Education in the Philippines | Wikipedia audio article


Education in the Philippines is provided by
public and private schools, colleges, universities, and technical and vocational institutions. Funding for public education comes from the
national government. At the basic education level, the Department
of Education (DepEd) sets overall educational standards and mandates standardized tests
for the K–12 basic education system, although private schools are generally free to determine
their own curriculum in accordance with existing laws and Department regulations. On the other hand, at the higher education
level, the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) supervises and regulates colleges and
universities, while the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) for
technical and vocational institutions regulates and accredits technical and vocational education
programs and institutions. For the academic year 2017–2018, about 83%
of K–12 students attended public schools and about 17% either attended private schools
or were home-schooled. By law, education is compulsory for thirteen
years (kindergarten and grades 1–12). These are grouped into three levels: elementary
school (kindergarten–grade 6), junior high school (grades 7–10), and senior high school
(grades 11–12); they may also be grouped into four key stages: 1st key stage (kindergarten–grade
3), 2nd key stage (grades 4–6), 3rd key stage (grades 7–10) and 4th key stage (grades
11–12). Children enter kindergarten at age 5. Institutions of higher education may be classified
as either public or private college or university, and public institutions of higher education
may further be subdivided into two types: state universities and colleges and local
colleges and universities.==History=====Pre-colonial period===During the pre-colonial period, most children
were provided with solely vocational training, which was supervised by parents, tribal tutors
or those assigned for specific, specialized roles within their communities (for example,
the baybayin). In most communities, stories, songs, poetry,
dances, medicinal practices and advice regarding all sorts of community life issues were passed
from generation to generation mostly through oral tradition. Some communities utilised a writing system
known as baybayin, whose use was wide and varied, though there are other syllabaries
used throughout the archipelago.===Spanish period===Formal education was brought to the Philippines
by the Spaniards, which was conducted mostly by religious orders. Upon learning the local languages and writing
systems, they began teaching Christianity, the Spanish language, and Spanish culture. These religious orders opened the first schools
and universities as early as the 16th century. Spanish missionaries established schools immediately
after reaching the islands. The Augustinians opened a parochial school
in Cebu in 1565. The Franciscans, took to the task of improving
literacy in 1577, aside from the teaching of new industrial and agricultural techniques. The Jesuits followed in 1581, as well as the
Dominicans in 1587, setting up a school in Bataan. The church and the school cooperated to ensure
that Christian villages had schools for students to attend. Schools for boys and for girls were then opened. Colegios were opened for boys, ostensibly
the equivalent to present day senior high schools. The Universidad de San Ignacio, founded in
Manila by the Jesuits in 1589 was the first colegio. Eventually, it was incorporated into the University
of Santo Tomas, College of Medicine and Pharmacology following the suppression of the Jesuits. Girls had two types of schools – the beaterio,
a school meant to prepare them for the convent, and another, meant to prepare them for secular
womanhood. The Spanish also introduced printing presses
to produce books in Spanish and Tagalog, sometimes using baybayin. The first book printed in the Philippines
dates back to 1590. It was a Chinese language version of Doctrina
Christiana. Spanish and Tagalog versions, in both Latin
script and the locally used baybayin script, were later printed in 1593. In 1610, Tomas Pinpin, a Filipino printer,
writer and publisher, who is sometimes referred to as the “Patriarch of Filipino Printing”,
wrote his famous “Librong Pagaaralan nang manga Tagalog nang Uicang Castilla”, which
was meant to help Filipinos learn the Spanish language. The prologue read: The Educational Decree of 1863 provided a
free public education system in the Philippines, managed by the government. The decree mandated the establishment of at
least one primary school for boys and one for girls in each town under the responsibility
of the municipal government, and the establishment of a normal school for male teachers under
the supervision of the Jesuits. Primary education was also declared free and
available to every Filipino, regardless of race or social class. Contrary to what the propaganda of the Spanish–American
War tried to depict, they were not religious schools; rather, they are schools that were
established, supported, and maintained by the Spanish government.After the implementation
of the decree, the number of schools and students increased steadily. In 1866, the total population of the Philippines
was 4,411,261. The total number of public schools for boys
was 841, and the number of public schools for girls was 833. The total number of children attending those
schools was 135,098 for boys, and 95,260 for girls. In 1892, the number of schools had increased
to 2,137, of which 1,087 were for boys, and 1,050 for girls. By 1898, enrollment in schools at all levels
exceeded 200,000 students.Among those who benefited from the free public education system
were a burgeoning group of Filipino intellectuals: the Ilustrados (‘enlightened ones’), some
of whom included José Rizal, Graciano López Jaena, Marcelo H. del Pilar, Mariano Ponce,
and Antonio Luna—all of whom played vital roles in the Propaganda Movement that ultimately
inspired the founding of the Katipunan.===First Republic===
The defeat of Spain following the Spanish–American War led to the short-lived Philippine Independence
movement, which established the insurgent First Philippine Republic. The schools maintained by Spain for more than
three centuries were closed briefly, but were reopened on August 29, 1898 by the Secretary
of Interior. The Burgos Institute (the country’s first
law school), the Academia Militar (the country’s first military academy), and the Literary
University of the Philippines were established. Article 23 of the Malolos Constitution mandated
that public education would be free and obligatory in all schools of the nation under the First
Philippine Republic. However, the Philippine–American War hindered
its progress.===American period===About a year after having secured Manila,
the Americans were keen to open up seven schools with army servicemen teaching with army command-selected
books and supplies. In the same year, 1899, more schools were
opened, this time, with 24 English-language teachers and 4500 students.In that system,
basic education consisted of 6 years elementary and 4 years secondary schooling which, until
recently, prepared students for tertiary level instruction for them to earn a degree that
would secure them a job later on in life. A highly centralised, experimental public
school system was installed in 1901 by the Philippine Commission and legislated by Act
No. 74. The law exposed a severe shortage of qualified
teachers, brought about by large enrollment numbers in schools. As a result, the Philippine Commission authorized
the Secretary of Public Instruction to bring more than 1,000 teachers from the United States,
who were called the Thomasites, to the Philippines between 1901 and 1902. These teachers were scattered throughout the
islands to establish barangay schools. The same law established the Philippine Normal
School (now the Philippine Normal University) to train aspiring Filipino teachers. The high school system was supported by provincial
governments and included special educational institutions, schools of arts and trades,
an agricultural school, and commerce and marine institutes, which were established in 1902
by the Philippine Commission. Several other laws were passed throughout
the period. In 1902, Act No. 372 authorised the opening
of provincial high schools.1908 marked the year when Act No. 1870 initiated the opening
of the University of the Philippines, now the country’s national university. The emergence of high school education in
the Philippines, however, did not occur until 1910. It was borne out of rising numbers in enrollment,
widespread economic depression, and a growing demand by big businesses and technological
advances in factories and the emergence of electrification for skilled workers. In order to meet this new job demand, high
schools were created and the curriculum focused on practical job skills that would better
prepare students for professional white collar or skilled blue collar work. This proved to be beneficial for both the
employer and the employee; the investment in human capital caused employees to become
more efficient, which lowered costs for the employer, and skilled employees received a
higher wage than those employees with just primary educational attainment. However, a steady increase in enrollment in
