Education | Wikipedia audio article


Education is the process of facilitating learning,
or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Educational methods include storytelling,
discussion, teaching, training, and directed research. Education frequently takes place under the
guidance of educators, but learners may also educate themselves. Education can take place in formal or informal
settings and any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts
may be considered educational. The methodology of teaching is called pedagogy. Formal education is commonly divided formally
into such stages as preschool or kindergarten, primary school, secondary school and then
college, university, or apprenticeship. A right to education has been recognized by
some governments and the United Nations. In most regions, education is compulsory up
to a certain age.==Etymology==
Etymologically, the word “education” is derived from the Latin ēducātiō (“A breeding, a
bringing up, a rearing”) from ēducō (“I educate, I train”) which is related to the
homonym ēdūcō (“I lead forth, I take out; I raise up, I erect”) from ē- (“from, out
of”) and dūcō (“I lead, I conduct”).==History==Education began in prehistory, as adults trained
the young in the knowledge and skills deemed necessary in their society. In pre-literate societies, this was achieved
orally and through imitation. Story-telling passed knowledge, values, and
skills from one generation to the next. As cultures began to extend their knowledge
beyond skills that could be readily learned through imitation, formal education developed. Schools existed in Egypt at the time of the
Middle Kingdom. Plato founded the Academy in Athens, the first
institution of higher learning in Europe. The city of Alexandria in Egypt, established
in 330 BCE, became the successor to Athens as the intellectual cradle of Ancient Greece. There, the great Library of Alexandria was
built in the 3rd century BCE. European civilizations suffered a collapse
of literacy and organization following the fall of Rome in CE 476.In China, Confucius
(551–479 BCE), of the State of Lu, was the country’s most influential ancient philosopher,
whose educational outlook continues to influence the societies of China and neighbours like
Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. Confucius gathered disciples and searched
in vain for a ruler who would adopt his ideals for good governance, but his Analects were
written down by followers and have continued to influence education in East Asia into the
modern era.The Aztecs also had a well-developed theory about education, which has an equivalent
word in Nahuatl called tlacahuapahualiztli. It means “the art of raising or educating
a person” or “the art of strengthening or bringing up men.” This was a broad conceptualization of education,
which prescribed that it begins at home, supported by formal schooling, and reinforced by community
living. Historians cite that formal education was
mandatory for everyone regardless of social class and gender. There was also the word neixtlamachiliztli,
which is “the act of giving wisdom to the face.” These concepts underscore a complex set of
educational practices, which was oriented towards communicating to the next generation
the experience and intellectual heritage of the past for the purpose of individual development
and his integration into the community.After the Fall of Rome, the Catholic Church became
the sole preserver of literate scholarship in Western Europe. The church established cathedral schools in
the Early Middle Ages as centres of advanced education. Some of these establishments ultimately evolved
into medieval universities and forebears of many of Europe’s modern universities. During the High Middle Ages, Chartres Cathedral
operated the famous and influential Chartres Cathedral School. The medieval universities of Western Christendom
were well-integrated across all of Western Europe, encouraged freedom of inquiry, and
produced a great variety of fine scholars and natural philosophers, including Thomas
Aquinas of the University of Naples, Robert Grosseteste of the University of Oxford, an
early expositor of a systematic method of scientific experimentation, and Saint Albert
the Great, a pioneer of biological field research. Founded in 1088, the University of Bologne
is considered the first, and the oldest continually operating university.Elsewhere during the
Middle Ages, Islamic science and mathematics flourished under the Islamic caliphate which
was established across the Middle East, extending from the Iberian Peninsula in the west to
the Indus in the east and to the Almoravid Dynasty and Mali Empire in the south. The Renaissance in Europe ushered in a new
age of scientific and intellectual inquiry and appreciation of ancient Greek and Roman
civilizations. Around 1450, Johannes Gutenberg developed
a printing press, which allowed works of literature to spread more quickly. The European Age of Empires saw European ideas
of education in philosophy, religion, arts and sciences spread out across the globe. Missionaries and scholars also brought back
new ideas from other civilizations – as with the Jesuit China missions who played
a significant role in the transmission of knowledge, science, and culture between China
