation episode, when organisms become isolated
by physical barriers, like oceans or mountains, they take their
own evolutionary courses. But in the time scales
we’re talking about, the geographical
barriers are much older, and are often even the
result of continental drift. So, marsupials. You know about marsupials. They can be found in many places,
but they aren’t evenly distributed around the world. By far the highest concentration
of them is in Australia. Even the majority of mammal fossils
in Australia are marsupials. So why is Australia rife with
kangaroos, koalas and wombats while North America
just has, opossums? Fossils show us that one of
marsupials’ earliest ancestors found its way to Australia before
continental drift turned it into an island 30 million years ago. More importantly, after Australia
broke away, placental mammals like us evolved on the main landmass and
quickly outcompeted most of the marsupials left behind,
in what would become North and South America. So, very few marsupials
remain in the Americas, while Australia has been drifting
around like some kind of marsupial Love Boat. Darwin’s finches are another
example of biogeographical evidence As he wrote in The Origin of
Species, Darwin observed that different species of finches on
separate Galapagos islands were not only similar to each other but
were also similar to a species on the South American mainland. He hypothesized that the island
finches were all descendants of the mainland finch and changed
over time to be more fit for their environments,
a hypothesis that genetic testing has since confirmed. Now, you’ll remember, I hope,
a few weeks ago, when I told you about Peter and Rosemary Grant, the
evolutionary biologists/lovebirds who have studied Galapagos
finches since the 1970s. One of their greatest contributions
came in 2009 when studying finches on the island of Daphne Major. They discovered that the offspring
of an immigrant finch from another island and a Daphne Major finch
had become a new species in less than 30 years. This is just the latest example
of our fourth body of evolutionary evidence:
direct observation of evolution. The fact is, we have seen evolution
take place in our own lifetimes. One of the fastest and most common
changes we observe is the growing resistance to drugs
and other chemicals. In 1959, a study of mosquitos in a
village in India found that DDT killed 95% of the mosquitos
on the first application. Those that survived reproduced and
passed on their genetic resistance to the insecticide. Within a year, DDT was killing
only 49% of the mosquitos, and it continued to drop. The genetic makeup of the mosquito
population changed because of the selective pressures caused
by the use of DDT. But it’s not just tiny
changes in tiny animals, we’ve also observed larger
animals undergoing some pretty striking changes. In 1971, for instance, biologists
transplanted ten Italian wall lizards from one island off
the coast of Croatia to another. Thirty years later, the immigrant
lizards’ descendants had undergone some amazing, fundamental changes
like, even though the original lizards were mainly insect eaters,
their digestive systems had changed to help them exploit the island’s
most abundant food source: plants. They actually developed muscles
between their large and small intestine that effectively created
fermenting chambers, which allowed them to digest vegetation. Plus, their heads became wider and
longer to allow them to better bite and chew the grasses and leaves. These are all great examples of
microevolution, allele frequency changes that happens rather
quickly and in small populations. Macroevolution is just that
microevolution on a much longer time scale. The sort of thing that turns
hippos into whales is a lot harder to observe for a species that,
200 years ago, thought dinosaurs were big iguanas, but part of the
power of the human mind is being able to see far beyond itself and
the time scales that our own individual lives are limited to. And I for one, am
pretty proud of that. Let’s all at least agree
that the world is a beautiful and wonderful place. And life is worth studying
and knowing more about, and that’s what Biology is. If you want to go back and watch
parts of this video again please click on the annotations in the
little table of contents over there. If you have questions for us,
please leave them on Facebook or Twitter or in the
YouTube comments below. Thanks to everybody who
helped put this together. And we’ll see you next time.

100 thoughts on “Evolution: It’s a Thing – Crash Course Biology #20”