schools appeared to have hindered any revisions to then-implemented experimental educational
system. Act No. 1381, also known as Gabaldon Law,
was passed in 1907, which provided a fund of a million pesos for construction of concrete
school buildings and is one of many attempts by the government to meet this demand. In line as well with the Filipinization policy
of the government, the Reorganization Act of 1916 provided that all department secretaries
except the Secretary of Public Instruction must be a natural-born Filipino.A series of
revisions (in terms of content, length, and focus) to the curriculum began in 1924, the
year the Monroe Survey Commission released its findings. After having convened in the period from 1906
to 1918, what was simply an advisory committee on textbooks was officiated in 1921 as the
Board on Textbooks through Act No. 2957. The Board was faced with difficulties, however,
even up to the 1940s, but because financial problems hindered the possibility of newer
adaptations of books.===Japanese period and Second Republic===
The Japanese Military Administration’s Order No.2 of 17 February 1942 had six basic points:
the propagation of Filipino culture; the dissemination of the principle of the Greater East Asia
Co-Prosperity Sphere; the spiritual rejuvenation of the Filipinos; the teaching and propagation
of Nippongo; the diffusion of vocational and elementary education; and the promotion of
love of labor. After having been closed following the outbreak
of the Pacific War, elementary schools followed by vocational and normal schools, reopened. Colleges offering courses in agriculture,
medicine, fisheries, and engineering also resumed teaching, however law courses were
not instructed. Educational reforms required teachers to obtain
licenses following rigid examinations. All heads of educational institutions were
also required to obtain licenses. Also, the teaching of Tagalog. Philippine History, and character education
were reserved for Filipinos. The Japanese created the following educational
institutions: the Training Institute, for former USAFFE soldiers; the Normal Institute;
the Preparatory Institute of Government Scholars to Japan; the Government Employees Training
Institute; the New Philippines Cultural Institute; Constabulary Academy No. 1, at the Mapa High
School Building in Bagumpanahon; Constabulary Academy No. 2, at the former Araullo High
School Building in Bagumbayan; Constabulary Academy No. 3 at the Torres High School Building
in Bagumbuhay; and Constabulary Academy No. 4 at the Legarda Elementary School in Bagumpanahon. A Philippine school established during the
Japanese period which still exists is St. Paul College of Makati.===Third Republic===
In 1947, after the United States relinquished all its authority over the Philippines, President
Manuel Roxas issued Executive Order No. 94 which renamed Department of Instruction into
Department of Education. During this period, the regulation and supervision
of public and private schools belonged to the Bureau of Public and Private Schools.===Fourth Republic===
In 1972, the Department of Education became the Department of Education and Culture (DECS)
under Proclamation 1081, which was signed by President Ferdinand Marcos. On September 24, 1972, by Presidential Decree
No. 1, DECS was decentralized with decision-making shared among its thirteen regional offices.Following
a referendum of all barangays in the Philippines from January 10–15, 1973, President Marcos
ratified the 1973 Constitution by Proclamation 1102 on January 17, 1973. The 1973 Constitution set out the three fundamental
aims of education in the Philippines: to foster love of country;
to teach the duties of citizenship; and to develop moral character, self-discipline,
and scientific, technological and vocational efficiency.In 1978, by the Presidential Decree
No. 1397, DECS became the Ministry of Education and Culture. The Education Act of 1982 provided for an
integrated system of education covering both formal and non-formal education at all levels. Section 29 of the act sought to upgrade educational
institutions’ standards to achieve “quality education” through voluntary accreditation
for schools, colleges, and universities. Section 16 and Section 17 upgraded the obligations
and qualifications required for teachers and administrators. Section 41 provided for government financial
assistance to private schools. This act also created the Ministry of Education,
Culture and Sports.===Fifth Republic===
A new constitution was ratified on February 2, 1987, and entered into force of February
11. Section 3, Article XIV of the 1987 Constitution
contains the ten fundamental aims of education in the Philippines. Section 2(2), Article XIV of the 1987 Constitution
made elementary school compulsory for all children. In 1987, the Ministry of Education, Culture
and Sports became again the DECS under Executive Order No. 117. The structure of DECS as embodied in the order
remained practically unchanged until 1994. On May 26, 1988, the Congress of the Philippines
enacted the Republic Act 6655 or the Free Public Secondary Education Act of 1988, which
mandated free public secondary education commencing in the school year 1988–1989.On February
3, 1992, the Congress enacted Republic Act 7323, which provided that students aged 15
to 25 may be employed during their Christmas vacation and summer vacation with a salary
not lower than the minimum wage—with 60% of the wage paid by the employer and 40% by
the government.The Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM) report of 1991 recommended
the division of DECS into three parts. On May 18, 1994, the Congress passed Republic
Act 7722 or the Higher Education Act of 1994, creating the Commission on Higher Education
(CHED), which assumed the functions of the Bureau of Higher Education and supervised
tertiary degree programs. On August 25, 1994, the Congress passed Republic
Act 7796 or the Technical Education and Skills Development Act of 199, creating the Technical
Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA), which absorbed the Bureau of Technical-Vocational
Education as well as the National Manpower and Youth Council, and began to supervise
non-degree technical-vocational programs. DECS retained responsibility for all elementary
and secondary education. This threefold division became known as the
“trifocal system of education” in the Philippines. In August 2001, Republic Act 9155, otherwise
called the Governance of Basic Education Act, was passed. This act changed the name of DECS to the current
Department of Education (DepEd) and redefined the role of field offices (regional offices,
division offices, district offices and schools). The act provided the overall framework for
school empowerment by strengthening the leadership roles of headmasters and fostering transparency
and local accountability for school administrations. The goal of basic education was to provide
the school age population and young adults with skills, knowledge, and values to become
caring, self-reliant, productive, and patriotic citizens.In 2005, the Philippines spent about
US$138 per pupil, compared to US$3,728 in Japan, US$1,582 in Singapore and US$852 in
Thailand.In 2006, the Education for All (EFA) 2015 National Action Plan was implemented. It states:
In terms of secondary level education, all children aged twelve to fifteen, are sought
to be on track to completing the schooling cycle with satisfactory achievement levels
at every year. In January 2009, the Department of Education
signed a memorandum of agreement with the United States Agency for International Development
(USAID) to seal $86 million assistance to Philippine education, particularly the access
to quality education in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM), and the Western
and Central Mindanao regions.===Recent years===
In 2010, then-Senator Benigno Aquino III expressed his desire to implement the K–12 basic education
cycle to increase the number of years of compulsory education to thirteen years. According to him, this will “give everyone
an equal chance to succeed” and “have quality education and profitable jobs”. After further consultations and studies, the
government under President Aquino formally adopted the K–6–4–2 basic education
system—one year of kindergarten, six years of elementary education, four years of junior
high school education and two years of senior high school education. Kindergarten was formally made compulsory
by virtue of the Kindergarten Education Act of 2012, while the further twelve years were
officially put into law by virtue of the Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013. Although DepEd has already implemented the
K–12 Program since SY 2011–2012, it was still enacted into law to guarantee its continuity
in the succeeding years. The former system of basic education in the
Philippines consists of one-year preschool education, six-year elementary education and
four-year high school education. Although public preschool, elementary and
high school education are provided free, only primary education is stipulated as compulsory
according to the 1987 Philippine Constitution. Pre-primary education caters to children aged
five. A child aged six may enter elementary schools
with, or without pre-primary education. Following on from primary education is four-years
of secondary education, which can theoretically be further divided into three years of lower