and Europe, translating works from Europe like Euclid’s Elements for Chinese scholars
and the thoughts of Confucius for European audiences. The Enlightenment saw the emergence of a more
secular educational outlook in Europe. In most countries today, full-time education,
whether at school or otherwise, is compulsory for all children up to a certain age. Due to this the proliferation of compulsory
education, combined with population growth, UNESCO has calculated that in the next 30
years more people will receive formal education than in all of human history thus far.==Formal education==
Formal education occurs in a structured environment whose explicit purpose is teaching students. Usually, formal education takes place in a
school environment with classrooms of multiple students learning together with a trained,
certified teacher of the subject. Most school systems are designed around a
set of values or ideals that govern all educational choices in that system. Such choices include curriculum, organizational
models, design of the physical learning spaces (e.g. classrooms), student-teacher interactions,
methods of assessment, class size, educational activities, and more.===Preschool===Preschools provide education from ages approximately
three to seven, depending on the country when children enter primary education. These are also known as nursery schools and
as kindergarten, except in the US, where kindergarten is a term often used to describe the earliest
levels of primary education. Kindergarten “provide[s] a child-centred,
preschool curriculum for three- to seven-year-old children that aim[s] at unfolding the child’s
physical, intellectual, and moral nature with balanced emphasis on each of them.”===
Primary===Primary (or elementary) education consists
of the first five to seven years of formal, structured education. In general, primary education consists of
six to eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six, although this varies
between, and sometimes within, countries. Globally, around 89% of children aged six
to twelve are enrolled in primary education, and this proportion is rising. Under the Education For All programs driven
by UNESCO, most countries have committed to achieving universal enrollment in primary
education by 2015, and in many countries, it is compulsory. The division between primary and secondary
education is somewhat arbitrary, but it generally occurs at about eleven or twelve years of
age. Some education systems have separate middle
schools, with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place
at around the age of fourteen. Schools that provide primary education, are
mostly referred to as primary schools or elementary schools. Primary schools are often subdivided into
infant schools and junior school. In India, for example, compulsory education
spans over twelve years, with eight years of elementary education, five years of primary
schooling and three years of upper primary schooling. Various states in the republic of India provide
12 years of compulsory school education based on a national curriculum framework designed
by the National Council of Educational Research and Training.===Secondary===In most contemporary educational systems of
the world, secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. It is characterized by transition from the
typically compulsory, comprehensive primary education for minors, to the optional, selective
tertiary, “postsecondary”, or “higher” education (e.g. university, vocational school) for adults. Depending on the system, schools for this
period, or a part of it, may be called secondary or high schools, gymnasiums, lyceums, middle
schools, colleges, or vocational schools. The exact meaning of any of these terms varies
from one system to another. The exact boundary between primary and secondary
education also varies from country to country and even within them but is generally around
the seventh to the tenth year of schooling. Secondary education occurs mainly during the
teenage years. In the United States, Canada, and Australia,
primary and secondary education together are sometimes referred to as K-12 education, and
in New Zealand Year 1–13 is used. The purpose of secondary education can be
to give common knowledge, to prepare for higher education, or to train directly in a profession. Secondary education in the United States did
not emerge until 1910, with the rise of large corporations and advancing technology in factories,
which required skilled workers. In order to meet this new job demand, high
schools were created, with a curriculum focused on practical job skills that would better
prepare students for white collar or skilled blue collar work. This proved beneficial for both employers
and employees, since the improved human capital lowered costs for the employer, while skilled
employees received higher wages. Secondary education has a longer history in
Europe, where grammar schools or academies date from as early as the 16th century, in
the form of public schools, fee-paying schools, or charitable educational foundations, which
themselves date even further back. Community colleges offer another option at
this transitional stage of education. They provide nonresidential junior college
courses to people living in a particular area.===Tertiary (higher)===Higher education, also called tertiary, third