  1. PEPPERED MOTHS LIE: In the early part of the 19th century woodland areas in England became heavily darkened due to industrial pollution. There were dark-colored (melanic) and light-colored (normal) varieties of peppered moths existing together. Before the pollution, there were more normal than melanic because the light lichen on trees made the black ones more susceptible to be eaten by birds. After the pollution had darkened the lichen the light ones became more vulnerable than the dark, so the portions inverted. After pollution laws were passed, the lichen on the trees became normal again. The proportions, more normal (light-colored) species than melanic(dark-colored), reverted back to what they were before the Industrial Revolutions pollution. The light-colored moths didn’t "acquire" dark melanin, and the dark ones didn’t replace the light ones as best suited to survive in their environment, so the neo-Darwinist re-definition of Natural Selection as random mutation, never took place.
    The next issue is, in the 1950' Bernard Kettlewell decided he was going to prove this occurrence was Natural Selection with an experiment. He marked and released equal proportions of the moths during the day, into a polluted woodland in England. As would be expected, on darkened lichen tree bark, the results were the birds favored the light ones. The problem with that is, in the wild, peppered moths don't expose themselves during the day. They stay hidden beneath tree trunks, to avoid predators, during the day and come out at night to feed. To make matters worse, he glued dead moths onto pollution covered trees, again during the day, and took photo's for "evidence" of Natural Selection. These fraudulent photos can still be found in some text books and viewed in Google images.
    The "greatest observed evidence" for Natural Selection was based on a proportional fluctuation in moths caused by man made pollution, a flawed experiment and staged photographs. Well respected evolutionary biologist Dr. Jerry Coyne was "embarrassed", when he learned the peppered moth story he had been teaching for years was a myth. "My own reaction," he wrote, "resembles the dismay attending my discovery, at the age of six, that is was my father and not Santa who brought the presents on Christmas Eve."

  2. Seven questions that Evolutionists/Atheist will not answer honestly and are tireless when it comes to responding with fallacious logic/tactics to suppress the truth.
    All the evidence in the world only supports God and His Worldview as documented in the Judeo-Christian Bible and you cannot and you will not present any evidence to the contrary.

    Evolutionism is an evil LIE concocted by evil lying atheists that masquerades as a science using atheistic pseudoscience.

    I will ask questions to put you in your place Evolutionist/Atheist. Your response will be obvious to all those reading it that you are not intellectually honest and that you are a pseudo-scientist i.e a LIAR.

    I have added hints to make your responses focused and hopefully honest.

    1- Who saw, tested, or can reproduce that atheistic notion that life spontaneously generated in warm pools of water with chemicals in them aka abiogenesis according to Darwin of the alleged first simple self-replicating cell complete with semantic instructions in the DNA/Genome, and biological machines which is depicted at the root of phylogenetic trees?

    Hint: This questions requires the names of the eyewitnesses, those that tested the phenomenon in real time as it happened, or that can reproduce the ad hoc notion concocted for evil evolutionism as the scientific method requires.

    2- Who saw, tested, or can reproduce the transmutation of the alleged common ancestor of all into all the life forms that ever lived aka macro-evolution as depicted by Fraudulent Phylogenetic trees?

    Hint: This questions requires the names of the eyewitnesses, those that tested the phenomenon in real time as it happened, or that can reproduce the ad hoc notion concocted for evil evolutionism as the scientific method requires.

    3- If abiogenesis happened before humans existed, what was the forensic evidence to lead evil evolutionists to concoct such a story for evil evolutionism?

    Hint: This questions requires forensic evidence left by the alleged/imagined process that Evil Evolutionism/ist only allege occurred.

    4- If transmutation happened before humans existed, what was the forensic evidence to lead evil evolutionists to concoct such a story for evil evolutionism?

    Hint: This questions requires forensic evidence left by the alleged/imagined processes that Evil Evolutionism/ist only allege occurred and fraudulently depict in phylogenetic trees to deceive the public/KIDS.

    5- If abiogenesis is a science, what is the mechanism that produces the spontaneous generation of life and who reproduced this event that we may see it?

    Hint: This questions requires the names of those that have detailed a purely materialistic experiment i.e. no human intelligence involved that all scientist can conduct to reproduce a simple self-replicating cell complete with the biological machines, and semantic commands of its genome.

    6- If transmutation is a science, what is the mechanism that produces the transmutation of the alleged common ancestor of all into all the life forms that ever lived and who reproduced this event that we may see it?

    Hint: This questions requires the names of those that have detailed a purely materialistic experiment i.e. no human intelligence involved that all scientist can conduct to reproduce the transmutation of the alleged simple self-replicating cell complete with the biological machines, and semantic commands of its genome into totally different organisms as depicted in phylogenetic trees.

    7- Since abiogenesis and transmutation are only imagined and fraudulently depicted as the science of evolution and promulgated unscientifically, and never seen, tested, and can’t be reproduced as the scientific method requires since it defies scientific laws and principles, why do governments, educations centers, the media, museums, so-called science books/magazines, public speakers etc. propagate these lies? What should be done to stop lies being told?

  3. I would not even try to believe in tbe theory of evolution. The name itself THEORY is a big QUESTION!

    For having no evidence found.

  4. DARWIN'S BEAR WHALE EMBARRASSMENT; Darwin wrote in the first edition of The Origin of Species that North American black bears had been seen “swimming for hours with widely opened mouth, thus catching, like a whale, insects in the water, even in so extreme a case is this,” Darwin continued, “if the supply of insects were constant, and if better adapted competitors did not already exist in the country, I can’t see no difficulty in a race of bears being rendered, by natural selection, more and more aquatic in their structure and habits, with larger and larger mouths, till a creature was produced as monstrous as a whale.”

