Educational Management and Leadership


Good morning to all the viewers now welcome
to NPTEL course on educational leadership. Today we will discuss about educational management
and leadership but what do we mean by education mannerism and how it is different from educational
leadership we will elaborately discuss about educational management and leadership. So what is the background of Education leadership
it is a post globalized era we are facing a lot of challenges the challenges are like
social and ethnic violence inequality terrorism climate change global warming all kinds of
unemployment corruption bad governance all kinds of issues we are dealing with and in
this social context education plays a very vital role and waned to develop group not
shirk many educational leaders. Who will be the right person to help us in
mitigating this 21st century challenges and number of challenges in different countries
different types of issues social conflict crises all kinds of things and in Indian context
we are also facing lots of challenges so how our educational leaders can help us is mitigating
this 21st century challenges and for that reason how the future leaders should behave
in a way the future leaders will not only need to possess you knowledge and skills so
nowhere we cannot manage with that traditional knowledge. Traditional skills they need to develop new
knowledge new skills at motivation capabilities so to fill this challenges to mitigate these
challenges so hence this we need to possess and we need to develop certain qualities capabilities
and efficiency in case of our new leaders new generation of leaders we should poses
the new knowledge skills but also we call upon to display high level of emotional and
spiritual wisdom and maturity. It is not just enough to acquire new knowledge
skills and attitude are simultaneously they need to acquire and poses high-level of emotional
intelligence a ritual intelligence with the maturity to deal with the difference of situation
critical situation conflicts in a very effective and strategic way. Second thingies that a leader can be anyone
regardless of the photo for my position when we talk about educational leader is not necessary
that the education leaders are to be have to be firm while within the institution we
can buy Outsiders they can be from the other all nations so it’s not that mandatory that
the education leader has to have a formal position who serves as an has and if we suppose
to serve a service and social agent. So hence there another repetitions that the
education leader we want him we expect him to act later social agent change is in who
can bring the sudden change transformation in our society you can make our quality of
life much better and second educational goal of leadership development has been given little
attention in the higher education till date so if we explore the research literature in
open source domain. We can find out primarily education leadership
means school literacy how to run the schools more effectively more efficiently how to run
how to make the schools very unique in terms of curricular co-curricular activities through
deep learning outcomes at till date it has been we had been talking about leadership
only in the context of schools only but now there is a flight only opposed globalization
era in 21st century only. Now all of us all across the globe we are
all the education is policymakers we are realizing that realizing that is not or not it is not
important only in case of the cool section school education but all across the levels
of education so hence the elitism development has been given little attention till date
but now it has been immensely realized that its equally and highly important in all levels
of education across the institution across the types of education across the country
and across the situation. So the leadership concept now what are the
specific features of education leader sequencer as we have already discussed the leaders can
be a formal leader will who has become the leader of a mob being a headmaster principal
or wife Cynthia register etc by virtue of his seniority it but then and another is because
another thing is a leader can also emerge from the mass hence an educational leader
can also emerge from the mask only and welcome among the stakeholders from among the teachers
from among the community. So what are the specific characters different
features and focus education leaders must possess the literacy will be independent of
additional authority while the management is really directly to it when you talk about
leadership in the schools in terms of the administration in terms of authority inters
of the management we talked about it is a hierarchical organization and the leaders
become by virtue of full seniority and his job final vow is to manage the responsibilities
being given to him by the authority. So it automatically defines income from position
and authority where he is supposed to manage and run the institution effectively whereas
literacy is much above that leadership is independent of this independent of the octaves
all this positional Authority is beyond that management and conduction is beyond that managing
the educational institution so the central core here the central concept is influenced
in case of leadership rather. Than Authority in education leadership when
we talk about the leadership in education context it is the key concept comes in influence
influencing other influencing others performance influencing others behavior influencing are
the outcomes influencing the environment bringing change in the environment so the major concept
in a real influence the second thing is the validity process is also intentional. It has a goal it has an ambition it has it
has a perspective it is a objective to achieve so intentionally in order to achieve certain
purposes in education leadership when you talk about the leadership in education context
