Education in India | Wikipedia audio article


Education in India is provided by the public
sector as well as the private sector, with control and funding coming from three levels:
central, state and local. Under various articles of the Indian Constitution, free and compulsory
education is provided as a fundamental right to children between the ages of 6 and 14.
The ratio of public schools to private schools in India is 7:5.
India has made progress in terms of increasing the primary education attendance rate and
expanding literacy to approximately three-quarters of the population in the 7–10 age group,
by 2011. India’s improved education system is often cited as one of the main contributors
to its economic development. Much of the progress, especially in higher education and scientific
research, has been credited to various public institutions. While enrollment in higher education
has increased steadily over the past decade, reaching a Gross Enrollment Ratio of 24% in
2013, there still remains a significant distance to catch up with tertiary education enrollment
levels of developed nations, a challenge that will be necessary to overcome in order to
continue to reap a demographic dividend from India’s comparatively young population.
At the primary and secondary level, India has a large private school system complementing
the government run schools, with 29% of students receiving private education in the 6 to 14
age group. Certain post-secondary technical schools are also private. The private education
market in India had a revenue of US$450 million in 2008, but is projected to be a US$40 billion
market.As per the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) 2012, 96.5% of all rural children
between the ages of 6-14 were enrolled in school. This is the fourth annual survey to
report enrollment above 96%. Another report from 2013 stated that there were 229 million
students enrolled in different accredited urban and rural schools of India, from Class
I to XII, representing an increase of 23 lakh students over 2002 total enrollment, and a
19% increase in girl’s enrollment. While quantitatively India is inching closer to universal education,
the quality of its education has been questioned particularly in its government run school
system.While more than 95 percent of children attend primary school, just 40 percent of
Indian adolescents attend secondary school (Grades 9-12).
Since 2000, the World Bank has committed over $2 billion to education in India. Some of
the reasons for the poor quality include absence of around 25% of teachers every day. States
of India have introduced tests and education assessment system to identify and improve
such schools.Although there are private schools in India, they are highly regulated in terms
of what they can teach, in what form they can operate (must be a non-profit to run any
accredited educational institution) and all other aspects of operation. Hence, the differentiation
of government schools and private schools can be misleading.In India’s higher education
system, a significant number of seats are reserved under affirmative action policies
for the historically disadvantaged Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward
Classes. In universities, colleges, and similar institutions affiliated to the federal government,
there is a maximum 50% of reservations applicable to these disadvantaged groups, at the state
level it can vary. Maharashtra had 73% reservation in 2014, which is the highest percentage of
reservations in India.==School education==The central and most state boards uniformly
follow the “10+2+3” pattern of education. In this pattern, study of 10 years is done
in schools and 2 years in Junior colleges, and then 3 years of graduation for a bachelor’s
degree. The first 10 years is further subdivided into 4 years of primary education, 6 years
of High School followed by 2 years of Junior colleges. This pattern originated from the
recommendation of the Education Commission of 1964–66.===Administration=======
Policy====Education Policy is prepared by the Centre
Government and State Governments at national and state levels respectively. The National
Policy on Education (NPE), 1986, has provided for environment awareness, science and technology
education, and introduction of traditional elements such as Yoga into the Indian secondary
school system. A significant feature of India’s secondary school system is the emphasis on
inclusion of the disadvantaged sections of the society. Professionals from established
institutes are often called to support in vocational training. Another feature of India’s
secondary school system is its emphasis on profession based vocational training to help
students attain skills for finding a vocation of his/her choosing. A significant new feature
has been the extension of SSA to secondary education in the form of the Rashtriya Madhyamik
Shiksha Abhiyan.====Curriculum and School Education Boards
====School boards set the curriculum, conduct
board level exams mostly at 10th and 12th level to award the school diplomas. Exams
at the remaining levels (also called standard, grade or class, denoting the years of schooling)
are conducted by the schools. National Council of Educational Research and
Training (NCERT): The NCERT is the apex body located at New Delhi, Capital City of India.
It makes the curriculum related matters for school education across India. The NCERT provides
support, guidance and technical assistance to a number of schools in India and oversees
many aspects of enforcement of education policies. There are other curriculum bodies governing
school education system specially at state level.