    Critics poked fun at this, and Darwin removed it from later additions, but he defended it privately. “The bear case has been well laughed at , and disingenuously distorted by some into My saying that a bear could be converted into a whale”, he wrote in an 1860 letter. “As it offended persons, I struck it out of the second edition; but I still maintain that there is no especial difficulty in a bears mouth being enlarged to any degree useful to its changing habits,…until it is literally as big as the whole rest of the body.”

    Even after being ridiculed, Charles Darwin vehemently maintained that a North American black bear— by his mythical directed force—, could become a whale! Bahahahaha!!!

  5. Evolution seems to be true but the whole theory of evolution seems a bit far fetched to me. I'm sure even plants RNA and DNA it's hard to believe we all came from one organism.

  6. Great video. A common reason why people reject evolution is because of religion, in my specific case, Christianity. I am a Christian having come from a young earth creationist family, but I have argued for a while now that evolution is not incompatible with the Bible. A lot of Christians think that evolution cannot be compatible with the Bible because it espouses random chance when the Bible teaches that God purposefully designed the universe. However, that attack is a strawman because there isn't one theory of evolution, there are theories of evolution (Darwinian Natural Selection, Neo-Darwinian Evolution, Lamarckian Evolution, Niche Construction, Evolution Through Symbiogenesis, EvoDevo, Process Structuralism and more) and not every theory espouses random chance. All theories suggest randomness to a degree, but theories such as Process Structuralism favor a more goal-oriented view of evolution where the universe is fine-tuned and natural laws essentially "guide" the process of evolution. There are many other objections that I have't answered here but that is a top objection and this just goes to show that like you said, people often reject evolution just because they don't understand it.

  7. What you talk about at @9:24 is NOT Speciation. You're talking about SUB-VARIATION.
    As far as I know, we are yet to witness the evolution of a totally new species – something that is as different as say, a dog is to a bird.

    .

  8. I'll bet most evolutionists don't know the origin of seals.

    Millions(or even billions)of years ago there were packs of dogs stranded on islands. They had no source of food, so had to learn to dive for fish, or whatever else they could catch. They needed to adapt and so their feet gradually changed into flippers. And on and on. There you have it in a nutshell. Evolution is FACT!

  9. I agree that animals have evolved to get where they are, but not from the same organism. Not solely because the Bible says differently but because it’s explanation is off. If we are related to a fruit fly because half of our DNA is similar to theirs, then are we also related to bananas since nearly 70% of our DNA is shared with them? I’m legitimately looking for an answer if you have one.

  10. Here's what is science: It's observable, repeatable, biological, scientific fact: that no matter how many generations go by,

    no matter how much "change in genetic composition during successive generations",

    no matter how much "development of new species",

    no matter how much "natural selection acting on genetic variation among individuals",

    no matter how much "mutation",

    no matter how much "migration",

    no matter how much "genetic drift",

    no matter how much "insert other claims here"

    no matter how many generations go by, ALL populations of:

    fish that never had lungs to breath air remain fish without lungs,

    amphibians remain amphibians,

    canines remain canines,

    felines remain felines,

    reptiles remain reptiles,

    birds remain birds,

    viruses remain viruses,

    living things that never had hearts remain without hearts,

    living things that never had (insert organ here) remain living things without that organ, and so on.

    There are many more such groups.

    Science shows that fish to mankind over generations evolution (some call Darwinian evolution, some call theory of common descent) is anti-science.

  11. I got detention for disagreeing with my teacher when he talks about creation and then i said evolution and boom detention.Keep in mind this was a science teacher.

  12. My school teacher used to say that Humans were apes and before that we were some other creatures
    And we share aprox 98% of our dna with them

    Now my questions

    If humans were apes so why didn't all the apes or other creatures dovelop to somthing else

    And not just with apes we share 50℅ of our dna with bananas , aprox 80% with goat , cows and somthing eles too , and more then 92% with mices

    so for me theory of evolution is a myth and should be stop in school books

  13. If evolution and gene selection is true and it is a survival mechanism, then taking what other scholars say to be true, that europeans descend from Africans: then why are europeans less equipped for this earth and the sun causing them to need lots of help and products to survive on earth wouldn't that be devolution?