we were specific purposes goals objective visions and missions and we intend to achieve
it the leader intends to achieve it and motivate literacy will link with values ethics and
reason when you talk about the leadership in educational context it means automatically
it means values it takes moral reasons the code of conduct generosity honesty all kinds
of values. All kinds of moral conduct all kinds of you
know ethical standards regions missions etcetera so in the context of education leadership
in the context of Education leadership is only differently overtaking the management
field it by educational leadership primarily people used to think that means are oh it
is like managing the institution man is running the institution transacting the day-to-day
activities and running it effectively. But it is not like that in the context of
education leadership has taken over recently taken over the management is not just management
is not just running the business but it is going above that achieving the regions and
nations and targets so which can bring significant development it can be significant development
and discipline this emphasis this paradigm shift has-been has taken place because of
the luminous education policies. And then you know will you pardon you critical
thinking of all our educational policymakers the global education ranking then the quality
of education and credit it ion all kinds of educational issues because of all these things
and all kinds of innovative changes in education policy so the need to education leadership
has actually takeover the concept of management. So leadership as we know leadership it links
to values goals and purpose every kind of leadership be it in the corporate or in the
organizations or the engines or whatever sector leader city automatically it is attached automatically
it reminds us of following certain values that think goals purposes automatically it
comes into the picture as the characteristics as a as the desired a quality of a particular
leader or the leadership aspect. So well management is just relates to the
ton Jack implementation of the technical issues waste and drafting the data crafting trans
carrier carrying all the admitted job caring although is examinations of carrying on the
different at kinds of curricular and co-curricular activity so literacy automatically links to
the highest level of values moral rules purposes and there is a need for emergent need for
managing towards is clear educational purposes and goals. Rather than management of the institution
as an a made sense so into this context our focus is to have clear very clear and specific
educational goals purposes and objectives nearly every educational situation any level
be the vocational beat a liberal education beat professional education based school education
with higher education whatever we must develop clear educational purposes and rules which
are directly or indirectly related to the social wealth in social welfare social up
liftman10:50) And all kinds of the social empowerment equality
and resolving all kinds of the critical issues social problems at which is much beyond management
which is calm banishment education till late till date we have been studying the concept
of studying the paper educational management educational management is only tells us anything
now the time has come with the new paradigm education leadership have gone but above much
beyond that management concept and it is considered as the second most important factor annexed
to the students learning outcomes. Or performance till debt a turn until date
that means in the traditional education system we are our primary focus for is on how to
transact the teaching and how to cancel the teaching activities how to deliver the lecture
how to prepare the curriculum how to design the content how to how to evaluate the performance
outcome how to set the instruction of that is all kinds of all these are curricular co-curricular
related to teaching and learning situation examination evaluation etc. But now into today is context the teachers
role has been changed the students role has be entailed it is more story centric more
tense and trick more learner centric and more are you in a kind of you normal mode it is
a nowadays we are adopting more a kind of cafeteria approach where the students have
been different options varieties of options are to select to choose of the subjects a
certain teachers role has been you know has been minimized you can say minimize to be
facilitator to a man mentor but again it has also been diversify it has become multifarious
into the in terms of you know. Not only designing the curriculum content
etcetera but evaluating the performance mentoring then maintaining the parent-child maintaining
the parent stable relationship a community service all kinds of things so here the teacher
has finally become more as a more as the facilitator as a mentor as a guide as counselor and the
primary objectives to make the learned up itself learner more motivated toward his own
goals self learning goals etc. So if you are not the team that is why the
teen 21st century the global 21st percent to the slogan for dedication is that leadership
and learning here we have to develop we have to develop a culture we have to develop an
and one and atmosphere square learning is more important how to learn we have to educate
the children are good children educate our students how to learn effectively how to so
we have to create lifelong continuous learning environment learning atmosphere where our
focus is on learning. It is not just examination specific degree
specific content specific subject specific but our focus is primarily on learn lifelong
learning so health we need the leaders to stimulate to or encourages motivating learners
from the life learning so literacy for learning is replacing the previous emphasis on managing