State Government Boards of Education: Most of the state governments have at least one
“State board of secondary school education”. However, some states like Andhra Pradesh have
more than one. Also the union territories do not have a board. Chandigarh, Dadra and
Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, and Lakshadweep and Puducherry Lakshadweep share the services
with a larger state. The boards set curriculum from Grades 1 to 12 and the curriculum varies
from state to state and has more local appeal with examinations conducted in regional languages
in addition to English – often considered less rigorous than central curriculums such
as CBSE or ICSE/ISC. Most of these conduct exams at 10th and 12th level, and some even
at conduct board level exams at 5th, 6th and 8th level.
Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE): The CBSE sets curriculum from Grades 1 to
12 and conducts examinations at the 10th and 12th standards that are called board exams.
Students studying the CBSE Curriculum take the All India Secondary School Examination
(AISSE) at the end of grade 10 and All India Senior School Certificate Examination (AISSCE)
at the end of grade 12. Examinations are offered in Hindi and English.
Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE): CISCE sets curriculum
from Grades 1 to 12 and conducts three examinations, namely, the Indian Certificate of Secondary
Education (ICSE – Class/Grade 10); The Indian School Certificate (ISC – Class/Grade 12)
and the Certificate in Vocational Education (CVE – Class/Grade 12). CISCE English level
has been compared to UK’s A-Levels; this board offers more choices of subjects. CBSE exams
at grade 10 and 12 have often been compared with CICSE and ISC examinations. CICSE is
generally considered to be more rigorous than the CBSE AISSE (grade 10) but the CBSE AISSCE
and ISC examinations are almost on par with each other in most subjects with ISC including
a slightly more rigorous English examination than the CBSE 12th grade examination. The
CBSE and ISC are recognized internationally and most universities abroad accept the final
results of CBSE and ISC exams for admissions purposes and as proof of completion of secondary
school. National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS):
The NIOS conducts two examinations, namely, Secondary Examination and Senior Secondary
Examination (All India) and also some courses in Vocational Education. National Board of
education is run by Government of India’s HRD Ministry to provide education in rural
areas and challenged groups in open and distance education mode. A pilot project started by
CBSE to provide high class affordable education, provides education up to 12th standard. Choice
of subjects is highly customisable and equivalent to CBSE. Home-schooled students usually take
NIOS or international curriculum examinations as they are ineligible to write CBSE or ISC
exams. Islamic Madrasah: Their boards are controlled
by local state governments, or autonomous, or affiliated with Darul Uloom Deoband or
Darul Uloom Nadwtul Ulama. Autonomous schools: Such as Woodstock School,
Sri Aurobindo International Centre of Education Puducherry, Patha Bhavan and Ananda Marga
Gurukula. International Baccalaureate (IB) and Cambridge
International Examinations (CIB): These are generally private schools that have dual affiliation
with one of the school education board of India as well as affiliated to the International
Baccalaureate (IB) Programme and/or the Cambridge International Examinations (CIB).
International schools, which offer 10th and 12th standard examinations under the International
Baccalaureate, Cambridge Senior Secondary Examination systems or under their home nations
school boards (such as run by foreign embassies or the expat communities).
Special education: A special Integrated Education for Disabled Children (IEDC) programme was
started in 1974 with a focus on primary education. but which was converted into Inclusive Education
at Secondary Stage====Midday Meal Nutrition Scheme====
The Midday Meal Scheme is a school meal programme of the Government of India designed to improve
the nutritional status of school-age children nationwide, by suppling free lunches on working
days for children in primary and upper primary classes in government, government aided, local
body, Education Guarantee Scheme, and alternative innovative education centres, Madarsa and
Maqtabs supported under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, and National Child Labour Project schools
run by the ministry of labour. Serving 120,000,000 children in over 1,265,000 schools and Education
Guarantee Scheme centres, it is the largest such programme in the world.====Teachers education====In addition, NUEPA (National University of
Educational Planning and Administration) and NCTE (National Council for Teacher Education)
are responsible for the management of the education system and teacher accreditation.===Levels of schooling=======
Pre-Primary education====The pre-primary stage is the foundation of
children’s knowledge, skills and behaviour. On completion of pre-primary education, the
children are sent to the primary stage but pre-primary education in India is not a fundamental
right. In rural India, pre-primary schools are rarely available in small villages and
urban areas on the contrary. But in cities and big towns, there are many established
players in the pre-primary education sector. The demand for the preschools is growing considerably
in the smaller towns and cities but still only 1% of the population under age 6 is enrolled
in preschool education. Play group (pre-nursery): At play schools,
children are exposed to a lot of basic learning activities that help them to get independent
faster and develop their self-help qualities like eating food themselves, dressing up,
and maintaining cleanliness. The age limit for admission into pre-nursery is 2 to 3 years.