stage, or postsecondary education, is the non-compulsory educational level that follows
the completion of a school such as a high school or secondary school. Tertiary education is normally taken to include
undergraduate and postgraduate education, as well as vocational education and training. Colleges and universities mainly provide tertiary
education. Collectively, these are sometimes known as
tertiary institutions. Individuals who complete tertiary education
generally receive certificates, diplomas, or academic degrees. Higher education typically involves work towards
a degree-level or foundation degree qualification. In most developed countries, a high proportion
of the population (up to 50%) now enter higher education at some time in their lives. Higher education is therefore very important
to national economies, both as a significant industry in its own right and as a source
of trained and educated personnel for the rest of the economy. University education includes teaching, research,
and social services activities, and it includes both the undergraduate level (sometimes referred
to as tertiary education) and the graduate (or postgraduate) level (sometimes referred
to as graduate school). Some universities are composed of several
colleges. One type of university education is a liberal
arts education, which can be defined as a “college or university curriculum aimed at
imparting broad general knowledge and developing general intellectual capacities, in contrast
to a professional, vocational, or technical curriculum.” Although what is known today as liberal arts
education began in Europe, the term “liberal arts college” is more commonly associated
with institutions in the United States such as Williams College or Barnard College.===Vocational===Vocational education is a form of education
focused on direct and practical training for a specific trade or craft. Vocational education may come in the form
of an apprenticeship or internship as well as institutions teaching courses such as carpentry,
agriculture, engineering, medicine, architecture and the arts.===Special===In the past, those who were disabled were
often not eligible for public education. Children with disabilities were repeatedly
denied an education by physicians or special tutors. These early physicians (people like Itard,
Seguin, Howe, Gallaudet) set the foundation for special education today. They focused on individualized instruction
and functional skills. In its early years, special education was
only provided to people with severe disabilities, but more recently it has been opened to anyone
who has experienced difficulty learning.==Other educational forms=====
Alternative===While considered “alternative” today, most
alternative systems have existed since ancient times. After the public school system was widely
developed beginning in the 19th century, some parents found reasons to be discontented with
the new system. Alternative education developed in part as
a reaction to perceived limitations and failings of traditional education. A broad range of educational approaches emerged,
including alternative schools, self learning, homeschooling, and unschooling. Example alternative schools include Montessori
schools, Waldorf schools (or Steiner schools), Friends schools, Sands School, Summerhill
School, Walden’s Path, The Peepal Grove School, Sudbury Valley School, Krishnamurti schools,
and open classroom schools. Charter schools are another example of alternative
education, which have in the recent years grown in numbers in the US and gained greater
importance in its public education system.In time, some ideas from these experiments and
paradigm challenges may be adopted as the norm in education, just as Friedrich Fröbel’s
approach to early childhood education in 19th-century Germany has been incorporated into contemporary
kindergarten classrooms. Other influential writers and thinkers have
included the Swiss humanitarian Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi; the American transcendentalists
Amos Bronson Alcott, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Henry David Thoreau; the founders of progressive
education, John Dewey and Francis Parker; and educational pioneers such as Maria Montessori
and Rudolf Steiner, and more recently John Caldwell Holt, Paul Goodman, Frederick Mayer,
George Dennison, and Ivan Illich.===Indigenous===Indigenous education refers to the inclusion
of indigenous knowledge, models, methods, and content within formal and non-formal educational
systems. Often in a post-colonial context, the growing
recognition and use of indigenous education methods can be a response to the erosion and
loss of indigenous knowledge and language through the processes of colonialism. Furthermore, it can enable indigenous communities
to “reclaim and revalue their languages and cultures, and in so doing, improve the educational
success of indigenous students.”===
Informal learning===Informal learning is one of three forms of
learning defined by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Informal learning occurs in a variety of places,
such as at home, work, and through daily interactions and shared relationships among members of
society. For many learners, this includes language
acquisition, cultural norms, and manners. In informal learning, there is often a reference