secondary and one year of upper secondary education. Ideally, a child enters secondary education
at the age of 12. After completing their secondary education,
students may progress to a technical education and skills development to earn a certificate
or a diploma within one to three years, depending on the skill. Students also have the option to enrol in
higher education programmes to earn a baccalaureate degree. The start of the twenty-first century’s second
decade saw a major change in the Philippine education system. Whether this was positive or not remains to
be seen. In 2011, the Department of Education started
to implement the new K-12 educational system, which also included a new curriculum for all
schools nationwide. The K-12 program has a so-called “phased implementation”,
which started in S.Y 2011-2012. In 2017, the Universal Access to Quality Tertiary
Education Act was promulgated mandating the government through all state universities
and colleges (SUCs) to provide free tertiary education for all Filipino citizens. The mandate does not include private schools. However, certain subsidies for students enrolled
in private higher education institutions are available.====Enrollment figures======Formal education==
Formal education is the hierarchically structured, chronologically graded ‘education system’,
running from primary school through the university and including, in addition to general academic
studies, a variety of specialised programmes and institutions for full-time technical and
professional training. K-12 and tertiary education from colleges
are characterized as formal education. This does not include the informal education
in the Philippines learned from daily experience and the educative influences and resources
in his or her environment. Nor does this include non-formal education
like the alternative learning systems provided by DepEd and TESDA and other programs from
educational institutions.===K-12===
K-12 is a program that covers kindergarten and 12 years of basic education to provide
sufficient time for mastery of concepts and skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare
graduates for tertiary education, middle-level skills development, employment, and entrepreneurship. Its general features include: (1) Strengthening Early Childhood Education
(Universal Kindergarten), since the early years of a human being, from 0 to 6 years,
are the most critical period when the brain grows to at least 60-70 percent of adult size;(2)
Making the Curriculum Relevant to Learners (Contextualization and Enhancement) by making
lessons localized and relevant to Filipinos including discussions on Disaster Risk Reduction,
Climate Change Adaptation, and Information & Communication Technology (ICT);(3) Ensuring
Integrated and Seamless Learning (Spiral Progression) which means that students will be taught from
the simplest concepts to more complicated concepts through grade levels;(4) Building
Proficiency through Language (Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education) hence the introduction
of 12 Mother Tongue Languages as mediums of instruction from grades 1-3 before the introduction
of English;(5) Gearing Up for the Future (Senior High School) wherein the seven learning areas
and three tracks for students to choose (See 2.1.1.3 Curriculum) prepare them for senior
high school, the two years of specialized upper secondary education; and(6) Nurturing
the Holistically Developed Filipino (College and Livelihood Readiness, 21st Century Skills)
so that every graduate to be equipped with information, media and technology skills;
learning and innovation skills; effective communication skills; and life and career
skills.====Implications of the change in the system
====Senior High School, an important feature of
the new K-12 program, creates several opportunities. Standard requirements will be applied to make
sure graduates know enough to be hirable. Senior High School students will now be able
to apply for TESDA Certificates of Competency (COCs) and National Certificates (NCs) to
provide them with better work opportunities. Partnerships with different companies will
be offered for technical and vocational courses. Senior High School students can also get work
experience while studying. Aside from these, entrepreneurship courses
will now be included. Instead of being employed, one can choose
to start his or her own business after graduating, or choose to further one’s education by going
to college.Senior High School, as part of the K to 12 Basic Curriculum, was developed
in line with the curriculum of the Commission of Higher Education (CHED) – the governing
body for college and university education in the Philippines. This ensures that by the time one graduates
from Senior High School, one will have the standard knowledge, skills, and competencies
needed to go to college.Because of the shift of the curriculum in K-12, the College General
Education curriculum will have fewer units. Subjects that have been taken up in Basic
Education will be removed from the College General Education curriculum. Details of the new GE Curriculum may be found
in CHED Memorandum Order No. 20, series of 2013. Regarding teachers, there are common misconceptions
that teachers will lose their jobs because of the shift to the K-12. However, DepEd ensures that “no high school
teachers will be displaced.”The Department of Education (DepEd) is in constant coordination
with CHED and DOLE on the actual number of affected faculty from private higher education
institutions (HEIs). The worst-case scenario is that 39,000 HEI
faculty will lose their jobs over 5 years. This will only happen if none of the HEIs
will put up their own Senior High Schools; however, DepEd is currently processing over
1,000 Senior High School applications from private institutions.DepEd is also hiring
more than 30,000 new teachers in 2016 alone. The Department will prioritize affected faculty
who will apply as teachers or administrators in Senior High Schools.====Curriculum====
In kindergarten, the pupils are mandated to learn the alphabet, numbers, shapes and colours
through games, songs, pictures and dances, but in their native language; thus after Grade
1, every student can read on his/her native tongue. The 12 original mother tongue languages that
have been introduced for the 2012–2013 school year are Bicolano, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon,
Ilocano, Kapampangan, Maguindanaoan, Maranao, Pangasinense, Tagalog, Tausug and Waray-Waray. 7 more mother tongue languages have been introduced
for the 2013–2014 school year. These are Aklanon, Ibanag, Ivatan, Kinaray-a,
Sambal, Surigaonon and Yakan. A common poem read in Filipino kindergartens
is Ang aking alaga (My pet); a common song, Ako ay may lobo (I have a balloon). In Grade 1, the subject areas of English and
Filipino are taught, with a focus on “oral fluency”. In Grade 4, the subject areas of English and
Filipino are gradually introduced, but now, as “languages of instruction”. The Science and Mathematics subjects are now
modified to use the spiral progression approach starting as early as Grade 1 which means that
every lesson will be taught in every grade level starting with the basic concepts to
the more complex concepts of that same lesson until Grade 10. The high school from the former system will
now be called junior high school, while senior high school will be the 11th and 12th year
of the new educational system. It will serve as a specialized upper secondary
education. In the senior high school, students may choose
a specialization based on aptitude, interests, and school capacity. The choice of career track will define the
content of the subjects a student will take in Grades 11 and 12. Senior high school subjects fall under either
the core curriculum or specific tracks. Core curriculum learning areas include languages,
literature, communication, mathematics, philosophy, natural sciences and social sciences. There are four choices that are available
to be chosen by the students — or the so-called “specific tracks”. These are:Academic, which includes four strands
which are:Accountancy, Business & Management (ABM) – for those interested in pursuing college
or university education in fields of accountancy, business management, business administration,
office management, economics, or entrepreneurship. Humanities & Social Sciences (HUMSS) – for
those interested in pursuing college or university education in fields of languages, mass communication
and journalism, literature, philosophy, history, education, liberal arts, and the rest of humanities
and social sciences. Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics
(STEM)- for those interested in pursuing college or university education in fields of basic
and applied sciences, biological sciences, physical sciences, laboratory sciences, nutrition
and allied medicine, mathematics, and engineering. General Academic Strand (GAS) – for those
interested in pursuing college or university education but are not sure of what field to
pursue as a career.Technical-Vocational-Livelihood, which specializes in technical and vocational
learning. A student can obtain a National Certificate
Level II (NC II), provided he/she passes the competency-based assessment of the Technical
Education and Skills Development Authority. This certificate improves employability of