Anganwadi is government funded free rural childcare & mothercare nutrition and learning
program also incorporating the free Midday Meal Scheme.
Nursery: Nursery level activities help children unfold their talents, thus enabling them to
sharpen their mental and physical abilities. The age limit for admission in nursery is
3 to 4 years. LKG: It is also called the Junior Kindergarten
(Jr. kg) stage. The age limit for admission in LKG is 4 to 5 years.
UKG: It is also called the Senior Kindergarten (Sr. kg) stage. The age limit for admission
in UKG is 5 to 6 years.LKG and UKG stages prepare and help children emotionally, mentally,
socially and physically to grasp knowledge easily in the later stages of school and college
life. A systematic process of preschool education
is followed in India to impart knowledge in the best possible way for better understanding
of the young children. By following an easy and interesting curriculum, teachers strive
hard to make the entire learning process enjoyable for the children.====Primary education====The Indian government lays emphasis on primary
education, also referred to as elementary education, to children aged 6 to 14 years
old. Because education laws are given by the states, duration of primary school visit alters
between the Indian states. The Indian government has also banned child labour in order to ensure
that the children do not enter unsafe working conditions. However, both free education and
the ban on child labour are difficult to enforce due to economic disparity and social conditions.
80% of all recognised schools at the elementary stage are government run or supported, making
it the largest provider of education in the country.However, due to a shortage of resources
and lack of political will, this system suffers from massive gaps including high pupil to
teacher ratios, shortage of infrastructure and poor levels of teacher training. Figures
released by the Indian government in 2011 show that there were 5,816,673 elementary
school teachers in India. As of March 2012 there were 2,127,000 secondary school teachers
in India. Education has also been made free for children
for 6 to 14 years of age or up to class VIII under the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory
Education Act 2009.There have been several efforts to enhance quality made by the government.
The District Education Revitalisation Programme (DERP) was launched in 1994 with an aim to
universalise primary education in India by reforming and vitalising the existing primary
education system. 85% of the DERP was funded by the central government and the remaining
15% was funded by the states. The DERP, which had opened 1.6 lakh new schools including
84,000 alternative education schools delivering alternative education to approximately 35
lakh children, was also supported by UNICEF and other international programmes. In January
2016, Kerala became the 1st Indian state to achieve 100% primary education through its
literacy programme Athulyam.This primary education scheme has also not shown a high Gross Enrollment
Ratio of 93–95% for the last three years in some states. Significant improvement in
staffing and enrollment of girls has also been made as a part of this scheme. The current
scheme for universalisation of Education for All is the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan which is
one of the largest education initiatives in the world. Enrollment has been enhanced, but
the levels of quality remain low.====Secondary education====See also: Gender inequality in India
Secondary education covers children aged 12 to 18, a group comprising 8.85 crore children
according to the 2001 Census of India. The final two years of secondary is often called
Higher Secondary (HS), Senior Secondary, or simply the “+2” stage. The two halves of secondary
education are each an important stage for which a pass certificate is needed, and thus
are affiliated by central boards of education under HRD ministry, before one can pursue
higher education, including college or professional courses.
UGC, NCERT, CBSE and ICSE directives state qualifying ages for candidates who wish to
take board exams. Those at least 15 years old by 30 May for a given academic year are
eligible to appear for Secondary board exams, and those 17 by the same date are eligible
to appear for Higher Secondary certificate board exams. It further states that upon successful
completion of Higher Secondary, one can apply to higher education under UGC control such
as Engineering, Medical, and Business Administration. Secondary education in India is examination-oriented
and not course-based: students register for and take classes primarily to prepare for
one of the centrally-administered examinations. Senior school or high school is split into
2 parts (grades 9-10 and grades 11-12) with a standardized nationwide examination at the
end of grade 10 and grade 12 (usually informally referred to as “board exams”). Grade 10 examination
results can be used for admission into grades 11-12 at a secondary school, pre-university
program, or a vocational or technical school. Passing a grade 12 board examination leads
to the granting of a secondary school completion diploma, which may be used for admission into
vocational schools or universities in the country or the world. Most reputable universities
in India require students to pass college-administered admissions tests in addition to passing a
final secondary school examination for entry into a college or university. School grades
are usually not sufficient for college admissions in India.