person, a peer or expert, to guide the learner. If learners have a personal interest in what
they are informally being taught, learners tend to expand their existing knowledge and
conceive new ideas about the topic being learned. For example, a museum is traditionally considered
an informal learning environment, as there is room for free choice, a diverse and potentially
non-standardized range of topics, flexible structures, socially rich interaction, and
no externally imposed assessments.While informal learning often takes place outside educational
establishments and does not follow a specified curriculum, it can also occur within educational
settings and even during formal learning situations. Educators can structure their lessons to directly
utilize their students informal learning skills within the education setting.In the late 19th
century, education through play began to be recognized as making an important contribution
to child development. In the early 20th century, the concept was
broadened to include young adults but the emphasis was on physical activities. L.P. Jacks, also an early proponent of lifelong
learning, described education through recreation: “A master in the art of living draws no sharp
distinction between his work and his play, his labour and his leisure, his mind and his
body, his education and his recreation. He hardly knows which is which. He simply pursues his vision of excellence
through whatever he is doing and leaves others to determine whether he is working or playing. To himself, he always seems to be doing both. Enough for him that he does it well.” Education through recreation is the opportunity
to learn in a seamless fashion through all of life’s activities. The concept has been revived by the University
of Western Ontario to teach anatomy to medical students.===Self-directed learning===Autodidacticism (also autodidactism) is a
term used to describe self-directed learning. One may become an autodidact at nearly any
point in one’s life. Notable autodidacts include Abraham Lincoln
(U.S. president), Srinivasa Ramanujan (mathematician), Michael Faraday (chemist and physicist), Charles
Darwin (naturalist), Thomas Alva Edison (inventor), Tadao Ando (architect), George Bernard Shaw
(playwright), Frank Zappa (composer, recording engineer, film director), and Leonardo da
Vinci (engineer, scientist, mathematician).===Open education and electronic technology
===Many large university institutions are now
starting to offer free or almost free full courses such as Harvard, MIT and Berkeley
teaming up to form edX. Other universities offering open education
are prestigious private universities such as Stanford, Princeton, Duke, Johns Hopkins,
the University of Pennylvania, and Caltech, as well as notable public universities including
Tsinghua, Peking, Edinburgh, University of Michigan, and University of Virginia. Open education has been called the biggest
change in the way people learn since the printing press. Despite favourable studies on effectiveness,
many people may still desire to choose traditional campus education for social and cultural reasons.Many
open universities are working to have the ability to offer students standardized testing
and traditional degrees and credentials.The conventional merit-system degree is currently
not as common in open education as it is in campus universities, although some open universities
do already offer conventional degrees such as the Open University in the United Kingdom. Presently, many of the major open education
sources offer their own form of certificate. Due to the popularity of open education, these
new kind of academic certificates are gaining more respect and equal “academic value” to
traditional degrees.Out of 182 colleges surveyed in 2009 nearly half said tuition for online
courses was higher than for campus-based ones.A recent meta-analysis found that online and
blended educational approaches had better outcomes than methods that used solely face-to-face
interaction.==Education sector==The education sector or education system is
a group of institutions (ministries of education, local educational authorities, teacher training
institutions, schools, universities, etc.) whose primary purpose is to provide education
to children and young people in educational settings. It involves a wide range of people (curriculum
developers, inspectors, school principals, teachers, school nurses, students, etc.). These institutions can vary according to different
contexts.Schools deliver education, with support from the rest of the education system through
various elements such as education policies and guidelines – to which school policies
can refer – curricula and learning materials, as well as pre- and in-service teacher training
programmes. The school environment – both physical (infrastructures)
and psychological (school climate) – is also guided by school policies that should
ensure the well-being of students when they are in school. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation
and Development has found that schools tend to perform best when principals have full
authority and responsibility for ensuring that students are proficient in core subjects
upon graduation. They must also seek feedback from students
for quality-assurance and improvement. Governments should limit themselves to monitoring