graduates in fields of:Home Economics like tourism, culinary art, cosmetology, clothing,
handicraft, housekeeping, etc. Industrial Arts like automotive services,
carpentry and construction, masonry, plumbing, machining, electricity and electronics, etc. Agricultural and Fishery Arts like agriculture,
animal production, horticulture, food processing, aquaculture, fish capture, landscaping, etc. Information and Communications Technology
like animation, illustration, technical drafting, medical transcription, programming, and computer
services.Arts and Design, which is helping interested senior high school students in
the particular fields of journalism, broadcast art,and mass media; media and entertainment;
creative writing like poetry, fiction writing, and playwriting; studio arts like drawing,
painting, sculpture, and printmaking, media arts like animation,photography, graphic design,
illustration, layout design, digital painting, music production, sound design, game design,
application design, film and videography; applied arts or decorative arts like fashion
design, industrial design, product and packaging design, jewelry design, clothing and accessories,
set and costume design, and ceramics; dance like folk dance, classical and modern ballet,
ballroom and Latin dances, hip-hop, contemporary and popular dances, and choreography; theater
arts like acting, theater design, technical theater, and directing; and music like instrumental
music, vocal music, ensemble and chamber music, and composition and music production. Art forms offered especially in visual and
media arts depends on schools’ capacity, faculty, resident artists and designers in immediate
or local community, equipments and resources.Sports, which is responsible for educating senior
high school students in the fields of sports, physical education, fitness, and health. With pursued professions such as sports athlete,
sports coach, fitness coach, sports officiator, sports activity or event manager, sports tournament
manager, fitness leader and expert, fitness instructor, gym instructor, sports expert,
recreation leader and expert, physical and massage therapist, physical education instructor,
physical education and health instructor, MAPEH instructor, and sports scientist.====Implementation====K-12’s implementation began in 2011 when kindergarten
was rolled out nationwide. It continued by fully implementing the system
for Grades 1 and 7 during the school year 2012-2013, for grade 11 during 2016, and for
grade 12 during 2017. There are four “phases” during the implementation
of the new system. These are: Phase I: Laying the Foundations. Its goal is to finally implement the universal
kindergarten, and the “development of the (entire) program”. Phase II: Modeling and Migration. Its goal is to promote the enactment of the
basic education law, to finally start of the phased implementation of the new curriculum
for Grades 1 to 10, and for the modeling of the senior high school. Phase III: Complete Migration. Its goal is to finally implement the Grades
11 and 12 or the senior high school, and to signal the end of migration to the new educational
system. Phase IV: Completion of the Reform. Its goal is to complete the implementation
of the K–12 education systemIn terms of preparing the resources, specifically classrooms,
teacher items, textbooks, seats, and water and sanitation improvements, the following
table shows the accomplished material from 2010 to 2014 and those planned for 2015. The Department of Education’s justifications
in this change, in implementing 13 years of basic education, is that the Philippines is
the last country in Asia and one of only three countries worldwide with a 10-year pre-university
cycle (Angola and Djibouti are the other two), and that the 13-year program is found to be
the best period for learning under basic education. It is also the recognized standard for students
and professionals globally.====Elementary Education====
Elementary school, sometimes called primary school or grade school (Filipino: paaralang
elementarya, sometimes mababang paaralan), is the first part of the educational system,
and it includes the first six years of compulsory education (Grades 1–6) after cumpolsory
pre-school education called Kindergarten.In public schools, the core/major subjects that
were introduced starting in Grade 1 include Mathematics, Filipino, and Araling Panlipunan
(this subject is synonymous to Social Studies).English is only introduced after the second semester
of Grade 1. Science is only introduced starting Grade
3. Other major subjects then include Music, Arts,
Physical Education, and Health (abbreviated as MAPEH), TLE (Technology and Livelihood
Education) for Grade 6, EPP (Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan) for Grades 4 and 5, Mother
Tongue (Grades 1-3) and Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao (synonymous to Ethics, Values or Character
Education). In private schools, subjects in public schools
are also included with the additional subjects including:Computer Education as a separate
subject, though it is included in EPP and TLE through its ICT component. In Christian and Catholic schools, Religious
Education is also part of the curriculum like Christian Values and Ethics, Christian Living,
or Bible Studies. Islamic schools like Madrasa schools have
a separate subjects for Arabic Language and for Islamic Values or abbreviated as ALIVE. Chinese schools may also have subjects in
Chinese Language and Culture. International schools also have their own
subjects in their own language and culture. From Kindergarten-Grade 3, students will be
taught using their mother tongue, meaning the regional languages of the Philippines
will be used in some subjects (except Filipino and English) as a medium of instruction. Aside from being incorporated as a language
of instruction, it is also a separate subject for Grades 1-3. But from Grade 4, Filipino and English as
a medium of instruction will then be used. In December 2007, the Philippine president
Gloria Macapagal Arroyo announced that Spanish is to make a return as a mandatory subject
in all Filipino schools starting in 2008, but this didn’t come into effect.DepEd Bilingual
Policy is for the medium of instruction to be Filipino for: Filipino, Araling Panlipunan,
Edukasyong Pangkatawan, Kalusugan at Musika; and English for: English, Science and Technology,
Home Economics and Livelihood Education. Article XIV, Section 7 of the 1987 Philippine
constitution mandates that regional languages are the auxiliary official languages in the
regions and shall serve as auxiliary media of instruction therein. As a result, the language actually used in
teaching is often a polyglot of Filipino and English with the regional language as the
foundation, or rarely the local language. Filipino is based on Tagalog, so in Tagalog
areas (including Manila), Filipino is the foundational language used. International English language schools use
English as the foundational language. Chinese schools add two language subjects,
such as Min Nan Chinese and Mandarin Chinese and may use English or Chinese as the foundational
language. The constitution mandates that Spanish and
Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis. Following on this, a few private schools mainly
catering to the elite include Spanish in their curriculum. Arabic is taught in Islamic schools.In July
2009, the Department of Education moved to overcome the foreign language issue by ordering
all elementary schools to move towards initial mother-tongue based instruction (grades 1–3). The order allows two alternative three-year
bridging plans. Depending on the bridging plan adopted, the
Filipino and English languages are to be phased in as the language of instruction for other
subjects beginning in the third and fourth grades.Until 2004, primary students traditionally
took the National Elementary Achievement Test (NEAT) administered by the Department of Education,
Culture and Sports (DECS). It was intended as a measure of a school’s
competence, and not as a predictor of student aptitude or success in secondary school. Hence, the scores obtained by students in
the NEAT were not used as a basis for their admission into secondary school. During 2004, when DECS was officially converted
into the Department of Education, the NEAT was changed to the National Achievement Test
(NAT) by the Department of Education. Both the public and private elementary schools
take this exam to measure a school’s competency. As of 2006, only private schools have entrance
examinations for secondary schools. The Department of Education expects over 13.1
million elementary students to be enrolled in public elementary schools for school year
2009–2010.Though elementary schooling is compulsory, as of 2010 it was reported that
27.82% of Filipino elementary-aged children either never attend or never complete elementary
schooling, usually due to the absence of any school in their area, education being offered
in a language that is foreign to them, or financial distress.====Secondary Education====Secondary school in the Philippines, more
commonly known as “high school” (Filipino: paaralang sekundarya, sometimes mataas na
paaralan), consists of 4 lower levels and 2 upper levels. It formerly consisted of only four levels
with each level partially compartmentalized, focusing on a particular theme or content. Because of the K-12 curriculum, the high school