Most schools in India do not offer subject and scheduling flexibility due to budgeting
constraints (for e.g.: most students in India are not allowed to take Chemistry and History
in grades 11-12 because they are part of different “streams”). Private candidates (i.e. not studying
in a school) are generally not allowed to register for and take board examinations but
there are some exceptions such as NIOS.=====10th (Matriculation or Secondary) Exam
=====Students taking the grade 10 examination usually
take six subjects: English, Mathematics, Social Studies, Science, one language, and one optional
subject depending on the availability of teachers at different schools. “Elective” or optional
subjects often include Computer Applications, Economics, Physical Education, Commerce, and
Environmental Science.=====12th (Senior Secondary or Higher Secondary)
Exam=====Students taking the grade 12 examination usually
take four or five subjects with English or the local language being compulsory. Students
re-enrolling in most secondary schools after grade 10 have to make the choice of choosing
a “core stream” in addition to English or the local language: Science (Mathematics/Biology,
Chemistry, and Physics), Commerce (Accounts, Business Studies, and Economics), or Humanities
(any three of History, Political Science, Sociology, Psychology, Geography depending
on school). Students study Mathematics up to single-variable Calculus in grade 12.===Types of schools=======
Government schools====Majority of the students study in the government
schools where poor and vulnerable students study for free until the age of 14. A Education
Ministry data, 65% (113 million,) of all school students in 20 states go to government schools
(c. 2017). These include schools runs by the state and local government as well as the
centre government. Example of large centre government run school systems are Kendriya
Vidyalaya in urban areas, Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya for
the gifted students, Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya for girls belonging to vulnerable
SC/ST/OBC classes, Indian Army Public Schools run by the Indian Army for the children of
soldiers. Kendriya Vidyalaya project, was started for
the employees of the central government of India, who are deployed throughout the country.
The government started the Kendriya Vidyalaya project in 1965 to provide uniform education
in institutions following the same syllabus at the same pace regardless of the location
to which the employee’s family has been transferred.====Government aided private schools====These are usually charitable trust run schools
that receive partial funding from the government. Largest system of aided schools is run by
D.A.V. College Managing Committee.====Private schools (unaided)====According to current estimate, 29% of Indian
children are privately educated. With more than 50% children enrolling in private schools
in urban areas, the balance has already tilted towards private schooling in cities; and,
even in rural areas, nearly 20% of the children in 2004-5 were enrolled in private schools. Most middle-class families send their children
to private schools, which might be in their own city or at distant boarding schools such
as Rajkumar College, Rajkot, the oldest private school in India. At such schools, the medium
of education is often English, but Hindi and/or the state’s official language is also taught
as a compulsory subject. Pre-school education is mostly limited to organised neighbourhood
nursery schools with some organised chains. Montessori education is also popular, due
to Maria Montessori’s stay in India during World War II. In 2014, four of the top ten
pre-schools in Chennai were Montessori.Many privately owned and managed schools carry
the appellation “Public”, such as the Delhi Public Schools, or Frank Anthony Public Schools.
These are modelled after British public schools, which are a group of older, expensive and
exclusive fee-paying private independent schools in England.
According to some research, private schools often provide superior results at a multiple
of the unit cost of government schools. The reason being high aims and better vision.
However, others have suggested that private schools fail to provide education to the poorest
families, a selective being only a fifth of the schools and have in the past ignored Court
orders for their regulation.In their favour, it has been pointed out that private schools
cover the entire curriculum and offer extra-curricular activities such as science fairs, general
knowledge, sports, music and drama. The pupil teacher ratios are much better in private
schools (1:31 to 1:37 for government schools) and more teachers in private schools are female.
There is some disagreement over which system has better educated teachers. According to
the latest DISE survey, the percentage of untrained teachers (para-teachers) is 54.91%
in private, compared to 44.88% in government schools and only 2.32% teachers in unaided
schools receive in-service training compared to 43.44% for government schools. The competition
in the school market is intense, yet most schools make profit.
