Educational Heritage of Ancient India : A Talk by Sahana Singh

So in the years that I have been living outside
India, I get a lot of questions like: how is it that you Indians are motivated to study
so hard? What is it that makes you study so hard? And another question I get very often is that
why despite being so intelligent and smart – Indians being so smart – why is your
country in such a mess? So, when trying to find the answers for these
questions I did a lot of reading and that’s how I ended up writing this book. So, I am not a historian; I’m an engineer. But like many others today I’m just trying to connect the dots and get a clear picture of our civilization. So that’s what I’m trying to do. So, and this book, as he mentioned, it’s,
today there are a few copies, but it’s mainly available on So you have to order them on Amazon. I’m using the money that I get for Indic
causes. So let me take you back to a time long ago
when India was the educational capital of the world. So, one of the most important things was that
there was a sacredness associated with learning and teaching. So, you can see that here is a ceremony, a
sacred ceremony, where a child is being initiated into the alphabets. So does anyone know what this ceremony is called? Yes, and also Vidyarambha. It’s called Vidyarambha and Aksharabhyasa
in South, and there is a similar ceremony in Bengal called Haate Khori, which they do
on Saraswati puja, when boys and girls are introduced to the alphabets. So, you can see that there was a deep sense
of sacredness associated with learning and teaching and there was also a ceremony called
upanayanam, which many of you know wherein a child would enter into higher education. Again, sacredness associated with it. There was a mad rush for gaining education
in India, just like today there’s a rush to go somehow get into an Ivy League university in the US or get into Oxford and Cambridge in the UK. Something like that was happening in India
in ancient times. So most of the civilized part of the world wanted to get and get a degree from India it was like that. So, students came from China, Japan, Korea,
Indonesia, Malaysia, West Asia. Recently I discovered that I-Tsing did not
come directly to India. First, he went to Indonesia, he learned Sanskrit
there, so that he would be able to get into one of the advanced institutes in India. So, some of them did not come straightaway
to India. So Fa-Hien, Huan-Tsang, I-Tsing – these
are the famous Chinese students who came and got an education in India and if you read
their autobiographies you will be moved by the dangerous journeys they undertook to come
to India, somehow, like they nearly died in the process they took boats, they walked,
but their aim was clear that, I have to reach Nalanda or I have to reach Vikramsila or some of them were even aiming for Kerala the Kanthalloor shala, you know. So, I need to get a degree from India that
was the spirit with which they came and on top of that after coming to India there was
no guarantee they would get admission because there would be an admission test and many
were eliminated. So I’ll tell you more about it as we go along. So here is an artistic representation of a
forest University which was the earliest kind of university, where holistic learning was
obtained in the middle of nature under the supervision of a guru who was like a parent,
and so in the Mahabharata there is a mention of many ashramas which functioned like universities. So ashramas of Shaunaka, Kanva, Vyasa, Vasista,
Viswamitra. Rishi Kanva’s ashrama was not a single ashrama,
it was a collection, an assemblage of hermitages of which he was the presiding rishi. So, a student would go to one in ashrama and
specialize in one subject under the Guru, then go to another ashrama, adjoining ashram,
and get specialization in another subject, and then this way he would go to different
ashramas and complete his degree. That’s the way it worked, and they were specialists
in every branch of learning of the time Vedas, yoga related literature, logic, grammar, mathematics,
zoology, physical sciences, medicine and what have you, and they were rush with female issues
which are mentioned in Mahabharata. Now I come to a page from Nyaya Sastra. So, this I’m just trying to show you how obsessed
the Indians were with logic, with understanding, with learning the science of knowledge as
well. So, in this, you know, the Indians also wanted
to know, what was good reasoning, and what was bad reasoning. So, they made rules for all that. But if you reason in this way, it’s good,
if you do it in this way, it’s bad, and basically this is how, they became it, led to science,
this kind of thinking led to scientific discoveries because they all, they had, they did a lot
of thought experiments and they try to answer questions like Who am I, where have I come
from, why do we feel that there are two people inside us, one which is doing the actions
and one which is observing everything. So, in trying to answer these questions they stumbled upon important discoveries in science and mathematics. So, for example and also there was no distinction
between religion and science, no false barriers. So, when they would try to do a Homa with
a perfect square, they would need a perfect square, and in the process of drawing that,
they discovered the rules of geometry. In trying to find the best timing, the most
auspicious timing, they actually found out the laws of planetary motion and other, you
know, the celestial phenomena. So that’s how religion actually led to science
for the Indians, and I’ve taken this code from the Nyaya Sutra to show you how scientific
it is. “Truth exists, whether or not we humans
acknowledge it”. Akshapada Gautama said this in the Nyaya Sutra,
he also said all knowledge is not intrinsically valid. So, these are the kind of statements that form the bedrock of science even today, modern science. Look at what Susruta said in Susruta Samhita. He said, this was an interdisciplinary approach
to learning that he took a physician, who has learned one science only, cannot be sure
of his own science, and for this reason the physician has to be versed in many Sciences. This is the approach we take today, that you
can’t be just looking at one subject. You need to be interdisciplinary if you want
to solve the real-world problems. Here’s a map, I have tried to map out the
universities in the ancient times until the eleventh or twelfth century and you know it
was, there are so many universities you can see that it’s completely, it’s every part
of India is covered so far. The oldest one we have found is in Takshasila,
which is today in Pakistan, which seems to be at least 6th century BC, but must be definitely
older than that. Then we have Sharada Peeth, we have Purushapura,
Varanasi. In the Bengal-Bihar side, you see, a cluster
of universities Nalanda, Odantapura, Bikrampur, Jagaddala. Then you come to the South, so many Mathas,
so many agraharas, there’s Kanchipuram, there’s Kanthalloor sala in Kerala, which
was called the Nalanda of the south and actually – it had even more subjects than Nalanda because
it even had martial arts, and such subjects as well. The interesting thing is that the people did
not stay confined to their regions. So, the professors and students traveled to
the institution of their choice, just like today we have students going to Manipal, going
to IIT Kharagpur, wherever they want to study. In those days, they did the same. So, in Nalanda, for example there were two
professors Sthiramati and Gunamati, they were the ones who set up Valabhi university in
Gujarat and then they went to Nalanda to teach. Then we also had gurus who came from Kanchipuram
who moved to Nalanda, we had from Kashmir, there was a professor who taught in Vikramsila. So, we can see that everybody is travelling;
and there’s an interesting story from Kathasaritsagara where a Brahman person says that I am going
to send my son to study in far off Valabhi, even though I am in Gangetic plain. I think Valabhi is a better place to study
and we conjecture that’s because Valabhi was specialized in political science, business
and whoever graduated from Valabhi would get into government services very easily. So he was sending his son to Valabhi. That was more than 1500 years ago and also
it was important once the students finished their education in any of these universities