student proficiency.The education sector is fully integrated into society, through interactions
with a large number of stakeholders and other sectors. These include parents, local communities,
religious leaders, NGOs, stakeholders involved in health, child protection, justice and law
enforcement (police), media and political leadership.Several UN agencies have asserted
that comprehensive sexuality education should be integrated into school curriculum.==Development goals==The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development,
adopted by the United Nations (UN) General Assembly in September 2015, calls for a new
vision to address the environmental, social and economic concerns facing the world today. The Agenda includes 17 Sustainable Development
Goals (SDGs), including SDG 4 on education.Since 1909, the ratio of children in the developing
world attending school has increased. Before then, a small minority of boys attended
school. By the start of the 21st century, the majority
of all children in most regions of the world attended school. Universal Primary Education is one of the
eight international Millennium Development Goals, towards which progress has been made
in the past decade, though barriers still remain. Securing charitable funding from prospective
donors is one particularly persistent problem. Researchers at the Overseas Development Institute
have indicated that the main obstacles to funding for education include conflicting
donor priorities, an immature aid architecture, and a lack of evidence and advocacy for the
issue. Additionally, Transparency International has
identified corruption in the education sector as a major stumbling block to achieving Universal
Primary Education in Africa. Furthermore, demand in the developing world
for improved educational access is not as high as foreigners have expected. Indigenous governments are reluctant to take
on the ongoing costs involved. There is also economic pressure from some
parents, who prefer their children to earn money in the short term rather than work towards
the long-term benefits of education.A study conducted by the UNESCO International Institute
for Educational Planning indicates that stronger capacities in educational planning and management
may have an important spill-over effect on the system as a whole. Sustainable capacity development requires
complex interventions at the institutional, organizational and individual levels that
could be based on some foundational principles: national leadership and ownership should be
the touchstone of any intervention; strategies must be context relevant and context
specific; plans should employ an integrated set of complementary
interventions, though implementation may need to proceed in steps;
partners should commit to a long-term investment in capacity development while working towards
some short-term achievements; outside intervention should be conditional
on an impact assessment of national capacities at various levels;
a certain percentage of students should be removed for improvisation of academics (usually
practiced in schools, after 10th grade).===Internationalization===
Nearly every country now has Universal Primary Education. Similarities – in systems or even in ideas
– that schools share internationally have led to an increase in international student
exchanges. The European Socrates-Erasmus Program facilitates
exchanges across European universities. The Soros Foundation provides many opportunities
for students from central Asia and eastern Europe. Programs such as the International Baccalaureate
have contributed to the internationalization of education. The global campus online, led by American
universities, allows free access to class materials and lecture files recorded during
the actual classes. The Programme for International Student Assessment
and the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement objectively
monitor and compare the proficiency of students from a wide range of different nations.===Education and technology in developing
countries===Technology plays an increasingly significant
role in improving access to education for people living in impoverished areas and developing
countries. Charities like One Laptop per Child are dedicated
to providing infrastructures through which the disadvantaged may access educational materials. The OLPC foundation, a group out of MIT Media
Lab and supported by several major corporations, has a stated mission to develop a $100 laptop
for delivering educational software. The laptops were widely available as of 2008. They are sold at cost or given away based
on donations. In Africa, the New Partnership for Africa’s
Development (NEPAD) has launched an “e-school program” to provide all 600,000 primary and
high schools with computer equipment, learning materials and internet access within 10 years. An International Development Agency project
called nabuur.com, started with the support of former American President Bill Clinton,
uses the Internet to allow co-operation by individuals on issues of social development. India is developing technologies that will
bypass land-based telephone and Internet infrastructure to deliver distance learning directly to its
students. In 2004, the Indian Space Research Organisation