  14. This is 2019, it is absolutely astounding to me that we have a world of scientific data literally at our fingertips that people can still believe that in a theory that in the beginning there was nothing, not even time, and that's really interesting because how can there be a beginning if there isn't time? But anyway, this nothing was condensed into an infinitesimally small point, then one day, on a Tuesday, out of the blue, this nothing exploded into everything; that out of this cataclysmically chaotic, and unimaginably violent explosion, things like order and reason came into being, and somehow gave rise to laws of nature that hold to very specific constants that underlie all of those laws about which all physical entities must adhere to without exception, then, after billions of years, this energy came together to form solid matter, like rocks. Then after billions of more years, these rocks got together and formed life. Then, after billions of more years, this life became fish. Then, after billions of more years, these fish became people….

    When people stop believing in God, it isn't that they believe in nothing, it's that they will believe in anything.

  15. Well, I watched this and I'm pretty confused. I'm not really convinced, and the details seem a little weak, but I could make sense of some of it. I do have a question though… without the entire community of pro evolutionists crashing down on me, may I ask where exactly did that grandfather call from? I know you believe the universe is billions of years old, but to me it seems farfetched to believe that one day, life so happened to work. Not only is it extremely difficult to get a life sustaining planet, nor is there much evidence of any aliens, ( lest your a conspiracy theorist) can someone please send me in direction of better detail and explanation? I appreciate the lesson but I dont exactly understand.

  16. Were being lied to about evolution. If you follow the evidence it leads to there has to be a God and the God that fits is the God of the Bible. Not only that the prophecies are impossible and super accurate. Pray Today admit your a sinner in need of a savior, believe in Jesus the life, the execution, and resurrection, confess your sins to Jesus aka repent he's real and coming very soon he tells us the signs to watch for and they are happening! Watch Case for Christ, Dr. Steven Myers, Frank Turek, and Dr. Gene Kim Today!!!

  17. Evolution has often seemingly strange logic that is not at first apparent. For instance, I actually fart when I hear a loud sound. I think it's an evolutionary survival trait that I believe is meant to scare off any would-be predators and also alert others of possible danger. And the odor acts like a repellant. Once while hiking, a brown bear went to attack me. I farted loudly and the bear just ran away gasping. My two hiking buddies standing next to me though did't make it. But I did save their lives from that bear, thankfully.

    "Remember to always fart proudly when in danger or ever trolling." —Benjamin Franklin

  18. So let me get this straight. Monkeys and Apes over time evolved into human like creatures and it just kept evolving until us. Well there is still monkeys and apes on this planet because not all of the them adapted. So then what happened to the animals in between? Biggest waste of 11 minutes I’ve seen

  19. Here's what is science: It's observable, repeatable, biological, scientific fact: that no matter how many generations go by,

    no matter how much "change in genetic composition during successive generations",

    no matter how much "development of new species",

    no matter how much "natural selection acting on genetic variation among individuals",

    no matter how much "mutation",

    no matter how much "migration",

    no matter how much "genetic drift",

    no matter how much "insert other claims here"

    no matter how many generations go by, ALL populations of:

    fish that never had lungs to breath air remain fish without lungs,

    amphibians remain amphibians,

    canines remain canines,

    felines remain felines,

    reptiles remain reptiles,

    birds remain birds,

    viruses remain viruses,

    living things that never had hearts remain without hearts,

    living things that never had (insert organ here) remain living things without that organ, and so on.

    There are many more such groups.

    Science shows that fish to mankind over generations evolution (some call Darwinian evolution, some call theory of common descent) is anti-science.

    The only thing evolutionists can do to address such facts is to use ad hominem, which says it all.

  20. Everything is created. No creatures evolve. The theory of evolution has been rejected by science long time ago for it was HOAX.

  21. Some folks actually claim that sex is evolution. Then deny that evolution happens. They do so and it is hilarious.
    And
    They don't like to be challenged.
    Also hilarious.

    They are on this thread!

  22. dinosaurs leaped off buildings for millions of years then grew wings because they were tired of dying

  23. evolutionists are too stupid to read the bible, they will critic it though
    do people rate movies they never seen? why then do evotards critic the bible?
    its a bewildering phenomena, but the bible was accurate in the assessment of the evotard: "her ways are dark and twisted, you cannot fathom them, her feet leads to death and hell"

    amen god is good, all the time
    evilutionists BELIEVE in the hypothesis of evilution(which is invalid)
    evilutionists have insane amounts of faith in a theory they have never seen with their own eyes
    evilutionists are indoctrinated into the fraud of evilution
    evilution is a a fraud and a cult

    only feminists and peasants believe in evilution

  24. Why can't religion and science reconciliate? People! The Bible is a book about life, morals, relationships, not a science book! We don't need to restrain ourselves from knowledge that wasn't available to the authors of the Bible!
    Imagine Moses writing Genesis if the Bible was to be a scientific book inspired by God. "In the begging, there was a singularity of infinitely dense matter. Then God made it expand. As it expanded, energy formed into resonating strings, which organised themselves into leptons, quarks and bosons". No one would have understood, and it would take an indescribable amount of pages, as he would have to explain every science concept!