they needed to travel, their gurus would tell them to travel: go and experience different
parts of India, go and experience discomfort different kinds of weather, different people
and that was the way practical learning and traveling was very important for the students. So, this is Bhaskaracharya. The funny thing is that most people are familiar
with Newton, Einstein but if you ask them about Bhaskaracharya today, they know nothing
about him. Does anyone know which University taught him? Bhaskaracharya? So he was from Ujjayini University. Ujjayini University was a place you went to
study if you had an aptitude for Maths, if so, whoever graduated from Ujjayini, they
would, they would say, ‘oh he’s a math genius, he’s, he has to be super intelligent’. So, he formulated so many interesting form
rules for, you know, solving equations. He was the first one to use a decimal system,
you know, and before him, it’s not just him, if you go back, there’s a lineage Brahmagupta
was before him, and he was the first to use zero as a number in its own right. So, what to do? How? What happens when you add zero to a number? what happens when you subtract zero from a number? He made all those rules and he followed the
Bhaskaracharya, followed in his footsteps and went beyond. He discovered differential calculus. So, he has been, he’s been called one of the
most brilliant brains ever in the world. This is quite recognizable, I’m sure. Nalanda. now when you see Nalanda today, it’s all crumbling
ruins. I also visited this place and then the only
way we get to know what it looked like is when you read the autobiography of Xuan-Tsang
and I-Tsing, so what Xuan-Tsang said is that, it was the most beautiful campus he had ever
seen. It had a huge gate all around the campus and
when he entered, he said the place was full of lakes, ponds; ponds with lotuses blooming
in them and they were these were tall buildings. So, they were, for example, the library was
nine storied and he said that if he went to the main building the top story, when you
looked out, you would see splendid sunsets, you would see brilliant moonlit nights, and
he said that you can see the pride he feels on studying in this place, and then he said
that at the entrance there was a big statue of Buddha and there were eight halls in the
campus, in the building, and the lecture there would be hundred lectures in a day, and the
lecture halls would be full, and students would not miss a single lecture that was the
kind of learning, and Nalanda in those days offered a wide range of subjects. So, it had something for everybody. So, a lot of students they were about 8,500
to 10,000 students, and there were 1,500 teachers. So, you can imagine the student- teacher ratio
is so good, and not to forget the admission tests, which was so hard that only 20% students
would make it, 80% would be eliminated, and probably that’s the reason why we have so
many universities adjoining the Nalanda. Vikramsila, they’re all at short distance
from each other, possibly they came to, you know, to absorb more students because so many
were being eliminated. So, the others to universities came near them
and they were also coaching centers. So, outside the village, in the villages surrounding
Nalanda, there is, there are records of teachers who were preparing students to crack the entrance
examination for Nalanda. Now, I come to debating, which was an intrinsic
part of Indian education. So, you can look I have chosen this picture
of Adi Sankara debating with Mandana Misra and look who is the judge it’s a lady who
is, who was a renowned scholar in her own right – Ubhaya Bharati – and this was
the way knowledge was propagated in India. So, it was not just one man says it and everybody
believes it. It would be challenged, there would be debates,
where everybody would sit and watch and this is how Sankaracharya and various other gurus
did, the same thing. They went all around, in fact, he went right from Kerala – all the way – even Kashmir which I’ll talk about later. So, here are some debating terms that I thought
would be interesting for you, just to show you how developed the art of debating, was
how it was placed on a very serious footing, sound footing. So, you just could not go and start debating
with somebody. You need to know, needed to know these terms. You also needed to be very familiar with the
arguments of your… the person you want to challenge, you should be, you needed to know,
how to argue in the place of that person as if you were him which is called purva paksha;
arguing from the point of view of your opponent. So, look at these terms –
Sadhya – thesis which is to be developed established. Siddhanta: proposition tenets or conclusion. Hetu, Udhaharana, pratyaksha, anumana, pramana..,
these were the kind of terms that they use. So, it was, it was a very intellectual exercise,
the whole debating tradition and what’s more interesting is that, they actually had criteria
for giving points or taking points away. So, the other day when I was talking to my
daughter and she was trying to make it seem like she was doing the debating of a very
high order in her school and she didn’t know that, it was, it was even higher in India. So, that’s when I had to told her all these
things… So, they had terms like this for deducting
points, hurting the proposition: Pratijna-hani – shifting the proposition. Pratijna-antara – opposing the proposition. Pratijna-virodha – renouncing the proposition. Pratijna-sannyasa – shifting the reason. Hetavantara (just look at all this) – resorting
to the unintelligible. Avijnatartha – becoming incoherent. Aparthaka.., because you would be, if you
try to evade the topic, if you try to become incoherent, you would lose points, and there
were many more points, and Vasubandhu is not the only one, there are many many books written
on debating. So, the very significant thing about India was that there was a well-established ecosystem to support learning. So, it was like the whole society knew that
we have to take care of teachers and students because that’s the only way education go forward. So, the expenses were subsidized by the ruling
Kings. Then Nalanda University was funded by hundred
villages so all the revenues of those villages would go for the food, the clothes, the medicines
of the students who studied there. It was one of the most well-funded universities
and in the other ashramas, which were not very well funded the students had to pay,
but even there the poorest students, typically the Brahmins would be the poorest students,
would do menial tasks. They would do menial tasks and that would
be in lieu of paying the thing for paying the fees, and there was no shame for a Brahmin
student to go and solicit financial assistance. So, he could go to knock at any door and he
could see would say, ‘look I need to pay my fees, can you help me’, and then some
help would be found for him. The ethos of the times demanded that Brahmin
scholars led simple lives and engaged in pursuit of knowledge without amassing riches. So it fell upon the shoulders of wealthy non
Brahmin families and farmers to support those who devoted their entire lives to learning
and teaching. This has been pointed out by Huan-Tsang also. He said, he was so moved to find Rishis who
was so engrossed in learning that they didn’t care about the, what they were wearing, what
they were eating, and they just went around teaching whatever they knew, and these people
were held in respect even though they were so shabbily dressed. So that was the ethos of the times. Now I come to the temple universities of India. So, universities… the bigger, the big temples
for not just places where people went and worshipped their favorite deity or they perform
marriages. There was something more. They also functioned as educational centers
because the temples acted like magnets, which would attract the best. So, then, they started building annexes to
temples, and they would hold lectures in the Annex, the annex to the temple; lectures,
debates., all these things happened in the temples. Eventually they also started having different
departments where different subjects would be taught by different people, and on the
temples there would be settlements, which were called Agrahara, where the king would
subsidize the land for them, and they would live there, the teachers, and they would all