system now has six years divided into 2 parts. The lower exploratory high school system is
now called “Junior High School” (Grades 7-10) while the upper specialized high school system
is now called “Senior High School” (Grades 11 and 12). Secondary students used to sit for the National
Secondary Achievement Test (NSAT), which was based on the American SAT, and was administered
by the Department of Education. Like its primary school counterpart, NSAT
was phased out after major reorganizations in the education department. Its successors, the National Career Assessment
Examination (NCAE) and National Achievement Test (NAT) were administered to third- and
fourth-year students respectively, before the implementation of the K-12 system. The National Career Assessment Examination
(NCAE) is now being administered for Grade 9 and the National Achievement Test (NAT)
is being administered at Grade 6, 10, and 12. Neither the NSAT nor NAT have been used as
a basis for being offered admission to higher education institutions, partly because pupils
sit them at almost the end of their secondary education. Instead, higher education institutions, both
public and private, administer their own College Entrance Examinations (CEE) (subjects covered
will depend on the institutions). Vocational colleges usually do not have entrance
examinations, simply accepting the Form 138 record of studies from high school, and enrollment
payment.=====Junior High School=====
Students graduating from the elementary level automatically enroll in junior high, which
covers four years from grades 7 to 10. This level is now compulsory and free to all
students attending public schools. There are two main types of high school: the
general secondary school, which enroll more than 90 percent of all junior high school
students, and the vocational secondary school. In addition, there are also science secondary
schools for students who have demonstrated a particular gift in science at the primary
level as well as special secondary schools and special curricular programs. Admission to public school is automatic for
those who have completed six years of elementary school. Some private secondary schools have competitive
entrance requirements based on an entrance examination. Entrance to science schools, art schools,
and schools with special curricular programs is also by competitive examination sometimes
including interviews, and auditions. The Department of Education specifies a compulsory
curriculum for all junior high school students, public and private. There are five core subjects: Science, Mathematics,
English, Filipino, and Araling Panlipunan (Social Studies). Other subjects in all levels of junior high
school include MAPEH (a collective subject comprising Music, Art, Physical Education
and Health), Values Education and Technology and Livelihood Education. In other public schools or private secondary
schools offers specialized curricular programs for students with gifts and or talents as
well as aptitude in fields of: sciences and mathematics, sports, the arts, journalism,
foreign language, or technical-vocational education. These are under the DepEd with the latter
in partnership with TESDA. These special programs for special schools
are: Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Program (STEM, formerly called
ESEP); Special Program in Sports (SPS); Special Program in the Arts (SPA); Special Program
in Journalism (SPJ); Special Program in Foreign Language (SPFL); and Technical-Vocational-Livelihood
Program (TVL). These programs offers comprehensive secondary
education in a particular academic or career pathway field. Because of being career-pathway oriented,
special and advanced subjects are offered in replace of TLE subject and sometimes includes
even more time and subjects for specialized learning and training. In selective schools, various languages may
be offered as electives like in a SPFL program, as well as other subjects such as computer
programming and literary writing like in STEM schools or Laboratory High Schools. Chinese schools have language and cultural
electives. International Schools offers electives or
subjects like writing, culture, history, language, art, or a special subject unique to the school. Preparatory schools like technical vocational
schools or schools with TVL Program usually add some business, entrepreneurship, and accountancy
courses. Special science high schools like those of
PSHS System (administered by DOST) and RSHS System (administered by DepEd) have biology,
chemistry, and physics at every level and or exclusive and advanced science and math
subjects as well as subjects in technology, pre-engineering, and research. These science schools are more exclusive and
with higher standards compared to general high school’s STEM Program. PSHS or RSHS students may transfer to a STEM
program school but not the way around. PSHS students may also transfer to a RSHS
and vice versa only for incoming sophomore year. Both PSHS and RSHS students must maintain
an average grade especially in their advanced sciences and math subjects on a quarterly
basis or else will lose the chance of continuing education in these schools, therefore, will
make students transfer to a STEM Program school or a general high school. This systems makes sure the quality and exclusiveness
of science high schools. In special government-run art school such
as Philippine High School for the Arts, which is administered by the Cultural Center of
the Philippines in coordination with Department of Education, and as well as the National
Commission for Culture and the Arts offers a much specialized and exclusive curricular
program than general high school’s SPA Program. Like the PSHS and RSHS to STEM schools system,
students from PHSA should maintain grades in their art field of specialization or will
transfer to an SPA school or a general high school. But SPA students can enroll in PHSA only for
incoming sophomores passing exclusive test, auditions, and interviews, and not from general
high schools but from SPA school only. Both schools of Philippine Science High School
System and the Philippine High School for the Arts are administered by government agencies
apart from DepEd but still is in coordination with it. These schools offers scholarship for students
with high aptitude and talents in science fields or the art fields granting those who
passes rigorous and exclusive tests with many special benefits like free board and lodging,
free books, a monthly stipend, and classes taught by experts, masters, and active practitioners
of their respective fields among others.=====Vocational School=====
Formal technical and vocational education starts at secondary education, with a two-year
curriculum, which grants access to vocational tertiary education. [35] However, there is also non-formal technical
and vocational education provided as alternative learning programs. Vocational schools offer a higher concentration
of technical and vocational subjects in addition to the core academic subjects studied by students
at general high schools. These schools tend to offer technical and
vocational instruction in one of five main fields: agriculture, fisheries, trade-technical,
home industry, and ‘non-traditional’ courses while offering a host of specializations. During the first two years, students study
a general vocational area, from the five main fields mentioned. During the third and fourth years they specialize
in a discipline or vocation within that area. Programs contain a mixture of theory and practice.Upon
completion of Grade 10 of Junior High School, students can obtain Certificates of Competency
(COC) or the vocationally oriented National Certificate Level I (NC I). After finishing a Technical-Vocational-Livelihood
track in Grade 12 of Senior High School, a student may obtain a National Certificate
Level II (NC II), provided he/she passes the competency-based assessment administered by
the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority(TESDA).=====Senior High School=====
The new high school curriculum includes core classes and specialization classes based on
student choice of specialization. Students may choose a specialization based
on aptitude, interests, and school capacity. Classes or courses are divided into two: Core
Curriculum Subjects and Track Subjects. There are eight learning areas under the core
curriculum. These are Language, Humanities, Communication,
Mathematics, Science, Social Science, Philosophy, and PE and Health. These will make up 15 core courses with the
same contents and competencies but with allowed contextualization based on school’s location
despite of specializations of tracks and strands. Track subjects will be further divided into
Applied or Contextualized Subjects and the Specialization Subjects. There would be 7 Applied Subjects with competencies
common to tracks and strands or specializations but with different contents based on specialization,
and there would be 9 Specialization Subjects with unique contents and competencies under
a track or strand. All the subjects (core, applied and specialized)
are having 80 hours per semester each, except for Physical Education and Health, having
20 hours per semester. And for the subjects under General Academics
Strand (GAS), Humanities 1 and 2 will be chosen from the HUMSS track subjects 1 to 4, and