    Atheists or Religious, we must accept that the Writings have been originally written for a society with much less scientific knowledge, and I doubt God wants us to be stick with that lack of knowledge, adoring a lie that never came out of His mouth: that we should not seek new knowledge. If you believe in God, science is nothing but admiring and studying His creation, understanding it better!

  25. When do you expect learn flying boe? One million years from now? Why are you wearing spectacles? Result of evolution?

  26. WALKING WHALES LIE; Pakicetus was a wolf like mammal. It had a bone in it's inner ear called an "involucrum" that resembled something found in whales. It was fully terrestrial (lived it's entire life on land) and looked nothing like a whale but neo-Darwinist, desperate for a whale ancestor, tagged it Pakicetus or "Pakistani whale". Ambulocetus, Maiacetus, Kuchicetus and Rodhocetus were extinct variations of sea lions or otters. They were amphibious (lived part of their lives on land and part in the water). They used their hind legs and tail for swimming and their four limbs for walking on land.

    Basilosaurus and Dorudon were extinct whales that were fully aquatic ( lived their entire lives in the water).

    Land and amphibious mammals have nostrils for breathing on the front of their heads. Whales have a blowhole on the top of their bodies to breath.

    The blowhole of a whale is surrounded by thick muscular “lips” that keep the hole tightly closed except when the animal makes a deliberate effort to open it at the surface. Total submersion thus takes less effort for whales than for animals that must actively exclude water from their air passages. Coming onto land is not a natural act for a whale; beached whales die if they're not quickly helped back in the water.

    Land and amphibious mammals use four legs—tail assisted for amphibians while in water—to move around in their environment. Whales use a fluke to move around in their environment. Land and amphibian mammals can survive without the tip of their tail. Whales can't survive without it.

    Flukes are flat horizontal lobes at the ends of their tails. Fluke movements are coordinated by a complex system of long, powerful tendons connecting them to specialized muscles in the tail.

    These are a few of the myriad of changes they would have to undergo. For neo-Darwinist it would take hundreds of millions of random mutations (random variations for traditional Darwinist), to compel a fully terrestrial mammal to turn into a fully aquatic mammal.

    The biggest problem for the "walking whales" is the empirical evidence–Darwinist refuse to acknowledge–not found in the fossil record. It's all but complete. Paleontologist have not discovered the fossils of innumerable transitional intermediate mammals, falling between and linking Pakicetus and whales. All the natural history museums in the world should be overflowing with them.

    With enough imagination anyone can invent a story about how land mammals evolved into whales. But an imaginative story isn't empirical science.

  27. Those are his big five evidences? From what I see, those are extremely thin, not compelling, and ultimately don't deal with the actual mechanism of evolution at the molecular level. Homology and similarities are interesting, but are miles away from being evidence.

    Proteins are made of a couple hundred amino acids. These amino acids are coded into their construction in DNA (Proteins don't occur in nature without being manufactured by life). To change from one similar type of protein to another there would need to be many mutations in a row. However, getting those chance mutations to happen in a row is to difficult to happen by chance. Evolution by genetic mutation is dead out of the gate. You can't even change a protein into another protein, much less accomplish the daunting task of changing a land mammal to a sea mammal.

    …I get a little fatigued looking at the comment section. …feel free to respond–but let's have a discussion, rather than exchanging barbs!

  28. Anyone that thinks they KNOW for a fact how we got here or how it all started is a fool. Evolution is a GUESS. Nothing more