have, their houses there look like a campus, and the students could actually go directly to the houses of the Brahmin teachers, and learn from them. They would just sit in the verandah, the teacher
would come out, teach them and like that. In every house the same thing would be happening;
so, the, this, these were all you can just see how well develop the institution of learning
was in ancient India. So, this is a place in Tamil Nadu, an item
which has, which has a bonanza of inscriptions, which is, which really shows you, how institutionalized
our to, our universities were. So, it tells you how much land is being given
to the teachers. For the first of all, for the temple, for
the purpose of teaching, this is for a Vedic bachelor, and it’s talking about how much
the allowance would be given to the teachers. So, it says the teachers will get 16 times
the meal allowance of the students and it talks about how the students who are studying
the higher subjects like Vedanta, Mimamsa will get 66% of the stipend, that the students
was the, compared to the students, who are studying the basic subjects. So, all this was well qualified, how much money will be given, what will be, how will you be taught. So, there was no confusion about this, and
there are many inscriptions like this found all over South India. But ennaiyar is one place you should go. So, these are the ruins of Shardapeeth in
Kashmir today. You can’t, when you look at Kashmir, you can’t
really imagine, a kind of a university like this, but there was a time when Kashmir was
known by the University called Shardapeeth, and the whole state was called Sharda desh,
because of the temple Sharda temple as well as the University, and this university was
so well known for the, for the, rare manuscripts it had in the library, that people traveled
from different parts of India, for example, Ramanujacharya came all the way from Kerala
to study to refer to the only available manuscript of Bodhayana vritti in order to write the Sri Bhashya, the commentary that he wrote on the Brahmasutras. So, he came all the way from Tamil Nadu to
Kashmir to refer to that book. So, this, this was the ecosystem of universities
that we had. Today, of course, it lies in ruins because
it has been destroyed. Now I am coming to the knowledge transfers
from India to China. A large number of Sanskrit manuscripts were
carried to China either by Chinese scholars or by Indian scholars hired by Chinese kings. So, we spoke earlier about Huan-Tsang and
the I-Tsing. Those were the scholars who came from China
to India. But actually, from India also, a large number
of scholars, Sanskrit scholars, went to China and they lived for long years there translating
because for the Chinese it was considered to be a very very important job to get the
Sanskrit works translated into Chinese as quickly as possible, as many as possible. So, you can literally fill a whole book with
the works of translation done by the professors. So, the first two went to China were Kasyapa
Matanga and Dharmaratna. So, they made a very difficult journey, they
went across Chinese Turkestan, Gobi Desert and again they had a very difficult journey,
and on top of that they had to learn Chinese, which was the child of totally different syntax
from Sanskrit. But they did it, and when they did it, it
was like this, started a deluge. Oh, so many scholars followed them Sanga Varma,
Dharma Satya, Dharma Kala, Mahamalla, Vigna, Dharmapala – a whole lot of them. I could not fill in all of, fit them all here
and they were not just from northern India. For example, Dharma Ruchi was a scholar from
southern India. He went to China lived there for 20 years
and he translated 53 works into Chinese. So, there was people knew that, you know,
there is a demand for them in China. So, if they, didn’t, were not happy with what
they were getting in India, they would move to China. It was not always a happy outcome because
this person poor fellow called Dharmakshema was being wooed by two kings, two Chinese
kings, and in the crossfire, he got shot by an assassin. This happened with some other scholars as
well. Amoghavajra was another scholar. He collected 500 texts from different parts
of India and went to China and he got many titles from Chinese Kings and he is called
the founder of the tantric Buddhism and he had another, there’s another incident with
him. When he translated, see… he spent years
and years translating. The poor fella took leave to go back to India,
the moment he stepped foot in India, he got a message that he needs to go back, because
the Chinese king wants him back, and he without seeing his family, he had to go back. Indian astronomers and mathematicians from
the best universities held high positions in China’s scientific establishments. A big example is Gautama Siddha. So his Chinese name was Kutan Siddha. One of the reasons, why you would probably
not know, who is who was an Indian professor in China, is that their names should be changed,
they would have a Chinese name. So that’s why, we probably don’t know all
the Indians who went to China. Kutan siddha, he was called, and he became president of China’s official Board of astronomy in the 8th century. He translated Navagraha calendar to Chinese. He introduced Indian numerals to China and
the invention of printing press is attributed to Buddhist scholars who went from India to
China. Today we know that printing was invented in
China, but the work was done by Buddhist scholars who went from India and printing was used
as a means to spread Buddhist thought. This is a statue of Kumarajeeva; not many
of us have heard about him. But he’s well known in China. Kumarajeeva, he basically grew up in Kashmir
and culture, and he translated more than 100 Sanskrit works which are considered masterpieces
of Chinese literature. The ‘diamond sutra’ which is a valuable
work in Buddhism was translated by him and this tattoos in Zhen Jiang in China. He was like one of the viewers, considered
a very brilliant person by the Chinese, and so he, they have honored him. But we don’t know anything about him. Then I come to the knowledge transfers fromIndia to Greece, Islamic world and Europe. I’ve covered China. Now I’m talking about the Islamic world and
Europe in this. Dr. Raj Vedam, I heard, has done a lot of
work. So, there was a thriving trade between India
and the Western Asia, the whole the rest of the world, in spices and textiles, but also
in medicines, not people know that, medicines also were being continuously supplied by India,
herbs medicines. So, Raj has laid out the trajectory by which
I obey the… was transmitted out of India. So, he, this Rishi Kanada, he speaks about
Rishi Kanada, who wrote important works in Vaiseshika, the Vaiseshika school of Indian
philosophy, who influenced Democritus, because Democritus’s idea seemed very similar to what
Kanada wrote. Democritus’ student was Hippocrates who
is called the father of Western medicine. So, we can see where Hippocrates is caught
his ideas because if you see the Charaka Samhita, you will see that, there is something called
an oath that a doctor has to take before he is considered a via, and that is very similar
to the Hippocratic oath. So, and of course, Charaka came much before
Hippocrates. So, the link would be Democritus. Raj is also spoken about the Library of Alexandria. So, this library played a very important role
in transferring works from east to west. It was situated in such a located, in such
a place that, and they were the administrators of this library, went to any extent, beg,
borrow, steal., to get the most authentic manuscripts from wherever, wherever they could
get there, the best manuscripts and so they got a lot of manuscripts from India, and probably
that’s how, that also served as a route for translations to Latin, and other languages. In the in the earlier years of Islam, when
the Abbasid caliphs were ruling in Baghdad, that is a time when a number of translations
happen. For example, Manka who was in the court of
the Abbasid V of Abbasid caliph, Haroon Rashid, that’s what he was called. He translated Susruta Samhita to Persian. The Indian scholars were often invited to
Baghdad. So, you know, the works, the famous works
of Al Farabi, Al Kindi, Al Farghani, Al Tabari, Al-khwarizmi – who is called the father
of algebra, but they all acknowledge that they got knowledge from India. They have actually referred to the books that
they got from India, but for some reason all these works are now attributed to Arabs or