for the Social Science 1 will be chosen from HUMSS track subjects 5 to 8. For their specialization classes, students
choose from four tracks: Academic; Technical-Vocational-Livelihood; Sports; and the Arts and Design. The Academic track includes five strands of
specializations: Accountancy and Business Management (ABM)
which will prepare students for college courses in the business-related careers such as accountancy,
business management, office administration, finance, economics, marketing, sales, human
resource management, business operations, entrepreneurship, etc. Humanities and Social Sciences (HUMSS) which
will prepare students to college courses in the fields of humanities like language arts,
literature, history, philosophy, religious studies, and the liberal arts as well as in
the field of social sciences and applied social sciences like anthropology, economics, political
science, psychology, sociology, criminology, geography, counseling, social work, journalism
and communications, etc. Science and Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics
(STEM) which will prepare students for college courses in the fields of natural and physical
sciences, applied sciences, allied medicine, computer studies, architecture, engineering,
mathematics, etc. General Academic (GA) is a generic strand
for students who are not yet sure of what to study in college or what track and strand
to take with much like liberal arts subjects like electives from humanities and social
sciences, applied business and science courses, and a freedom to choose electives from any
track or strand offered by the school The new Pre-Baccalaureate Maritime Strand
which is an academic maritime field preparatory strand with pre-engineering courses lie pre-calculus,
calculus, and physics as well as one chemistry and introductory maritime courses, preparing
students who wishes to pursue higher education in a maritime-related field.The Technical-Vocational-Livelihood
(TVL) track includes current five specializations from which TESDA-based courses can be chosen: Home Economics
Agri-Fishery Arts Industrial Arts
Information and Communications Technology The new field of TVL Maritime (a Technical-Vocational-Livelihood
counterpart of the Pre-Baccalaureate Maritime of Academic Track).A mixture of specialization
courses from these four fields can also be done, depending on the curricular program
and offerings offered by schools who offers TVL track.Sports track will prepare students
with sports science, sports-related, physical education-related, health-related, and movement-related
courses which will let them explore and specialize in fields like sports fundamental coaching,
student-athlete development, sports officiating and activity management, recreational and
fitness or sports leadership. This will be with courses in safety and first
aid, fitness testing and basic exercise programming, psychosocial aspects of sports and exercise,
and human movement. Students will have an immersion or practicum
in a sports, fitness, exercise, or recreation specialization of one will be in-campus practicum
and one will be off-campus apprenticeship. This track will prepare students with careers
in sports athletics, fitness, exercise, recreational leadership, sports event management, coaching,
and physical therapy.Arts and Design Track will prepare student for the creative industries
in various creative and artistic fields such as but not limited to: music, dance, creative
writing and literature, visual arts, global media arts, broadcast arts, film and cinema,
applied arts, architecture and design, theater, entertainment, etc. Students will be trained with lectures and
immersions in arts appreciation and production and the performing arts. They will also learn and be prepared with
physical and personal development which will help them with physical, personal, and health
factors in the arts fields as an introduction to workplaces; integration of elements and
principles of art which will deepen their understanding about art elements and principles
and their applications; building cultural and national identity in arts which will help
them appreciate cultural icons and traditional or indigenous materials, techniques, and practices
in their art field. Students also will be immersed to an art field
of their choice: music, theater, literary art, visual art, or media art under apprenticeship
with practitioner/s of the field and will culminate showcasing their skills and talents
in either a performing arts performance, a visual and media art exhibit, or a literary
art production.The government projects some 1.2 to 1.6 million students will enter senior
high school in the 2016-17 academic year. Senior High School “completes” basic education
by making sure that the high school graduate is equipped for work, entrepreneurship, or
higher education. This is a step up from the 10-year cycle where
high school graduates still need further education (and expenses) to be ready for the world. There are 334 private schools with Senior
High School permits beginning in SY 2014 or 2015. Last March 31, 2015, provisional permits have
been issued to 1,122 private schools that will offer Senior High School in 2016. Senior High School will be offered free in
public schools and there will be a voucher program in place for public junior high school
completers as well as ESC beneficiaries of private high schools should they choose to
take Senior High School in private institutions. This means that the burden of expenses for
the additional two years need not be completely shouldered by parents. All grade 10 completers from a public Junior
High School who wish to enroll in a private or non-DepEd Senior High School automatically
get a voucher.====Tertiary education====All tertiary education matters are outside
of the jurisdiction of DepEd, which is in charge of primary and secondary education,
but is instead governed by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED). As of 2013, there are over 2,229 higher education
institutions (HEI’s) in the country which can be divided into public and private institutions. There are 656 public higher education institutions
which account for 28.53% of all HEI’s. While 1,643 private institutions account for
71.47% of all HEI’s. Public HEI’s are further divided into state
universities and colleges (SUC’s), local colleges and universities (LUC’s), special
HEI’s, and government schools. State universities and colleges are administered
and financed by the government as determined by the Philippine Congress. LUC’s are established by the local government
units that govern the area of the LUC. The local government establish these institutions
through a process and number of ordinances and resolutions, and are also in charge of
handling the financing of these schools. Special HEI’s are institutions that offer
courses and programs that are related to public service. Examples of these include the Philippine Military
Academy (PMA), Philippine National Police Academy (PNPA), Development Academy of the
Philippines (DAP), etc. These institutions are controlled and administered
through the use of specific laws that were created for them. Finally, government schools are public secondary
and post-secondary technical-vocational education institutions that offer higher education programs. Private HEI’s are established, and governed
by special provisions by a Corporation Code, and can be divided into sectarian and non-sectarian. Non-sectarian are characterized by being owned
and operated by private entities that have no affiliation with religious organizations;
while sectarian HEI’s are non-profit institutions that are owned and operated by a religious
organization. Of the 1,643 institutions, 79% are non-sectarian,
and 21% are sectarian.According to the last CHED published statistics on its website,
there were 7,766 foreign nationals studying in various higher education institutions in
the Philippines as of 2011-2012. Koreans were the top foreign nationals studying
in the country with 1,572. The rest were Iranian, Chinese, American and
Indian.===Types of Schools Adhering to Compulsory
Education and Senior High School===There are other types of schools, aside from
the general public school, such as private schools, preparatory schools, international
schools, laboratory high schools, and science high schools. Several foreign ethnic groups, including Chinese,
British, Singaporeans, Americans, Koreans, and Japanese operate their own schools.====Science high schools====
Science high schools are special schools for the more intellectually promising students,
with the objective of fostering the problem-solving approach of critical thinking. They are separate high schools and not merely
special classes in regular secondary schools. As such, they have certain characteristics
not found in regular high schools, although any private or public high school can aspire
to meet these special minimum standards and be considered as science high schools.The
Philippine Science High School System is a specialized public system that operates as
an attached agency of the Philippine Department of Science and Technology. There are a total of nine regional campuses,
with the main campus located in Quezon City. Students are admitted on a selective basis,
based on the results of the PSHS System National Competitive Examination. As well as following the general secondary