launched EDUSAT, a communications satellite providing access to educational materials
that can reach more of the country’s population at a greatly reduced cost.===Private vs public funding in developing
countries===Research into LCPS (low-cost private schools)
found that over 5 years to July 2013, debate around LCPSs to achieving Education for All
(EFA) objectives was polarized and finding growing coverage in international policy. The polarization was due to disputes around
whether the schools are affordable for the poor, reach disadvantaged groups, provide
quality education, support or undermine equality, and are financially sustainable. The report examined the main challenges encountered
by development organizations which support LCPSs. Surveys suggest these types of schools are
expanding across Africa and Asia. This success is attributed to excess demand. These surveys found concern for: Equity: This concern is widely found in the
literature, suggesting the growth in low-cost private schooling may be exacerbating or perpetuating
already existing inequalities in developing countries, between urban and rural populations,
lower- and higher-income families, and between girls and boys. The report findings suggest that girls may
be underrepresented and that LCPS are reaching low-income families in smaller numbers than
higher-income families. Quality and educational outcomes: It is difficult
to generalize about the quality of private schools. While most achieve better results than government
counterparts, even after their social background is taken into account, some studies find the
opposite. Quality in terms of levels of teacher absence,
teaching activity, and pupil to teacher ratios in some countries are better in LCPSs than
in government schools. Choice and affordability for the poor: Parents
can choose private schools because of perceptions of better-quality teaching and facilities,
and an English language instruction preference. Nevertheless, the concept of ‘choice’ does
not apply in all contexts, or to all groups in society, partly because of limited affordability
(which excludes most of the poorest) and other forms of exclusion, related to caste or social
status. Cost-effectiveness and financial sustainability:
There is evidence that private schools operate at low cost by keeping teacher salaries low,
and their financial situation may be precarious where they are reliant on fees from low-income
households.The report showed some cases of successful voucher and subsidy programs; evaluations
of international support to the sector are not widespread. Addressing regulatory ineffectiveness is a
key challenge. Emerging approaches stress the importance
of understanding the political economy of the market for LCPS, specifically how relationships
of power and accountability between users, government, and private providers can produce
better education outcomes for the poor.==Educational theory=====Educational psychology===Educational psychology is the study of how
humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions,
the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. Although the terms “educational psychology”
and “school psychology” are often used interchangeably, researchers and theorists are likely to be
identified as educational psychologists, whereas practitioners in schools or school-related
settings are identified as school psychologists. Educational psychology is concerned with the
processes of educational attainment in the general population and in sub-populations
such as gifted children and those with specific disabilities. Educational psychology can in part be understood
through its relationship with other disciplines. It is informed primarily by psychology, bearing
a relationship to that discipline analogous to the relationship between medicine and biology. Educational psychology, in turn, informs a
wide range of specialties within educational studies, including instructional design, educational
technology, curriculum development, organizational learning, special education and classroom
management. Educational psychology both draws from and
contributes to cognitive science and the learning sciences. In universities, departments of educational
psychology are usually housed within faculties of education, possibly accounting for the
lack of representation of educational psychology content in introductory psychology textbooks
(Lucas, Blazek, & Raley, 2006).===The intelligence–education relationship
===Intelligence is an important factor in how
the individual responds to education. Those who have higher intelligence tend to
perform better at school and go on to higher levels of education. This effect is also observable in the opposite
direction, in that education increases measurable intelligence. Studies have shown that while educational
attainment is important in predicting intelligence in later life, intelligence at 53 is more
closely correlated to intelligence at 8 years old than to educational attainment.===Learning modalities===
There has been much interest in learning modalities and styles over the last two decades. The most commonly employed learning modalities
are: Visual: learning based on observation and
seeing what is being learned. Auditory: learning based on listening to instructions/information. Kinesthetic: learning based on movement, e.g.