Europeans. But you can trace it back to India. So, while the Islamic scholars often credited
their knowledge to Indic sources the European scholars frequently plagiarized from Arabic
texts without references. The Renaissance was propelled by the works
of Arabic scholars, which was passed off as original works by Europeans. So, the Renaissance actually all of a sudden, these works were attributed to European scientists and scholars. But they were actually all translations of
Arabic text and where did those Arabic texts came from, come from, they came from India,
and one important link is Toledo school of translators. Toledo in Spain, when it was run over by the
Christians. So that’s the time they established a school
which would spend all day if they put us in an army of scholars whose only job was to
translate Arabic works to Latin. So, in the 12th and 13th centuries you will
find a whole lot of Arabic works translated to Latin, and even in the Latin that the use,
you can see Arabic, so you can make out where it came from, they couldn’t just find the
word for it in Latin. So, they let it be in Arabic. This is a statue of Garcia D’Orta. He was a Portuguese who settled in Goa in
1538 – another big source of knowledge transfer – he collected a lot of information about
medicines – Ayurvedic medicines and he wrote this book: ‘Coloquios dos simples e drogas
he cousas medicinais da índia’. So, in which he listed all the herbs that
Indians are using for various diseases and he said this can be used for this, and this
were influenced later works of medicine in Europe. Now I come to the unhappy part when these
glorious universities came to an end. Bakhtiyar Khilji, Bakhtiyar Khilji and… Today if you imagine an army of horsemen coming
to a campus killing every professor every student over there, and bodies lying around. Well, that’s what happened. You can’t even think about it, and this happened
at a time when there was, there were no electronic storage devices, no cloud. So, we can imagine how much, how much knowledge
was lost. So, he destroyed Nalanda, Vikramsila and Odantapuri in one stroke, one after the other, this small group of horsemen. You can of course blame the scholars and professors
for not knowing that this was coming. Well, we can, we don’t know what happened. But then they were all sitting ducks, and
then in later years, all the other universities were destroyed – Jagaddala, Somapura, Valabhi,
Kashmir, and that’s how, you know, when the thing is that, the earlier libraries which
were destroyed in Cordoba, Alexandria, Persia and Ghazni did not set off alarm bells in India. They didn’t realize this is coming to India as well. They destroyed all the big libraries there
as well, and when they came to India the first thing they did was to destroy the temples
and the viharas because they realized, there are also places of learning. There was an emphasis on Islamic education. Once the Muslim, the Delhi Sultan’s established
themselves, they set up centers for Islamic education and Arabic and Persian were imposed. So, the day they tried to destroy the basis
of Sanskrit, which was existing over there, and they just wanted to change it all to Arabic
and Persian. There was some respite during Akbar’s rule. I mean until Akbar, it was terrible. But when he became, he tried to bring back
some strength in the madrasahs, because earlier Hindus were not even allowed to study madrasas,
so that this was a time when the Islamic rule was very strong in India. A number of scholars went to the periphery they went to the states where there was no Islamic control. So, they’ve been as far as they could, and that’s how they tried to preserve the learning that we had. They carried their manuscripts, they carried
the murtis of the deities and they tried to keep it alive. When Akbar came, things improved a bit. Again, it all vanished when Aurangzeb came. So again everything, all the gains that our
Akbar made were lost, and the interesting thing is that, there was an absence of science
education during the Mughal Rule. Earlier during the when the Muslim in the
first few centuries of Islam in in Baghdad, you saw, how the Muslims were actually they’re
interested in education, and there was a free spirit of debate in those times. But during this time after the when the Delhi
Sultans came and when the Mughals got established, especially the during our unzips rule, no
science education. They were at the most, they were interested
in poetry, that is before, you know, not in orange Apes regime, but in other Muslim ruled
kingdoms, there was some interest in poetry. But for some reason science did not figure. The Sanskrit works of scientists and mathematicians of earlier periods began to be forgotten in their land of origin. The Mughals did not build up on the leading-edge
concepts presented by Hindu scholars of an earlier era to become the world leader in
science and mathematics while madrassa has proliferated and students became adept in
the finer details of the Quran and hadith in Muslim India. The Western world was making advances in science
and technology. The Mughals had a golden opportunity: they
were, they were ruling at a time when India was the number one country in economy, right. But the Mughal kings missed the opportunity
to write the wave of technological discoveries in the West despite rolling over the richest
land in the world, and that’s why when the British came, they didn’t find any great scientists
in India. They just found, you know, completely dumbed
down education system, that is, I’m talking about the higher universities. Now I come to the colonial period, the British
emerged victorious over the Portuguese and the Dutch and all the other Europeans. They all battled among themselves and finally
the British were victorious. They spread their tentacles to different parts
of the world and, of course, they in India, they were very successful at first. The British did not bother with the education
of natives and focused on playing politics with different rulers. So, you see, even in Africa, they didn’t try to learn. There was not interested in education or anythinglike that. But then they realized the need because now,
here, they could, they found, they could not control India. India was a place where they were gain, they
wanted to get a lot of wealth from. So, they needed to rule them, they needed
to govern them, and that’s why they set up this College Mohammedan College and Sanskrit
College in Calcutta, in Banaras. So that they could get a regular supply of
Hindu and Muslim law officers, so that, they could govern them, and the interesting thing
is that, there was, they were true camps, from the Anglicists and the Orientalists. The Anglicists wanted everything to be taught
in English. They said let’s teach them, let’s translate
our, there’s no need to translate, let’s just use our English books to teach them, whereas,
the Orientalists said that let’s translate our English works into different languages
first. Let’s make them like us and then slowly we
will bring them into our fold. That’s the, that was the attitude of the Orientalists. So why did the British impose English on India? First reason was convenience: it started out
with that because they didn’t want to learn all the Indian languages, and they couldn’t
understand Indian languages. So, it was very convenient to have English
speaking menials, English speaking people. So, this says, let’s set up English educational
centers. But the most important reason was that ‘these
sepoys would become disloyal’. Now they needed an army as well. So, they had an Indian army and they realized
that if the suppose started learning in their own languages, there’s going to be trouble,
because the Muslims would real that these people are all infidels and we should not
be having any business with them, if they kept studying the Islamic literature in their
own language. Then they would, they would not be loyal to
the British. The same thing with the people who studied
Sanskrit because then they would regard them as malicious and unclean people who don’t
have Dharma, adharmic people. So, the British realized the danger of letting
the education continue in the regional languages and then with the elite, they realized that
if you make them study in English, then familiarly acquainted with the English literature, the