curriculum, there are advanced classes in science and mathematics. The PSHSS system offers an integrated junior
high and senior high six-year curriculum. Students who successfully completed a minimum
of four years of secondary education under the pre-2011 system were awarded a Diploma
(Katibayan) and, in addition, the secondary school Certificate of Graduation (Katunayan)
from the Department of Education. Students are also awarded a Permanent Record,
or Form 137-A, listing all classes taken and grades earned. Under the new K-12 system, the permanent record
will be issued after the completion of senior high school.====Chinese schools====Chinese schools add two additional subjects
to the core curriculum, Chinese communication arts and literature. Some also add Chinese history, philosophy
and culture, and Chinese mathematics. Still, other Chinese schools called cultural
schools, offer Confucian classics and Chinese art as part of their curriculum. Religion also plays an important part in the
curriculum. American evangelists founded some Chinese
schools. Some Chinese schools have Catholic roots.====Islamic schools====
In 2004, the Department of Education adopted DO 51, putting in place the teaching of Arabic
Language and Islamic Values for (mainly) Muslim children in the public schools. The same order authorized the implementation
of the Standard Madrasa Curriculum (SMC) in the private madaris (Arabic for schools, the
singular form is Madrasa). While there has been recognized Islamic schools—i.e.,
Ibn Siena Integrated School (Marawi), Sarang Bangun LC (Zamboanga), and Southwestern Mindanao
Islamic Institute (Jolo)—their Islamic studies curriculum varies. With the Department of Education-authorized
SMC, the subject offering is uniform across these private madaris. Since 2005, the AusAID-funded Department of
Education project Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao[37] (BEAM) has assisted a group
of private madaris seeking government permit to operate (PTO) and implement the SMC. To date, there are 30 of these private madaris
scattered throughout Regions XI, XII and the ARMM. The SMC is a combination of the RBEC subjects
(English, Filipino, Science, Math, and Makabayan) and the teaching of Arabic and Islamic studies
subjects. For school year 2010–2011, there are forty-seven
(47) madaris in the ARMM alone.==Alternative Learning Systems==
The alternative learning systems in the Philippines caters to the needs of the following: elementary
and secondary school dropouts, kids that are older than the normal age for a specific grade
level (this may be a 12 year old in grade 4), unemployed adults that haven’t finished
their education degree, indigenous people, people with disabilities or are mentally challenged,
and inmates. It is possible to have both informal and formal
references for these alternative learning systems because these are apart from the formal
teaching institutions. Although similarly to the formal teaching
institutions, there will be a diagnostic test for everyone that will participate in order
to gauge the level they are at in terms of the skills needed per grade level. If there are people that do not have the basic
skills such as reading and writing there will be an additional program that will help them
first learn the basics before taking the diagnostic test. There will be a specific number of hours that
is required of the student in order for him/her to be able to finish the program. There will be a final assessment to test the
comprehensive knowledge of the student. If the students passes he/she will be given
a certificate that is signed by the secretary of the department of education allowing the
student to apply for college degrees, work, formal training programs, and can re-enroll
in elementary/secondary education in formal teaching institutions. There are other avenues of alternative learning
in the Philippines such as the Radio-Based Instruction (RBI) Program. This is designed to give the lectures through
a radio transmission making it easier for people to access wherever they are. The goal is for the listeners to receive the
same amount of education that people that sit in classroom lectures. Non-formal technical and vocational education
is assumed by institutions usually accredited and approved by TESDA: center-based programs,
community-based programs and enterprise-based training, or the Alternative Learning System
(ALS). The Institutions may be government operated,
often by provincial government, or private. They may offer programs ranging in duration
from a couple of weeks to two-year diploma courses. Programs can be technology courses like automotive
technology, computer technology, and electronic technology; service courses such as caregiver,
nursing aide, hotel and restaurant management; and trades courses such as electrician, plumber,
welder, automotive mechanic, diesel mechanic, heavy vehicle operator & practical nursing. Upon graduating from most of these courses,
students may take an examination from TESDA to obtain the relevant certificate or diploma. In the country, there are a number of people
particularly kids that do not receive proper education from formal education institutions
because of various reasons. These reasons usually pertain to financial
problems.==Issues==
When it comes to influence, the educational system of the Philippines has been affected
immensely by the country’s colonial history including the Spanish period, American period,
and Japanese rule and occupation. Although having been significantly influenced
by all its colonizers with regard to the educational system, the most influential and deep-rooted
contributions arose during the American occupation (1898); it was during this aforementioned
period that: English was introduced as the primary language
of instruction and A public education system was first established
– a system specifically patterned after the United States school system and further administered
by the newly established Department of Instruction.Similar to the United States, the Philippines has
had an extensive and extremely inclusive system of education including features such as higher
education. The present Philippine educational system
firstly covers six years of compulsory education (from grades 1 to 6), divided informally into
two levels – both composed of three years. The first level is known as the Primary level
and the second level is known as the Intermediate level. However, although the Philippine educational
system has extensively been a model for other Southeast Asian countries, in recent years
such a matter has no longer stood true, and such a system has been deteriorated – such
a fact is especially evident and true in the country’s more secluded poverty-stricken regions. Most of the Philippines faces several issues
when it comes to the educational system.===Quality===
First of which, is the quality of education. In the year 2014, the National Achievement
Test (NAT) and the National Career Assessment Examination (NCAE) results show that there
had been a decline in the quality of Philippine education at the elementary and secondary
levels. The students’ performance in both the 2014
NAT and NCAE were excessively below the target mean score. Having said this, the poor quality of the
Philippine educational system is manifested in the comparison of completion rates between
highly urbanized cities of Metro Manila, which is also happens to be not only the country’s
capital region but the largest metropolitan area in the Philippines and other places in
the country such as Mindanao and Eastern Visayas. Although Manila is able to boast a primary
school completion rate of approximately 100 percent, other areas of the nation, such as
Eastern Visayas and Mindanao, hold primary school completion rate of only 30 percent
or even less. This kind of statistic is no surprise to the
education system in the Philippine context, students who hail from Philippine urban areas
have the financial capacity to complete at the very least their primary school education.===Budget===
The second issue that the Philippine educational system faces is the budget for education. Although it has been mandated by the Philippine
Constitution for the government to allocate the highest proportion of its government to
education, the Philippines remains to have one of the lowest budget allocations to education
among ASEAN countries.===Affordability===
The third prevalent issue the Philippine educational system continuously encounters is the affordability
of education (or lack thereof). A big disparity in educational achievements
is evident across various social groups. Socioeconomically disadvantaged students otherwise
known as students who are members of high and low-income poverty-stricken families,
have immensely higher drop-out rates in the elementary level. Additionally, most freshmen students at the
tertiary level come from relatively well-off families. [Source needed]===Drop-out rate (Out-of-school youth)===
France Castro, the secretary of Alliance of Concerned Teachers (ACT), stated that there
is a grave need to address the alarming number of out-of-school youth in the country. The Philippines overall has 1.4 million children
who are out-of-school, according to UNESCO’s data, and is additionally the only ASEAN country