  29. Good for entertaining…science fiction …lies in the textbooks are real stuff many evolutionists are not aware…

  30. Do all you creationists coordinate on these comments, or are you all just accidentally ignorant in the same way?

  31. WALKING WHALES LIE; Pakicetus was a wolf like mammal. It had a bone in it's inner ear called an "involucrum" that resembled something found in whales. It was fully terrestrial (lived it's entire life on land) and looked nothing like a whale but neo-Darwinist, desperate for a whale ancestor, tagged it Pakicetus or "Pakistani whale". Ambulocetus, Maiacetus, Kuchicetus and Rodhocetus were extinct variations of sea lions or otters. They were amphibious (lived part of their lives on land and part in the water). They used their hind legs and tail for swimming and their four limbs for walking on land.
    Basilosaurus and Dorudon were extinct whales that were fully aquatic ( lived their entire lives in the water) and lived contemporaneously.
    Land and amphibious mammals have nostrils for breathing on the front of their heads. Whales have a blowhole on the top of their bodies to breath.
    The blowhole of a whale is surrounded by thick muscular “lips” that keep the hole tightly closed except when the animal makes a deliberate effort to open it at the surface. Total submersion thus takes less effort for whales than for animals that must actively exclude water from their air passages. Coming onto land is not a natural act for a whale; beached whales die if they're not quickly helped back in the water.
    Land and amphibious mammals use four legs—tail assisted for amphibians while in water—to move around in their environment. Whales use a fluke to move around in their environment. Land and amphibian mammals can survive without the tip of their tail. Whales can't survive without it.
    Flukes are flat horizontal lobes at the ends of their tails. Fluke movements are coordinated by a complex system of long, powerful tendons connecting them to specialized muscles in the tail.
    These are a few of the myriad of changes they would have to undergo. For neo-Darwinist it would take hundreds of millions of random mutations (random variations for traditional Darwinist), to compel a fully terrestrial mammal to turn into a fully aquatic mammal.
    The biggest problem for the "walking whales" is the empirical evidence–Darwinist refuse to acknowledge–not found in the fossil record. It's all but complete. Paleontologist have not discovered the fossils of innumerable transitional intermediate mammals, falling between and linking land mammals and aquatic mammals. All the natural history museums in the world should be overflowing with them.
    With enough imagination anyone can invent a story about how land mammals evolved into whales. But an imaginative story isn't empirical science.

  32. There is no such thing as a change in kinds. For example hippos can’t turn into whales. There is no evidence. Bone structures don’t mean anything.

  33. Yes it is a thing. Thinking evolves too. We have evolved our thinking past biological evolution. There is no evidence for this relic of 150 years ago.

  34. Islamists in my country are demanding to ban the theory of evolution from our education system. Religion is harming more than benefits now.

  35. We need more people like Hank and the crew that makes this show possible. The world would be an even better and more educated place.

  36. Jenant, evoluția s-a oprit din treabă acum 1 milion de ani!
    0:25
    Evolution.
    It's a thing.
    It's not a debate.

    It's just a theory!

  37. “I now believe there is a God…I now think it [the evidence] does point to a creative Intelligence almost entirely because of the DNA investigations. What I think the DNA material has done is that it has shown, by the almost unbelievable complexity of the arrangements which are needed to produce life, that intelligence must have been involved in getting these extraordinarily diverse elements to work together.”

    ― Former rebellion…Anthony Flew

  38. Does anyone think that we would have lived on this planet, alongside dinosaurs, and not have had many written experiences of it? And what about other religions in the world? Are they wrong? They mention god or gods. Why are Christians right and others wrong? And I’ll tell you what, other religions feel the same way. Why? Because man mad god.

  39. He just gave evidence for a change in kinds, it’s called specification. And it happened with those birds he cited within 30 years. That’s real tangible proof. And the micro vs macro is the same thing, micro is over short periods of time and macro is over long periods of time.

  40. Goddamn, these comments. How are there still this many science-denying morons in the world? With climate change looming around the corner, that is the last thing we need.

  41. “As science advanced in the late nineteenth century, it increasingly excluded appeals to divine action or divine ideas as a way of explaining phenomena in the natural world. This practice came to be codified in a principle known as methodological naturalism. According to this principle, scientists should accept as a working assumption that all features of the natural world can be explained by material causes without recourse to purposive intelligence, mind, or conscious agency. Proponents” 
    ― Stephen C. Meyer, Darwin's Doubt: The Explosive Origin of Animal Life and the Case for Intelligent Design

  42. Funny how people who believe in evolution just choose to forget that there were fossils made by humans and buried underground🤦🏽‍♂️😂

    But hey just because you believe in evolution, it doesn’t make you dumb👍🏽

  43. i used to hate god. but then i discovered that evilutionists like randall wilks LOVED god. atheists couldnt stop talking about god, even on EVILution videos. this perplexed me and caused me to dive into the once hated bible i loathed so much.

    do you play gospel music at a rave? so why do evotards obsess over god? it was then that i went from hating god, and spitting on the bible and burning bibles, to reading the words of god. from an angry child livid at the god who never replied to my prayers, i became a man of god, thanks to atheists!