Indian would speak of great Englishmen, with the same enthusiasm as the British themselves. By the way, these are not my theories, this
is all written down by Macaulay’s brother-in-law Trevelyan. He also played a big role in the educational
policy. So, he wrote all this, he said ‘familiarly
acquainted with English literature that in Indian would speak of the great Englishman
with the same enthusiasm as the British themselves, they would reject the teachings of Brahmin
priests, the natives shall not rise against us, because we shall stoop to raise them’. It was a well-thought-out policy, very well
thought out and after all, after fifteen-year debate between the Anglicists and the Orientalists,
came the McCauley’s minute. The Macauley memorandum which was circulated
in order to come to a decision about what kind of educational institute should they
fund. So, they came up with the English Education
Act of 1835 after the debate. But we must look at my college minute. I’m sure many of us know it. Let’s read it again: “we must at present
do our best to form a class, who may be interpreters between us and the millions who be govern
a class of persons Indian in blood and colo,r but English and tastes, in opinions, in morals
and in intellect. To that class, we may leave it to refine the
vernacular dialects of the country to enrich those dialects with terms of science borrowed
from the Western nomenclature and to render them by degrees fit vehicles for conveying
knowledge to the great mass of the population.” So now after this was the English Education
Act was passed. English struck its roots in the soil of India. Missionaries schools were set up and, you
know, what happened meanwhile, the funny thing is that when all this was happening in India,
look at what was happening in England. England was languishing in illiteracy; a miniscule
fraction went to school and the only book most literate people had read was the Bible. Now I’d like to talk about Dharampal. I think some of you would have heard about
him, but by and large, most people I speak to haven’t heard of Dharampal. We owe a big debt of gratitude to him, that he brought so many facts to light that we never knew before. So what did the Rampal find? Dharampal went to London on some other work and he happened to spend a lot of time in libraries there and he came across archival
material of extreme significance. A series of surveys commissioned by British
government in 19th century to assess the level of indigenous education in India. So, we have to give it to a British for being
very systematic, a very systematic. So, they first want to know, what is the level
of education in India. So, they conducted a series of surveys in
Madras Presidency, Bengal presidency, Punjab – various parts of India and they also documented
it. What did they find? They found that every village in India had a pathshala and there were 1,00,000 per challahs in Bihar and Bengal alone! So just imagine it’s mind-boggling, one pathshala
in every village, and what was taught. In those parts Allah’s reading, writing, epics,
all of them knew Mahabharata and Ramayana, Bhagavata, arithmetic was taught was very
compulsory and it literacy was very high, very few illiterates exist. Today they knew their language. if they were in Andhra they knew Telugu, if they were in Tamil Nadu they knew Tamil, that was taken care of. Teachers were very dedicated there, were superior
methods of teaching and there was high attendance. All this is reported by the people who did
the survey. Another interesting thing was, the and which
broke the stereotype, that we have in the large number of schools sudras very majority,
well the Brahmins, and by C’s with by Shias were in minority. So, for example, he found that he’s given
percentages, you know, in some schools 70% were sudras, in some schools 50% were sudras, in some schools there were number of girls like in Kerala. There were many schools which had girls plenty
of girls. So, the school, at the basic level our education
system was intact when the British actually did the survey, the partial a-level, our education
system was intact, even though the universities had been destroyed by the Muslim invaders. Now I’m talking about the poverty and famine,
how it became rampant during the British rule. Look at this picture of sadness, how they
are people who was becomes, they become skeletons? There we must understand that India was governed
for the benefit of Britain. So, everything that India produced food grain,
textile, steel, gold, silver, minerals everything was for the benefit of Britain. There was no food for teachers and students in pathshalas. How could education survive? Earlier there was a system where nobody went
hungry, they could go and ask for food, they would get food, now there was, they there
in some places like Tanjavur mass poverty was created overnight by imposition of 59
percent taxation of gross produce! The district collectors role was to fleece
citizens. So, you will read accounts of how they are
going, you know, their mapping India, simply because they want to fleece the maximum revenues
out of the place. Temples were not spared, they had to part
with your donations and it was a matter of time, before they all fell into despair and
this continues even today. The British educational policy sounded the
death knell for regional languages. So once English took root, it was a matter
of time before regional languages became very down market, very uninteresting for the people. Mother tongues were relegated to second languages. That’s why Mahatma Gandhi said in 1931, that
the British left India more illiterate than it was 100 years ago, because now it was only
she knew English, you were considered educated. So, if you knew Tamil, Telugu, you know, they
felt like they were illiterate useless people, if they were not, if they didn’t know English. So, it was also a destruction of self-confidence
and self-esteem. There was a chance for India to decolonize
itself when we became independent. But that also did not happen. Even today, we India looks at itself through
alien eyes, which is very sad. So, today we can say that our past heritage
lies buried in regional and Sanskrit literature. So, if we really want to know, what we were,
what we were capable of, we need to learn our own languages, our mother tongues and
Sanskrit, in order to understand what we were otherwise we will just not know. We will just look at ourselves from the perspective
of the Western world. I’m often told that my, you know, it’s a lot
of people tell me, why do you study history, why do we need to know our pasts, you know,
we need to concentrate on today, what can we do today, and look to the future, that’s
the thing, I get to hear very often. So, this puts me in a dilemma because, you
know, there is for this meaningless to say that, you know we should, it’s like living
with amnesia if you don’t know your past because the past present and future are on a continuum. So, if you just focus on today and tomorrow
then we are not going to know our abilities. So, whatever it happened today is the result
of what happened in the past and what’s going to happen tomorrow is the result of policies
and actions that are happening today. So, it’s in a continuum, makes no sense to
say that, we are not going to look at the past because it’s uncomfortable for us or
because it’s depressing for us. We need to look at it, in order to know, how
to go forward, and one of the quotes that I give to people, when they tell me ‘not
to not to pay attention to history’ is this. If you don’t know history, then you don’t
know anything. You are a leaf that doesn’t know that, it’s
part of a tree. Michael Crichton said that. So, now, I’m coming to an end, and this is
the global IHAR team. I am a part of Indian history Awareness and Research. So, we are a bunch of people from different
backgrounds. Dr. Jayakumar Srinivasan and Dr. Raj Vedam
were the founders. Dr. Subrata Gangopadhyaya is the president
and we all come from different backgrounds: medicine, engineering and we all bring our
perspectives to history, but we look at it from an Indic point of view. We don’t want to look at it from a Western point of view anymore. Of course, we find it useful. Let that also be there. But the Indic perspective is very important. If you have any questions you can email me
here and you can find my book on Amazon, you can connect with IHAR on Facebook or YouTube. Thank you!