hands-on work and engaging in activities.Other commonly employed modalities include musical,
interpersonal, verbal, logical, and intrapersonal. Dunn and Dunn focused on identifying relevant
stimuli that may influence learning and manipulating the school environment, at about the same
time as Joseph Renzulli recommended varying teaching strategies. Howard Gardner identified a wide range of
modalities in his Multiple Intelligences theories. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Keirsey
Temperament Sorter, based on the works of Jung, focus on understanding how people’s
personality affects the way they interact personally, and how this affects the way individuals
respond to each other within the learning environment. The work of David Kolb and Anthony Gregorc’s
Type Delineator follows a similar but more simplified approach. Some theories propose that all individuals
benefit from a variety of learning modalities, while others suggest that individuals may
have preferred learning styles, learning more easily through visual or kinesthetic experiences. A consequence of the latter theory is that
effective teaching should present a variety of teaching methods which cover all three
learning modalities so that different students have equal opportunities to learn in a way
that is effective for them. Guy Claxton has questioned the extent that
learning styles such as Visual, Auditory and Kinesthetic(VAK) are helpful, particularly
as they can have a tendency to label children and therefore restrict learning. Recent research has argued, “there is no adequate
evidence base to justify incorporating learning styles assessments into general educational
practice.”===Mind, Brain and Education===
Educational neuroscience is an emerging scientific field that brings together researchers in
cognitive neuroscience, developmental cognitive neuroscience, educational psychology, educational
technology, education theory and other related disciplines to explore the interactions between
biological processes and education. Researchers in educational neuroscience investigate
the neural mechanisms of reading, numerical cognition, attention, and their attendant
difficulties including dyslexia, dyscalculia, and ADHD as they relate to education. Several academic institutions around the world
are beginning to devote resources to the establishment of educational neuroscience research.===Philosophy===As an academic field, philosophy of education
is “the philosophical study of education and its problems (…) its central subject matter
is education, and its methods are those of philosophy”. “The philosophy of education may be either
the philosophy of the process of education or the philosophy of the discipline of education. That is, it may be part of the discipline
in the sense of being concerned with the aims, forms, methods, or results of the process
of educating or being educated; or it may be metadisciplinary in the sense of being
concerned with the concepts, aims, and methods of the discipline.” As such, it is both part of the field of education
and a field of applied philosophy, drawing from fields of metaphysics, epistemology,
axiology and the philosophical approaches (speculative, prescriptive or analytic) to
address questions in and about pedagogy, education policy, and curriculum, as well as the process
of learning, to name a few. For example, it might study what constitutes
upbringing and education, the values and norms revealed through upbringing and educational
practices, the limits and legitimization of education as an academic discipline, and the
relation between education theory and practice.===Purpose of education===
There is no broad consensus as to what education’s chief aim or aims are or should be. Some authors stress its value to the individual,
emphasizing its potential for positively influencing students’ personal development, promoting
autonomy, forming a cultural identity or establishing a career or occupation. Other authors emphasize education’s contributions
to societal purposes, including good citizenship, shaping students into productive members of
society, thereby promoting society’s general economic development, and preserving cultural
values.===Curriculum===In formal education, a curriculum is the set
of courses and their content offered at a school or university. As an idea, curriculum stems from the Latin
word for race course, referring to the course of deeds and experiences through which children
grow to become mature adults. A curriculum is prescriptive and is based
on a more general syllabus which merely specifies what topics must be understood and to what
level to achieve a particular grade or standard. An academic discipline is a branch of knowledge
which is formally taught, either at the university – or via some other such method. Each discipline usually has several sub-disciplines
or branches, and distinguishing lines are often both arbitrary and ambiguous. Examples of broad areas of academic disciplines
include the natural sciences, mathematics, computer science, social sciences, humanities
and applied sciences.Educational institutions may incorporate fine arts as part of K-12
grade curricula or within majors at colleges and universities as electives. The various types of fine arts are music,
dance, and theatre.The Sudbury Valley School offers a model of education without a curricula.===Instruction===