the curricula or the instructional leadership. So earlier we used to say the instructional
leaders instructional leaders read most of the principal’s education leaders they their
primary focus was to manage the curriculum manager cadenza program and to enhance the
performance for another student learning outcomes etc but as soon asset is achieved charge over
what all the students are the learners. They think that is their task is over now
there they’re free to move around the world go to the next cave etcetera but now in today’s
culture because it is open source of your knowledge and knowledge economy etcetera our
primary focus is on how to learn continuously how to dinner create an environment where
learning will be of the primary focus for leadership for learning we need the leaders
of early education leaders for the for creating that learning culture. He way the learning culture as a way of professional
life so doesn’t matter whether we are a teacher where a student where mental where
is curriculum designer or wherever we are adjustable office or whatever our primary
focus is to continue ourlearning the lifelong learning to update our knowledge work to improve
our learning and that could – would be a part of our life that would be a part of our professional
life as well as the personal nice. So to build a learning culture again way of
personal professional life so then again to produce the transformative leaders to devise
effective solutions for many of our critical fluid social problem problemnow if you want
that our students of your students would be our future leaders and this would also oppose
a certain qualities but qualities of model moral conduct certain things then we also
we have to model this behavior. If you want that our future generation should
be should act as I am should acts a effective education leader this would possess certain
good qualities morals and take that cetera and we have to act as a role models presently
for two so our focus is again on to produce transformative leaders who can devise effective
solutions for many of oursocial problems it is not just about that is it not the dog leader
the difficult little job is not over by just now achieving the educational goals or vision
and mission of the institution. So for that matter we need the transformative
leader there are different types of leaders and actual leaders charismatic leaders Democratic
leaders stop for entirely different kinds of leaders but we want we want to produce
transformative comedy leaders who can bring effective change drastic change positive change
in our society and we can help us in resolving many of our social problems however presently
all our educational leaders are facing lots of challenges. They are facing lots of challenges we will
discuss one by one what are those challenges what are those challenges are currently facing
in different educational institution first thing is that they as they are expected to
play role as its change agent so change agents their primary focus like we expect that our
teacher should bring change their modification you know placementindo indo into society. So they must acts a change agent of change
catalyst reach and say so web and they’re supposed to take some initiative can be initiated
to train the faculty to the vendor staff and to put prepare and future leaders etc and
also they must they must develop and the most inculcate high values and professional values
ethics transparency all kinds and accountable all kinds of positive quality among the staff
among the students among the Future Leaders etc. But to what extent adding successful they
have been capable they have been successful in achieving those tools because operatives
are seen that in the while carrying out the day to get off activities initiative workloads
etc they are overburdened with so many adversities and routine what close that hardly they think
about any innovative thing hardly they think about any new way of bringing and bringing
the bringing or developing a Content new waif contacting a curriculum. And way or any new or innovative pedagogy
or to Orcus out to examine or to this experiment on any kind of new things in the educational
context so hardly they get time they’re over Gordon would forming quad clothes that they
hardly they get any time to bring change rather they become the target of change agent in
the sense that whatever it has been described by the superior by the letter authority by
the seniors whether your superior boss etc. They just carryon and transact those things
and those things on the regular but they don’t have time to think about any new bringing
any new change in themodus operandi in the curriculum in the pedagogy or any kind of
reform education institution second thing comes here providing the value driven proposition
value driven visa so clearly that we have to again in the education content we have
to link the reason with the practice. It is not just about talking about the high
sounding visions randomizations etcetera and not implementing all those things in the educational
context so here how to link the reason to the how to link the reason to the practice
so in the workplace also for that reason in the workplace we have to engage we have to
engage all our staff communicating them elaborating them narrating them about the Regents emissions
and the emissions of a lot of the full. Our goals of an educator of the objectives
or being teachers on how-to work beyond that and so also they have to find out some time
out of their busy schedule and orient and communicate desktop regularly on the regular
basis above the reason in the vision admission and the goals and action plan take in fact
the action plans for implementing an action plan for implementing the town more time-bound
way to achieve those both. So this is the second thing providing the
value driven how to guide the staff towards the values of a regions of the education and