100 thoughts on “Educational Heritage of Ancient India : A Talk by Sahana Singh”

  1. Wonderful lecture Dr. Singh, very educative, feel sad for India from 1600 – 2000, we lost everything in these 400 years.

  2. Om Sahanaji,
    Brilliant video!
    Great job!
    Thank you for giving us an insight into knowing the rich cultural and educational heritage of Bharat.
    I just wish this video should be shown in all the schools and colleges of Bharat.
    And specially to them,who look down upon Hindi and our other regional languages.
    Instead feel proud to learn foreign languages like french, German, Latin, etc.
    And to those who feel Samskritam and study of Vedas is being old fashioned and a waste of time.
    They consider Samskritam to be dead language.
    Once again, thank you for the inspiring video
    Feel proud to be a bharatiya. Om

  3. On learning that she is from same village (Gopeshwar) and same Bhatt family; Girjadutt Hatwal inquired her about Keshavanand Bhatt ji. When my mother got married to my father in 1969. Keshavanand Bhatt was his teacher; where he studied few decades ago (possibly in 1920’s).
    Exalted was he, knowing that she is his granddaughter. Later it was learned that at least three persons from my village studied in the Gurukul/Pathshala/home-school of my maternal great grandfather.
    My own great grandfather, Bhavani Datt Gairola, ran one such school himself, in my village.

    This was the finding of Dharampal, when he spent months in British library, reading surveys after surveys of British officers. 70% were the sudra in those schools, said those survey.
    This is why Mahatma Gandhi told in 1930’s, British left India more illiterate in last hundred years.
    Muslim invader ruined higher learning centers, by destroying all universities and libraries; but those little Pathshalas survived. British destroyed them.

    A beautiful talk by Sahana Singh.
    Must watch!!

  4. Indians lost wealth no matter but vast treasure of literature in all subjects very very sad rework for this treasure

  5. @srijan talks doing great work by supporting rishis of our time, keep up the good work with small videos based on this larger version and it can reach masses in short time and make them interested in this area. Truth must prevail. time is coming where billions of people will come on the internet. we need to make them aware as many as possible.

  6. India does not need to become anything else. India must become only Bharat. This is a country that once upon a time was called the golden bird.

  7. Ji can i have contact no i need job please help me my age 54 so much bad position worst conditions help ji

  8. [16:25] I know this is not totally related to the topic but as regards to point 4 – Brahmins were not expected to amass wealth.That was true at times when and where the Kshatriyas maintained the state and looked after administration and distribution of wealth. In places and times where Brahmins were forced to take up arms to protect the state, Brahmins were allowed to take ownership of the wealth of the state and look after the administration because then they became the Brahma-Kshtriyas. There are many instances of this happening in Indian history. Here is a list –

  9. When I was in school I thought that oh if I born in us or aus, everytime but now I realize that I feel so lucky that I born in Bharat and as a proud Hindu. my sweet motherland. Maa Bharathi. 🙏

  10. India is a shit country. Country of conman. They are still conning india with sanskrit myth…it never ends. Only way to end this conman paradise is nuke… i am not pakistani or muslim. I think humans with beliefs is a moron. Again it all depends on how you look at it. if you want to live happy , you must need a fantasy. But if you want truth , you must detach.

  11. Please know that japan, korea, russia, france receive education in their own languages. This is one of the important reason for their rapid development.Even chinese do not speak engish and has emerged as a well developed nation. Its time India switches to local languages and indian cultures rather than blindly follow the america and europe which is eroding the very identity of India that is Bharat.

  12. Congratulations to the team. I am forming a group that will tea h vedic science in simple ways. We might have lost 80%, but we can proceed from available. We groups help each other. And at least we bring confidence in new generation with past glory.


  14. Thanks Mam
    The bombardment of Greek or and Roman philosophy has been too rampant at the expense of other similarly or dissimilar philosophies.
    Learning knows no discrimination.we are all thirsting for the Truth…
    Yoga Ayurveda massage
    Kamasutra mahabharat ramayana
    Sanskrit language
    Etc etc etc


  15. More and more from you is expected from all to recognize again our culture, and we are not in any way inferior to others and rather we are all superior, when we know ourselves, whom we belong to.

  16. I still cringe when we say zero is recent addition to mathematics. I believe that humans lived for millions of years and they had advanced knowledge. Hoping to hear a different narrative where the Indian sciences are presented as existing since unknown millienia..

  17. Amazing stuff. Made me feel like i have great capabilities like my ancestors – same is true for everyone else. If they could be so brilliant why not we. Most Indians have been subjected to a low self-esteem through teaching of false history, your work changes it. Here's your answer to why past is important.

  18. My hatikhori was done in the kali temple when I was 4 years old.
    The temple was closed and the puja was done for Swaraswati. The first word I wrote was “ MA”.

  19. Thank you for posting, a precious gift to us to know more about India. India's glorious past is rising. Thank you also Ms. Sahana Singh.

  20. What a wonderful presentation
    Tears with emotion with heavy heart started liatening to glorious Ancient Bharath.
    Such a great nation with beautiful Vedic Hindus became such irrelevant now.

  21. I sometimes feels being an engineer is not so demotivating I always think about different issues and felt disgraced after such people around me who are just robots by thought

    You said they came and destroyed the universities, who are they?

  23. I feel that Padmasambhava (Rinpoche) who went from India to Tibet, and Bodhidharma who went from South India to China and founded Kung Fu, are not mentioned.

  24. It is all lie this shamless women. The scientific , mathimatic and logic wasn't forgotten in the land of India of origin. The truth was, it is destroyed by Shankar Acharya and Brahman.

  25. I hope Burkha Bi8ch nd people like her has seen this video

    And also i hope the converted brothers and sisters of Islam or Christianity has seen this

  26. The speaker talks about students coming from Iraq but conveniently never mention Tibetans who have the best and greatest works of Sanskrit literature mostly Buddhist philosophy, literature grammar as they have discovered by retro-translation (Tibetan to Sanskirt).
    In fact, the last Abbot of Nalanda Shakya Shri escaped to Tibet not China, Indonesia or list of countries she mentioned. Tibetan students first came to India in 8AD mainly to study Sanskrit – literature and grammar and poetry. But most of them came to study Buddhism until the decimation of Buddhism in India 12AD.
    Nalanda Abbot and scholars such as Shantarakshita, Kamalashi, Dipankara from Vikramshila and many others came to Tibet. Many also came from Kashmir region and notable being Padma Sambhava who along with Shantarashita introduced Buddhism in Tibet in 8AD with the ordination of 7 monks in Tibet at Samye monastery near Lhasa.
    Tibetan monasteries have the largest collection of Sanskirt manuscript even written on palm leaves.
    I don't know whether the speaker did it knowingly or did deliberately to appease Chinese.

  27. My lady, the hand that hath made you fair, hath also made you good! THANK YOU for this info. I will now share it with all the kids in mt family, and will PUT A COCKED PISTOL TO THEIR HEADS to make them watch this. Whether they assimilate & imbibe it in their mental structure is a matter of their fate, because until we know what we stand for, we could fall for anything!

  28. If we don't know the history, our experiences will be limited, we will not have lessons. If we don't have lessons we will keep committing mistakes.