    the more i read the bible, the more i couldnt get enough! the prophecies perplexed my phd mathematics mind; they sucked me in and didnt let me go. i then sought the wise counsel of theological leaders such as DOCTOR KENT HOVIND and PROFESSOR WALTER VEITH. their wisdom was beyond words. their understanding towered over the drivel that was the nonsensical ramblings of the evotard. i became a christian and worshiped the one true LIVING GOD. which lead me to discover that the earth was flat and stationary.

    gee golly, thanks evotards! if it werent for you fools i would have never truly discovered god! if it werent for your relentless obsession with god, i never would have pondered why you feared god so much.
    "the fear of the lord is the beginning of all wisdom" your fear of the lord coupled with your perpetual ignorance, ironically lead me to wisdom! wow! as petty and ignorant as you are, you still yet served a purpose. you were the stepping stones towards my enlightenment in god! god truly works in mysterious ways.

  44. the three antichrist concepts of satan:

    1) evilution theory
    2) globe earth theory
    3) out of africa theory

    elaborated:

    the theory of evilution is a three pronged weapon aimed at god and his holy prophetic words.

    the theory of evilution introduces the idea that we came from absolutely nothing,
    this nothing which is devoid of god,
    then exploded and formed space balls in an abyss of absolutely nothing,
    this abyss which is devoid of god,
    then harbored shape shifting fish which became shapeshifting monkeys,
    these shape shifting animals are supposedly devoid of god,
    then the shapeshifting monkeys became human beings,
    then the first human beings emerged out of africa in the form of lucy,
    lucy was later to be discovered to be a fraud,
    this doesnt stop the science fiction of evolution from continueing its saga,
    fast forward to todays "understanding" of our realities,
    our reality says evolution seems to suggest that africans and hispanics are low iq,
    low iq leads to stagnation and lack of inventions and intelligence,
    lack of inventions and intelligence leads to poverty, slavery and death,

    our reality seems to be in the hands of a small group of very powerful men,
    these men control virtually all branches of media and communication methods,
    these methods are used to push the agenda of out of africa evolution globe earth,

    we must ask what is the motive behind indoctrinating us into such a tri fold lie
    we must consider that to believe in the tri fold lie we subject ourself to risk,
    the risk is we perceive ourselves as insignificant monkeys,
    the risk is we perceive ourselves as insignificant specks in the abyss,
    the risk is we perceive ourselves as low iq and we should all mix and mingle,

    when we perceive ourselves as insignificant monkeys mixing and mingling,
    we create a community of poverty, slavery and death,
    the small group of very powerful men wish this on us because they want more impoverished slaves,

    therefore, dont be an impoverished slave on the verge of death, be a child of god.
    deny the tri fold lie.

  45. “When confronted with the order and beauty of the universe and the strange coincidences of nature, it’s very tempting to take the leap of faith from science into religion. I am sure many physicists want to. I only wish they would admit it.”

    —Physicist Tony Rothman, former post-doctoral fellow at Oxford University

  46. WALKING WHALES LIE; Pakicetus was a wolf like mammal. It had a bone in it's inner ear called an "involucrum" that resembled something found in whales. It was fully terrestrial (lived it's entire life on land) and looked nothing like a whale but neo-Darwinist, desperate for a whale ancestor, tagged it Pakicetus or "Pakistani whale". Ambulocetus, Maiacetus, Kuchicetus and Rodhocetus were extinct variations of sea lions or otters. They were amphibious (lived part of their lives on land and part in the water). They used their hind legs and tail for swimming and their four limbs for walking on land.

    Basilosaurus and Dorudon were extinct whales that were fully aquatic ( lived their entire lives in the water).

    Land and amphibious mammals have nostrils for breathing on the front of their heads. Whales have a blowhole on the top of their bodies to breath.

    The blowhole of a whale is surrounded by thick muscular “lips” that keep the hole tightly closed except when the animal makes a deliberate effort to open it at the surface. Total submersion thus takes less effort for whales than for animals that must actively exclude water from their air passages. Coming onto land is not a natural act for a whale; beached whales die if they're not quickly helped back in the water.

    Land and amphibious mammals use four legs—tail assisted for amphibians while in water—to move around in their environment. Whales use a fluke to move around in their environment. Land and amphibian mammals can survive without the tip of their tail. Whales can't survive without it.

    Flukes are flat horizontal lobes at the ends of their tails. Fluke movements are coordinated by a complex system of long, powerful tendons connecting them to specialized muscles in the tail.

    These are a few of the myriad of changes they would have to undergo. For neo-Darwinist it would take hundreds of millions of random mutations (random variations for traditional Darwinist), to compel a fully terrestrial mammal to turn into a fully aquatic mammal.