our life goals second thing is that none is in this population to the biggest challenge
it’s the most difficult challenge that nowadays of all the leaders are presently there are
new skaters will leaders the principals the Vice Chancellors they are facing because managing
the human resource is the biggest challenge you do not all because all of us all of us
we are different for if the institution that has the 3,000employ 10,000 of places. They will diversity wide range of diversity
inters of their characteristics their needs and aspirations there, you know their background
their knowledge their temperament everything in every respect they’re different so how
to manage these diverse workforce there is the biggest challenge how to manage the diverse
workforce. So here you have to develop the leader has
to develop a kind of you know all alone we cannot manage oddity we cannot do all the
works he has to anyhow weave to deliver such looking here to delegate certain things he
has to share subtle things he has to build different kinds of teams groups to take over
the responsibility so it is we have to distribute the work is to distribute these get it so
here we need to have a greater sharing of responsibilities. And for that matter he has to build up to
culture work culture so he has been theleader here a law he has a lot of responsibilities
so how to share it with others how to distribute it among others and how to ensure that their
they do ineffectively they do it sincerely so you have to achieve a dynamic balance between
coping with the current realities and keeping the strategy that means again moreover in
most of educational and in situation there are very few actually there you know resource
or reach like meezerman having then reached environment etc. There they do not have any constants of resources
as a bed-wetter whereas the other government some of the government school government institutions
there is are source crunch they are having the limited resources so here the principle
of the leader or the manner the head muscles is under constant pressure how to manage with
these limited resources so all the time he is always thinking of any strategic state
new to new steps to manage effectively but which is forbidden generally limited resource. So all the time he is really act within the
constraint of within the constraint of the limited resources so he has to always kept
up with the current realities like I have this much of money this much of man power
this much of time this most of these finance etc within back resource crunch and I have
to somehow manage it so they always they are always been around pressure to comply we come
how to comply with the authorities requirement from how to comply with the management responsibilities. So they do not have sufficient neither sufficient
time now resources to think for the future to think for the future so that is another
or that is another challenge that I again so managing staff relationship again with
that resource files with the done within the constant of also many factors then how to
motivate your staff how to motivate your staff to become more committed towards responsibilities
outtamint and the held interpreter relationship how to you invest your time and resources
referral sources for achieving the outstanding outcome performance outcome. How to motivate your staff to be committed
to all kinds of things and again at the same time how to inculcate the core values how
to inculcate the core values among your staff among your teaching adnoun-teaching staff
how to maintain the healthy relationship how to delegate authority and then how to again
how to link your strategic vision we today to the practice how to implement it. So all kinds of things it requested a we knowing
a lot of personal responsibility as well as the professionalism ability so the leading
to the religion is always under constant pressure of managing the staff relationship managing
somehow the room the responsibility how to delegate it how to deal with again another
challenge is how to deal with poor performance the institution is organization has the ten
thousand employments ten thousand types of individual serving ten thousand different
character script expectation needs abilities etc. Out of out of them family expects an excellent
some will be outstanding some will be outstanding some will be of mediocre and from Berlin may
be that largely where they will be of poor postman then I get another challenge is how
to deal with the poor performance how to deal with the poor performance so he has to draw
a clear-cut draw clear-cut line create short line to build with the critical issues like
how to deal with the poor performance how to identify the teachers or the staff having
the poor performance. How to train them how to counsel them how
to enhance your motivation how to make them more committed towards the performance and
at the same time how to play the multiple roles while conducting that we set duties
and responsibilities so this is the third calendar the fourth challenges the balancing
the personal and the professional responsibilities. So all the teachers all the laser all the
educational leaders are being the individual down they are having from their own personal
needs they are having their own personal needs and the professional needs so sometimes the
things that if they carry on sincerely and the professional responsibilities they may
neglect the personal and improvement personal performance personnel carrier etc so sometimes
they feel like they are as if they are out of the balance out of balance. So and even though technology is that sometimes
the technology also cannot help them in maintaining the work-life balance and so hardly they get
the chance to UM to learn a tool to improve their performance to then through the experimenter
through the experiences they gain to the expertise they gain from our interpreter or to continue