  29. Thanks for the nice informative video.You are missing a very strong point .How could be it possible backward British with very few person controllhuge advance intelligent people .If you solve this mystery you will get the logical answer .I may help you to get the conclusion .

  30. Thank you very much. I was really delighted to learn all this. So sad this destruction happened but humanity today still seems to be so very interested in destroying people, nature and perhaps themselves once and for all while there is so very much to learn!

  31. The Glory that was India is bullshit which lost its relevance thanks to the thousand years of rape of India by Islam and Christianity, one of the longest rape in the history of any country. Hindu psyche became proto Islamic thanks to the 700 years of Muslim rape. Hindus treat women just like Muslims do- like trash. Stop living in the past, it was not as glorious as modern Hindus think The hurt of the long rape of Hindus is now coming to surface and to regain self-respect, Hindus are trudging through 5000 years of history, scraping the barrel of history to justify their past glories. which is no longer relevant to India. India is thriving on most trashy kind of generics be it in arts, science, literature, medicine, etc.for god's sake wake up and smell the coffee.

  32. The invaders ruined us in all ways possible. What a brilliant presentation.
    Look at our history books nothing is told to us

  33. Reintroduce Sanskrit in every Indian educational institution from grass root level.
    Make English third option after Sanskrit and your mother tongue.
    Ban Islam
    Unite Hindus.
    Destroy the pseudo secular internal enemies.
    In 20 years India will once again become the greatest nation on the planet.


    whats BEAUTIFUL is in BHARATA, is that DESPITE having many strong IDENTITIES, NATION understand that because of so many strong IDENTITIES, Bharata is a jewel among nations. Here many religions bare strong ROOTS, even for thousands of years.

    Sometimes POLITICAL INFLUENCES cause disturbance, but in time always wounds heal and nation UNITE.

    One language still many languages, one root still many roots.

    That's why many conquerors could not hold control of NATION, CONQUERED often still recovery back to its strong HERITAGE.

  35. We Indians need to recognise one simple fact that India was great till Muslims and later Christians came to India. Muslims destroyed rampantly but Christians destroyed systematically.

    Unfortunate part is that Muslims continue to play their part of opposing rise of Vaidic Sanatan Dharma and Christians are also continuing with making more Indians their slaves through conversion.

    Christians are using foreign funding which is getting channelised through Christian NGOs and Church to destroy India like never before. Christian controlled media houses, TV, Print and Cinema, all modes are being used to propagate negative image about Indian History.

    Our unimaginative government has no clue on how to reverse this destruction. Common citizens are too busy with TV to pay any attention to this serious attack that has continued since last 1000 years.

  36. China made a movie on Ancient Indian University

  37. How old is Hinduism ?
    Before India Independence, 1947 AD
    –British divided India into Pieces, but Vallabhai Patel untied India , an Iron Man.He is the second person to unite India 2500 years after ChandraGupta Maurya first did.
    Bastard Muhammad Ali Jinnah cut my "matru bhumi" into pieces.
    Before British, 1700 AD…
    Before foreign Mughals, 1500 AD…
    First arrival of Christianity into India 1500 AD
    Before Guru Nanak Dev ji, 1400 AD…
    First arrival of Islam into India 1000 AD by foreign Arab, Turk Invasions.
    –(All muslims of "Akhand Bharat अखंड भारत (India,Pakistan,bangladesh,Kashmir)" are Hindus forcibly converted by these Invaders)
    Before Birth of Tamil king "Raja Raja Chola" who ruled 3/4th of India 900 AD.
    Before Birth of ISLAM in Arabia,500 AD…
    —–300AD At this time There is "No Islam" or Arabia Or Muhammad or Quran or Allah. Muhammad copied all other abrahamic religions to quran.
    Before Birth of Jesus, CHRISTIANITY in Jerusalem, 50AD….
    >>>>>>>>Gautamiputra Satakarni ….warrior King..ruled 3/4th of India…80AD
    Before Birth of Samrat Ashoka, 230 BC….First person to Unite "Akhand Bharat(Pakistani+Entire Kashmir+India+Bangladesh)"
    Before Birth of Chanakya,Chandragupta Maurya, 300 BC….First persons to start uniting many Hindu Kingdoms into "Akhand Bharat" or "Maurya Samrajya"
    Before Birth of Alexander and Raja Purushottam(Or King Porus or Puru) of Sindh who fought each other, 300 BC….
    –(Greeks when fought with Raja Purushottam of Sindh, first time called Sindhu River as Indus River and People as Indians(not British))
    Before Birth of Judaism,Abraham,500 BC….
    …..(All Religions of the world disappear here ….except Hindu,Buddha,Jain )
    Before Birth of Mahaveer Jain, 600BC….
    Before Birth of Gautam Buddha, 700BC….
    Before Birth of Tamil saint "Thiruvalluvar" who saw vision of God called composed "Thirukkuṛaḷ" 750 BC
    Before Birth of Greeks, 800 BC….
    Before Birth of Persians, 1000 BC……(Persians are not Muslims ,they are Zoroastrians,worship Agni Deva)
    –Persians are Zoroastrians(worship agni Deva) called Sindhu River as Hindu and called People as Hindus(Muslims never used Hindu word first)
    At the time of "Sanatana Dharma",Veda,Vedanta, 2500 BC….
    "Akhand Bharat"अखंड भारत (Pakistani+Entire Kashmir+India+Bangladesh),
    the Land of Hindus(..and always will be)…Hindus(Hindu+Buddha+Sikh+Jain)..
    the story of Ancient-Hindus……Mohenjo Daro
    Ancient Tamils started moving to South India
    ——–3500 BC…..Still there are ancient Hindus
    ——War of Mahabharata……. 5000BC

  38. STOP being "English language Slaves" . the general trend we see in India and as a nation the direction we are heading into future taking English along with us. This is what we need to change ,the mindset of "Bharatiya Nagarik" especially who call themselves an "Educated" in India. The problem is, unfortunately, Bhartiya Arthvyavastha"(Indian Economy) is so tightly tied into English forcing population to go after it. 100 years back, 99% of population doesn't even know what the English is. "bhartiya Sabhyata"(Indian Civilization) for 7000 years in the recorded history, traded with world at 30% of world GDP since long long before the birth of English.
    Why are we then, forcing ourselves into English for the past 60 years? Very bad. We must go back to our roots of our ancestors who controlled 20% of world economy in "Desh Bhasha"( Indian languages) even before the birth of English. Remember that the Indian languages are 4000 years older, where as English is just 1400 years old, started at 700 AD by Anglo-Saxon tribes when Indian mathematicians were writing math theorems in Sanskrit by Aryabhata,Varahamihira and predicting the Earth is Sphere and goes around the Sun. Destroy English from India. "keval bharatiya bhasha"

    Destroy English from India for Indian Civilization to grow and strengthen

    Foreign-Anglo-saxon tribal language ,know as "English" is heavily respected in "Bharat Varsh" by these so called Educated elite of India(i would say, in real, these are the irresponsible-fake-educated-elite, uneducated, uncivilized in 'matru bhasha' and 'Bhartiya Sabhyata' " and feel pride in the "Language of Slaves(or Slavery-mindset), i,e English. Any, conversation that happens in this "Slave language of India" is well respected by English-Brainwashed-Indians. You are one of the symptoms of that mindset. Brainwashing was planned and executed meticulously by the White-race of Europe starting 150 years ago during takeover. Nothing personal. 'eh bhartiya sabhyata evam nagaric ka durbhag hai ki is chaal me bandhi hai'. Am sure , concepts are too much to digest.