    The biggest problem for the "walking whales" is the empirical evidence–Darwinist refuse to acknowledge–of the fossil record. It's all but complete. Paleontologist have not discovered the fossils of innumerable transitional intermediates, falling between and linking land mammals and aquatic mammals. All the natural history museums in the world should be overflowing with them.

    With enough imagination anyone can invent a story about how land mammals evolved into whales. But an imaginative story isn't empirical science.

  47. "Although all species have supposably descended from other species through natural selection and variation, no one has ever observed the origin of even more be species by this process. Since fossils, embryos, and molecules research don't demonstrate common ancestry, as they all conflict with each their, the evidence for Darwinism is underwhelming at best." -Johnathon Wells, Ph.D.

  48. Observably, chaos always produces order. Obviously, entropy isn’t ‘a thing’. Anything can happen in billions of years, right? Anything?Could homologous structures suggest a signature, like handwriting? I’m so lost, not.

  49. Those are not hind limb bones! Learn a little something about whale anatomy if you please.

    That structures look the same doesn’t prove one morphed into the other. This proofs both decent and an intelligent being reusing the same succesful structures.

    Telling people that 60% don’t understand you or implying they are a little less intelligent than you proof nothing but arrogance.

    Different finch beeks? Seriously? Still in 2019 this is brought up? C’mon guys. They change back and forth all the time depending on circumstances. Show us how the beaks arrived in your vid. Not just that they change in size. Who cares.

    Putting macro evolution in the footnote and not even going into it really says enough.

    The whole video should be about MACRO evolution. Not about the observed changes in all species which in most cases are genetically detrimental.

  50. Am here to learn about evolution….but it hasnt answered my question on the origin of life…plus all those millions of years…the assumptions made to measure fossils…

  51. I like how he proceeds to “facts” about similarities in structures between kinds of animals and then doubles over into his own faith that this means we are “factually “ related and facts for proof of evolution when actually. It could mean- same designer used the same tools for other animals. The same way a tank inventor used tracks when he invents the half track.

    Not to mention that the very example
    Of the whale he used the finder subtracts the feet the fins and the tale – to leave well just a whale and even other whale exmaoles latter found out to be land animals all along. Not to mention that whales need hip bones to give birth so- they not exactly left over hinges since Its clear they still use their hip bones in birth.

    But yeh- you keep sprouting those words facts.

    Here is a fact. Mutations can only duplicate- curropt – delete or move data that’s already exists around but cannot produce New information. Can’t add information that would result in the required information needed for Darwin theory to even stand. Instead we find off information activated and expressed. Pre packages code. Which points to designer .

  52. Haha the fact is that the DNA is similar the theory is that it proves we are related . Notice the jump from fact the fiction.

  53. Holy smoke this guy is delusional. He still using finches tahtkold argument? Hahaha damn son. Darwin’s theory is from one kind to another – creation theory is – kinds producing other kinds of the same kind .finvhes producing different kind of finches but always finches .

    In the case of mutation that helped resistance – that didn’t add new information just because a mutation lost information that the poison couldn’t attack. Hello? No Darwin evolution. Everything he said isn’t fact or science proves/ it’s his interpretation. Well not his- some other guy who wrote a book about it interpretation lol- do I smell a religion here or what

  54. Most scientist agree the possibility of evolution From a mathematical Perspective Is ludicrous.

  55. Lots of holes. How about chromosomes?
    If evolution is true, how come a blue green algae did not evolve?! Scientist found a fossil of a bluegreen algae and they calculate its age around 3.5billion years old. That is considerable amount if time to evolve. But how come they did not?

  56. So if evolution exists, that means we're all just a big happy evolved accident with no real meaning of our existence and once we die that's it. Lights out.

    I feel bad for anyone who believes this. It's gotta be a scary way to live life. I hope some of you can open your eyes and realize how perfect and beautiful of a world we live in. All of this can't be an accident. With all of the "laws" of nature, it makes more sense that someone or something of a higher power created everything. And science is actually getting closer to finding God. For all of the unexplained in our world, it makes more sense for there to be a God rather than that we evolved from molecules at the beginning of the universe.

    Here's a thought: if we evolved, if creatures evolved, where are all the in-between stages in fossils? If humans came from apes, but both live today, where are the in-between stages living today?

  57. Here's a thought: if we evolved, if creatures evolved, where are all the in-between stages in fossils? If humans came from apes, but both live today, where are the in-between stages living today?

  58. Many people think the theory of evolution is true, however I have spoken to the Holy Spirit quite a few times and he has spoken back to me he replied back to me answering my questions. Can evolutionists answer me this question: What did the Holy Spirit evolve from? Why is it that he is able to reply to me when I ask him something?

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