Instruction is the facilitation of another’s learning. Instructors in primary and secondary institutions
are often called teachers, and they direct the education of students and might draw on
many subjects like reading, writing, mathematics, science and history. Instructors in post-secondary institutions
might be called teachers, instructors, or professors, depending on the type of institution;
and they primarily teach only their specific discipline. Studies from the United States suggest that
the quality of teachers is the single most important factor affecting student performance,
and that countries which score highly on international tests have multiple policies in place to ensure
that the teachers they employ are as effective as possible. With the passing of NCLB in the United States
(No Child Left Behind), teachers must be highly qualified. A popular way to gauge teaching performance
is to use student evaluations of teachers (SETS), but these evaluations have been criticized
for being counterproductive to learning and inaccurate due to student bias.College basketball
coach John Wooden the Wizard of Westwood would teach through quick “This not That” technique. He would show (a) the correct way to perform
an action, (b) the incorrect way the player performed it, and again (c) the correct way
to perform an action. This helped him to be a responsive teacher
and fix errors on the fly. Also, less communication from him meant more
time that the player could practice.==Economics of education==It has been argued that high rates of education
are essential for countries to be able to achieve high levels of economic growth. Empirical analyses tend to support the theoretical
prediction that poor countries should grow faster than rich countries because they can
adopt cutting edge technologies already tried and tested by rich countries. However, technology transfer requires knowledgeable
managers and engineers who are able to operate new machines or production practices borrowed
from the leader in order to close the gap through imitation. Therefore, a country’s ability to learn from
the leader is a function of its stock of “human capital”. Recent study of the determinants of aggregate
economic growth have stressed the importance of fundamental economic institutions and the
role of cognitive skills.At the level of the individual, there is a large literature, generally
related to the work of Jacob Mincer, on how earnings are related to the schooling and
other human capital. This work has motivated a large number of
studies, but is also controversial. The chief controversies revolve around how
to interpret the impact of schooling. Some students who have indicated a high potential
for learning, by testing with a high intelligence quotient, may not achieve their full academic
potential, due to financial difficulties.Economists Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis argued in
1976 that there was a fundamental conflict in American schooling between the egalitarian
goal of democratic participation and the inequalities implied by the continued profitability of
capitalist production.==The future of education==
Many countries are now drastically changing the way they educate their citizens. The world is changing at an ever quickening
rate, which means that a lot of knowledge becomes obsolete and inaccurate more quickly. The emphasis is therefore shifting to teaching
the skills of learning: to picking up new knowledge quickly and in as agile a way as
possible. Finnish schools have even begun to move away
from the regular subject-focused curricula, introducing instead developments like phenomenon-based
learning, where students study concepts like climate change instead.Education is also becoming
a commodity no longer reserved for children. Adults need it too. Some governmental bodies, like the Finnish
Innovation Fund Sitra in Finland, have even proposed compulsory lifelong education.==See also====Sources==
This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0 License statement:
Out in the Open: Education sector responses to violence based on sexual orientation and
gender identity/expression, 54, UNESCO. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia
articles, please see Wikipedia:Adding open license text to Wikipedia. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia,
please see the terms of use. This article incorporates text from a free
content work. License statement: Cracking the code: girls’
and women’s education in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), UNESCO. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia
articles, please see Wikipedia:Adding open license text to Wikipedia. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia,
please see the terms of use.==References====External links==Education at Curlie
Educational Resources from UCB Libraries GovPubs UNESCO Institute for Statistics: International
comparable statistics on education systems World Bank Education
Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER)
Education Statistics (EdStats) Smarter Education Systems Interactive Mapping
Tool OECD Education GPS: Statistics and policy
analysis, interactive portal OECD Statistics
Planipolis: a portal on education plans and policies
IIEP Publications on Education Systems

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