  39. According to the author herself, when great works of science were produced in Sanskrit, it was ok for the chinese to even go to indonesia to learn sanskrit. By the same token, when great works of science are done or exported out in english, why is it not ok for indians to learn english? A language's worth is mostly by the strength of the works produced in it and there usually is nothing inherent to it otherwise. Chaitanya is nobody's permanant property. Civilizations gain it and lose it as a natural phenomenon all the time. Most recent golden age of india didnt come during gupta period bcoz ppl then lived in past glory but bcoz the built the best 'present' during those 2 centuries.

  40. Such a precious knowledge bank we lost against one idiotic book.
    And maximum lost due to Nehru our first PM, an idiot.

  41. Dear madam you are beautiful but what you have been doing is more beautiful ofcourse. People who say what is the fun of unearthing deads, like our history are stupid. By reveali our history, haritage and culture we can know what was our worth and what we can do in future perhaps much more. What i feel that you are not wasting time making a meaningful way for people towards future. Much more to say but it is admireable on your part.. May god give you strength.

  42. "Vidya viheenaha pashuhu", is the ancient thinking that has molded and shaped our thinking; very well presented! It is true that the Indian mindset has always emphasized good education. Proud to belong to this ancient background!

  43. Its a great job you're doing mam, to educate the ignirants,Naives, n new generation about the glorious past of India specially the mysterious science n knowledge of the ancient deities of bharat, hats off to you with lots of love from pak

  44. Sadguru has said that education is a crime on humanity, and its very much true. moreover here Mr, Rajeev dheekshit who studied at IIT, explained even better. please don't feel that under educated or the low scored students as stupid and don't discourage them by which they can commit suicide.

  45. Overall, like the breadth that it covers. Right intent but lack of attribution and citation during the talk (may be it's present in the book itself). At many places, the conclusions are drawn which doesn't seem logically sound. Like when the transfer of mathematics and sciences via translation of Indic text in Middle-East is quoted, and thereafter saying that all the learning that they had came from India. The conclusion one would draw is that the later works were inspired and found basis in Indic texts. Again the wholesale denigration of any knowledge generated in Europe, saying that it all originated basically in India(in science and mathematics).

    It would be great if someone researched deeper on one such span of time and studied influence of Indic texts on European knowledge base in science and mathematics during medieval times, while also researching the lineage of knowledge/discovery in Europe.

  46. What a farce this is that we speak in fluent English to deride the English people and glorify Sanskrit and our own educational heritage and Sanskriti !!! What is there that is objectionable in Macaulay’s so called minutes that we keep crying over If he says – “ we will stoop and raise them” ?
    instead of harping on the past glory Why don’t these people develop an Indian system based on any common Indian language to teach technical subjects and science and show the world that English is not the only language essential for learning ?
    I met Dharmpal and saw the highly conditioned and biased mind he had. That is the beginning of end of scientific temper and true learning. Constantly fed on such propaganda , Indians will lose whatever fragments of true spirit of quest remains.

  47. Very costly lesson learnt by India!! Your wealth, knowledge, prosperity will be gone to dust if we do not have *STRONG* Nation. What a colossal waste! Even now only 10% Indians knows these facts.

  48. आपकी "रचनात्मक बातें" (srijan taiks) यदि हिंदी भाषा में भी डब कर प्रसारित कर पाते तो यह अधिसंख्य लोगों तक पहुंचकर ज्यादा सृजनात्मक हो पातीं…… हिंदी में डब करके भी प्रसारित करने का निवेदन है ताकि अधिसंख्य लोगों तक आपकी बात पंहुच सके ….

  49. Pls aap har sanskrit shabdh ya naam ko english me kehne ke liye mispronounce nahi kijiye, for EG:- It's Rishi Kanadh not Rishi Kanada, pls pronounce them as they are, avoid postfixing letter 'a' in every word.
    Ek aur baat kehna chahunga, vastivik sach ye hai ki methematics, physics aur science ke fundamental principals ki knowledge yaha shristi ke arambh se hi rishiyo ko thi, aur kayi raheshye vidya ki knowledge brain to brain direct transfer hoti thi with power of sankalp i.e thought.
    Vastavik sach ye hai ki isey institunalized karney ka kaam rishiyo ne kiya yaha. kayi sari vidyaye samay ke sath sath lupt bhi hoti gayi jinme se kayi baad mein phir se avishkarit hui alag alag rishiyo dwara. inn sari knowledge ke mool mein Bagwan Surya aur Sapta Rishi hai, unse hi ye gyan Ishwaku wanshajo ko mila aur unse hi aage rishi parampara chali.

    Baki apki di hui jankariya bohot hi acchi hai aur knowledgeble hai.

  50. I wish to revive the culture and experience it before I die. The books that she referred I will read them and try to implement in our school.

  51. Taking note of enduring legacy of British rule it seems they have succeeded more than Muslims in destroying India by choking its well spring.

  52. Nice video
    I am writing this comment at the video time 4:30
    The way the presenter is taking the name if MahagBhara-Taa and Ashram-aa or Nyay-aa Shahtr-aa shows how deeply our world view and vantage point has been westernised that we pronounce Indian names in a western way…. Like I am from Delhi (Dilli / Indraprastha), and when I was a child I always questioned why do Delhi people take pride in pronouncing Dilli as DELHI (as if they are britishers)…. I can understand Britishers having problem in pronouncing Dilli so they spoke Delhi, but why we indians want to show ourselves as aliens and foreigners by calling it Delhi when we CAN pronounce the word DILLI

  53. People were coming to India for education? First, we never allowed 80 % of our own population to study and giving admission to outsiders? Did Newton study in India? Or Einstein? Why we never formulated those principles of physics? If we are so great, then we never invented any of the modern things?

  54. We need to think and do deep contemplation why we were destroyed and conquered..lets not do the same mistake again

  55. India rising … u inspired me Ma’m…! I shall not sit quite or just keep sleeping on this issue from now on..!🙏👍🏻

  56. हम अँग्रेजी भाषा के गुलाम क्यो है भगवान😢

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