their learning so hardly dig the gate opportunity and sometimes they becomedemotivated actually. Because that they are not being able to give
equal attention or due attention to their profession a personal improvement personal
carrier or fulfilling their personal care unit aqua materiarelationship development
illness in relationship among the staff relations sit between the teachers and the students
enters principal and the subordinates etcetera so how to balance personal in the profession
of responsibility that is another biggest challenge but the educational leaders then
comes for communicating effectively and leading towards the command leading towards the continuous
thing. So here are now with this let one important
factor has that has emerged that is the communication how to communicate effectively communicate
effectively to everybody to the internal stakeholders to the external stakeholders the teachers
the staff within the educational institution the people in the community the parents then
the authorities for all kinds of communication and for that matter. So in order to make the communication effective
we have to be very particular about the time what should be the timing what will be the
content works will be the war what should be done whether it should get face-to-face
communication or whether it is a telephonic online communications the formal is informal. So all kinds of things are all kinds of things
comes in so here our motor our focus is how to make that communication more effective
so communicating effectively and leading to continue sense if the communication becomes
effective then there will be meaningful engagement and that will be successful engagement among
the staff among the employees among the students among the teachers and dialogue and there
will be continual dialogue with the staff so because dialogue conversation face to face
community is the most effective one. So for waiting the forgetting meaningful engagement
the dialogue is the best method so again the leave it again with the leaders job not only
to communicate effectively to lead towards the continuous change to bring effective opposed
give out from at the tent but again how that means to rectify to rectify or be very vigilant
about the myth interpretations of the message how-to communicate effectively and that what
is actually correct interpretation of the message what it intends to say if it does
and how to overlook all the defeats and the meets about the different issues etcetera
and how to communicate effectively again the values and the missions of the ordination
and how these values and visions can inspire also others. So a communication is this like flow is the
flow off with the flow of fountain it’s at eight goals downwardsall the time and it and
once it has been since well it has never come from it never comes backs that is all we have
to very careful and very cautious about the communication process communication flow how
that means sometimes also communication our values that should be should be explicitly
visible observable also so you both often our very often we can interchangeably new
good formal communication Metro formal and the informal communication method for strengthening
our networking relationship or partnership our alliance etc. And but at the same time we have two very
sensitive very sensitive about what is happening in and around and what are in fact on others
so because it also a communication also it is directly a fridge to self esteem self efficacy
and self-respect of the people so however and communication should not always be put
on top to bottom top to bottom but some but often it has to be popular it has to be down
bottom-up kind of approach first again is the huge task of the leader to maintain a
balance to strike a balance between all kinds of communication operative. And again at the same time he has to develop
them network not only the professional network region darkness but network outside organizations
outside urban here so update himself he has to update himself about what is happening
in and around what is happening all across the globe but is what is the latest innovative
crack out of the latest innovative practices or the new pedagogy is what are the new technology
and at the sometime. We have to sit again guard our organizational
structure also like mine our educational institution the structure the initial structure should
be more kind of flatter kind of organizations more a kind of you know less higher fees and
more flatter more horizontal kind of so that everybody feels that they are equal their
equally important then if a kind it can create a kind of democratic work culture where everybody
a lubricant share the roofing and views suggestions etc. So we have to or we have to shift from it
we have to fit from a heretical model to a you know more amore a kind of inclusive and
the transformational kind of leadership model so we have to in here we have to think of
a new paradigm shift in inters of the leadership qualities capabilities context situations
policies all kinds of a new paradigm shift we need English in our educational context
educational sector now Nextel is managing accountability and individual performance
again being the leader being the teacher being the professionals. We are accountable to stakeholders we are
accountable to our authority were accountable to society were accountable to our students
who are accountable to our parents we are accountable to society all kinds of for stakeholders
so how to manage those accountability how to manage those because constantly you are
constantly the leaders are under pressure the leaders are under pressure to perform
to perform to improve their performance outcomes to improve their performance soil the time
zone that is there are all the tender juggling in between the limited time limited resources
and how-to deliver the best how to deliver them so constantly they’re on the pressure. So they have to double that is between in-between