that is included in the top 5 countries with the highest number of out-of-school youth. In 2012, the Department of Education showed
data of a 6.38% drop-out rate in primary school and a 7.82% drop-out rate in secondary school. Castro further stated that “the increasing
number of out-of-school children is being caused by poverty. The increases in the price of oil, electricity,
rice, water, and other basic commodities are further pushing the poor into dire poverty.” Subsequently, as more families become poorer,
the number of students enrolled in public schools increases, especially in the high
school level. In 2013, the Department of Education estimated
that there are 38, 503 elementary schools alongside 7,470 high schools.===Mismatch===
There is a large mismatch between educational training and actual jobs. This stands to be a major issue at the tertiary
level and it is furthermore the cause of the continuation of a substantial amount of educated
yet unemployed or underemployed people. According to Dean Salvador Belaro Jr., the
Cornell-educated Congressman representing 1-Ang Edukasyon Party-list in the House of
Representatives, the number of educated unemployed reaches around 600,000 per year. He refers to said condition as the “education
gap”.===Brain drain===
Brain drain is a persistent problem evident in the educational system of the Philippines
due to the modern phenomenon of globalization, with the number of Overseas Filipino Workers
(OFWs) who worked abroad at any time during the period April to September 2014 was estimated
at 2.3 million. This ongoing mass immigration subsequently
induces an unparalleled brain drain alongside grave economic implications. Additionally, Philippine society hitherto
is footing the bill for the education of millions who successively spend their more productive
years abroad. Thus, the already poor educational system
of the Philippines indirectly subsidizes the opulent economies who host the OFWs.===Social divide===
There exists a problematic and distinct social cleavage with regard to educational opportunities
in the country. Most modern societies have encountered an
equalizing effect on the subject of education. This aforementioned divide in the social system
has made education become part of the institutional mechanism that creates a division between
the poor and the rich.===Lack of facilities and teacher shortage
in public schools===There are large-scale shortages of facilities
across Philippine public schools – these include classrooms, teachers, desks and chairs, textbooks,
and audio-video materials. According to 2003 Department of Education
Undersecretary Juan Miguel Luz, reportedly over 17 million students are enrolled in Philippine
public schools, and at an annual population growth rate of 2.3 per cent, about 1.7 million
babies are born every year which means that in a few years time, more individuals will
assert ownership over their share of the (limited) educational provisions. To sum it up, there are too many students
and too little resources. Albeit the claims the government makes on
increasing the allocated budget for education, there is a prevalent difficulty the public
school system faces with regard to shortages. Furthermore, state universities and colleges
gradually raise tuition so as to have a means of purchasing facilities, thus making tertiary
education difficult to access or more often than not, inaccessible to the poor. However, it is worth taking note of what the
Aquino administration has done in its five years of governance with regard to classroom-building
– the number of classrooms built from 2005 to the first half of the year 2010 has tripled. Additionally, the number of classrooms that
were put up from the year 2010 to February 2015 was recorded to be at 86,478, significantly
exceeding the 17,305 classrooms that were built from 2005 to 2010 and adequate enough
to counterbalance the 66,800 classroom deficit in the year 2010. In President Aquino’s fourth state of the
nation address (SONA), he spoke of the government’s achievement of zero backlog in facilities
such as classrooms, desks and chairs, and textbooks which has addressed the gap in the
shortages of teachers, what with 56,085 new teachers for the 61, 510 teaching items in
the year 2013. However, the data gathered by the Department
of Education shows that during the opening of classes (June 2013), the shortages in classrooms
was pegged at 19, 579, 60 million shortages when it came to textbooks, 2.5 million shortages
with regard to chairs, and 80, 937 shortages of water and sanitation facilities. Furthermore, 770 schools in Metro Manila,
Cebu, and Davao were considered overcrowded. The Department of Education also released
data stating that 91% of the 61, 510 shortages in teachers was filled up alongside appointments
(5, 425 to be specific) are being processed.===Issues regarding the K-12===
There is a dispute with regard to the quality of education provided by the system. In the year 2014, the National Achievement
Test (NAT) and the National Career Assessment Examination (NCAE) results show that there
had been a decline in the quality of Philippine education at the elementary and secondary
levels. The students’ performance in both the 2014
NAT and NCAE were excessively below the target mean score. Having said this, the poor quality of the
Philippine educational system is manifested in the comparison of completion rates between
highly urbanized city of Metro Manila, which is also happens to be not only the country’s
capital but the largest metropolitan area in the Philippines and other places in the
country such as Mindanao and Eastern Visayas. Although Manila is able to boast a primary
school completion rate of approximately 100 percent, other areas of the nation, such as
Eastern Visayas and Mindanao, hold primary school completion rate of only 30 percent
or even less. This kind of statistic is no surprise to the
education system in the Philippine context, students who hail from Philippine urban areas
have the financial capacity to complete at the very least their primary school education. The second issue that the Philippine educational
system faces is the budget for education. Although it has been mandated by the Philippine
Constitution for the government to allocate the highest proportion of its government to
education, the Philippines remains to have one of the lowest budget allocations to education
among ASEAN countries. The third prevalent issue the Philippine educational
system continuously encounters is the affordability of education (or lack thereof). A big disparity in educational achievements
is evident across various social groups. Socioeconomically disadvantaged students otherwise
known as students who are members of high and low-income poverty-stricken families have
immensely higher drop-out rates in the elementary level. Additionally, most freshmen students at the
tertiary level come from relatively well-off families. Lastly, there is a large proportion of mismatch,
wherein there exists a massive proportion of mismatch between training and actual jobs. This stands to be a major issue at the tertiary
level and it is furthermore the cause of the continuation of a substantial amount of educated
yet unemployed or underemployed people. The third issue involves the timing for requiring
Grades 11 and 12. According to Sec. 4 of Republic Act No. 10533,
“The enhanced basic education program encompasses at least one (1) year of kindergarten education,
six (6) years of elementary education, and six (6) years of secondary education, in that
sequence. Secondary education includes four (4) years
of junior high school and two (2) years of senior high school education.” However, according to Sec. 4 of Republic Act
No. 10157, “Kindergarten education is hereby institutionalized as part of basic education
and for school year 2011-2012 shall be implemented partially, and thereafter, it shall be made
mandatory and compulsory for entrance to Grade 1.” That means in order to follow the enhanced
basic education program, students must take kindergarten before taking six years of elementary
education, followed by six years of secondary education, which includes Grades 11 and 12. But since kindergarten became mandatory and
implemented fully only in SY 2012-2013, then Grade 11 can only be required in SY 2023-2024.==See also==
Main linksDistance e-Learning in the Philippines Higher education in the Philippines
List of universities and colleges in the Philippines List of Catholic universities and colleges
in the Philippines List of the oldest schools in the PhilippinesCategoriesCategory:Filipino
educators Category:Medical schools in the Philippines
Category:Graduate schools in the Philippines Category:Law schools in the Philippines
Category:Liberal arts colleges in the Philippines Category:Business schools in the Philippines
Category:Private universities and colleges in the Philippines
Category:Military education and training in the Philippines==References====Further reading==
Florido, Alethea M. (2006). Education Profile of the Philippines and Best
Practices in Filipino Schools and Classrooms (PDF) (Report). University of North Carolina.==External links==
Department of Education World Data on Education, UNESCO-IBE (2011)
– overview of the education system TVET in the Philippines, UNESCO-UNEVOC (2014)
– overview of the technical and vocational education system

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