the time frame work with the stipulated time frame work with the limited resources and
the desired or expected learn our outcomes so somehow they have to so the content of
contemporary leaders they perceive that how to that is how to form formulate certain strategies
approach there are some strategies strategic objectives against that insufficient resources
that in order to Constance the times we retime limit that time framework so sometimes have
to be very strong very harsh and sometimes we have to beery soft and polite. So they have to switch on and off in between
the hard and soft approaches to carry forward to discharge the responsibilities so how-to
maintain that balance between the personal responsibilities the workload assigned to
them that the reason for the future the team or the team what and what is desire what is
the teamwork and what is desirable what is desirable what is expected from them and what
are the different kinds of the developmental approach so to to deliver their accountability. So dealing with so these are so many challenges
practice how to manage the accountability in the context or field limited time limited
resources you know poor performance of the teachers demotivated staff so how tonsure
again at the same time how tonsure the student how to ensure that the student learning outcome
very satisfactory how to satisfy the parents expectations so that is another challenge
how to ensure the best possible outcome of the students and again how the teachers are
how the teachers performance can be managed cane handle. It can be ideally can be identified and can
be dealt with training and continuing education program I get at the same time how to make
the whole Line initiative functions as well as it’s an educational evaluation examination
system more transparent because parents and accountability also go hand-in-hand so if
you are accountable to certain things when you have to maintain the transparency so strong
and transparent evaluation system feedback mechanism
So all kinds of things are required and at the same time going beyond that understood
after completing all these kinds of responsibilities duties these and that performance outcome
etcetera then you have to think beyond that is the thinking of the creative solutions
creative solutions to ensure to ensure that the education leaders continue the professionally
continue to be professional in that with all the time the education leaders they have to
face one or other professional challenges at different being the per may perform of
the challenges. There are personal some of the challenges
of the professional some of the challenges are you know how to bring the solutions to
some of the critical problems or that exist the problems can be related to decision-making
the problems can be related to how to deal with some complex issues and complex issues
and addictive things. Then again moreover that beyond that again
it not just to deal with the performance of the teachers to motivate them to mom then
identify them and to send them for the rigorous training and again after coming back from
the training how they can utilize it the replace the resource show they perform well and again
at the same time how to tap the talents also because in educational field of Union we need
to identify and tap the talents also So again so many so many as senior teacher
so many Tie teachers expert teachers are retiring day by day so when they retire they go back
they leave the organization relieve the institution the knowledge on acknowledge and experience
also rules that we do so how to cap them how to identify them how to you know leverage
their expertise how to leverage their knowledge how to leverage their experience so that is
another term andanother challenge that is the mayor soaking a Megan. So not only for tapping and identifying and
the talent and experience for a person’s experience people etcetera but you can as their talents
utilize their expertise to protect their experience for the for the their wisdom and experience
for our institutional development institution develop – so for that reason we have to again
and as you have already discovered again developing and a culture of learning culture of learning
where we can share our knowledge we can share our wisdom we can share our practice .
We can have a continuous dialogue with both young teachers dialogue with experienced teachers
so we can work together we can create a you know community of knowledge workers community
of learners community of a you know community of professionals so where we can share our
we can share and care and improve and nurture our new innovative practices and pedagogy
as curriculum and at the end a and also character building character building of our students
character building of our future leaders so. So again at the same time we have to maintain
a work-life balance in between our personal life personal needs personal goals as well
as the professional needs professional responsibilities professional again professional aspirations
how to achieve the vision mission goals of our institution and again how to contribute
for the society how to contribute forth society so for that isn’t again we need to adopt certain
you know we need to adopt a certain workplace practices. Like you know that that is a worthless practices
like how-to make it more flexible out to make it more democratic how to make it more a kind
of bearing the responsibility how-to make it more people-friendly how to make it more
employ friendly staff friendly so here the biggest challenge is the managing or truly
managing the accountability team we are accountable with all kinds of stakeholders but at the
same time also we have to improve as to manage and improve our individual performance these
are some of issues and challenges now. We have discussed then electron will continue
about the other issues.

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