However, the number of private schools in India is still low – the share of private
institutions is 7% (with upper primary being 21% secondary 32% – source: fortress team
research). Even the poorest often go to private schools despite the fact that government schools
are free. A study found that 65% school-children in Hyderabad’s slums attend private schools.====International schools====
As of January 2015, the International Schools Consultancy (ISC) listed India as having 410
international schools. ISC defines an ‘international school’ in the following terms “ISC includes
an international school if the school delivers a curriculum to any combination of pre-school,
primary or secondary students, wholly or partly in English outside an English-speaking country,
or if a school in a country where English is one of the official languages, offers an
English-medium curriculum other than the country’s national curriculum and is international in
its orientation.” This definition is used by publications including The Economist.====Home-schooling====
Home-schooling is legal in India, though it is the less explored option. The Indian Government’s
stance on the issue is that parents are free to teach their children at home, if they wish
to and have the means. The then HRD Minister Kapil Sibal has stated that despite the RTE
Act of 2009, if someone decides not to send his/her children to school, the government
would not interfere.==Higher education==Student may opt for vocation education or
the university education.===Vocational education===
India’s All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) reported, in 2013, that there are
more than 4,599 vocational institutions that offer degrees, diploma and post-diploma in
architecture, engineering, hotel management, infrastructure, pharmacy, technology, town
services and others. There were 17.4 lakh students enrolled in these schools. Total
annual intake capacity for technical diplomas and degrees exceeded 34 lakh in 2012.According
to the University Grants Commission (UGC) total enrollment in Science, Medicine, Agriculture
and Engineering crossed 65 lakh in 2010. The number of women choosing engineering has more
than doubled since 2001.===University education===After passing the Higher Secondary Examination
(the Standard 12 examination), students may enrol in general degree programmes such as
bachelor’s degree (graduation) in arts, commerce or science, or professional degree programme
such as engineering, law or medicine and become B. Sc., B. Com., and B. A. graduates. India’s
higher education system is the third largest in the world, after China and the United States.
The main governing body at the tertiary level is the University Grants Commission (India)
(UGC), which enforces its standards, advises the government, and helps coordinate between
the centre and the state up to Post graduation and Doctorate (Ph.D). Accreditation for higher
learning is overseen by 12 autonomous institutions established by the University Grants Commission. As of 2012, India has 152 central universities,
316 state universities, and 191 private universities. Other institutions include 33,623 colleges,
including 1,800 exclusive women’s colleges, functioning under these universities and institutions,
and 12,748 Institutions offering Diploma Courses. The emphasis in the tertiary level of education
lies on science and technology. Indian educational institutions by 2004 consisted of a large
number of technology institutes. Distance learning is also a feature of the Indian higher
education system. The Government has launched Rashtriya Uchchattar Shiksha Abhiyan to provide
strategic funding to State higher and technical institutions. A total of 316 state public
universities and 13,024 colleges will be covered under it.Some institutions of India, such
as the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), Indian Institute of Science and National Institutes
of Technology (NITs) have been globally acclaimed for their standard of under-graduate education
in engineering. Several other institutes of fundamental research such as the Indian Association
for the Cultivation of Science (IACS), Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Tata Institute
of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Harish-Chandra Research Institute (HRI), Indian Institute
of Science Education and Research (IISER) are also acclaimed for their standard of research
in basic sciences and mathematics. However, India has failed to produce world class universities
both in the private sector or the public sector.Besides top rated universities which provide highly
competitive world class education to their pupils, India is also home to many universities
which have been founded with the sole objective of making easy money. Regulatory authorities
like UGC and AICTE have been trying very hard to extirpate the menace of private universities
which are running courses without any affiliation or recognition. Indian Government has failed
to check on these education shops, which are run by big businessmen & politicians. Many
private colleges and universities do not fulfil the required criterion by the Government and
central bodies (UGC, AICTE, MCI, BCI etc.) and take students for a ride. For example,
many institutions in India continue to run unaccredited courses as there is no legislation
strong enough to ensure legal action against them. Quality assurance mechanisms have failed
to stop misrepresentations and malpractices in higher education. At the same time regulatory
bodies have been accused of corruption, specifically in the case of deemed-universities. In this
context of lack of solid quality assurance mechanism, institutions need to step-up and
set higher standards of self-regulation. Our university system is, in many parts, in
a state of disrepair…In almost half the districts in the country, higher education
enrollments are abysmally low, almost two-third of our universities and 90 % of our colleges
are rated as below average on quality parameters… I am concerned that in many states university
appointments, including that of vice-chancellors, have been politicised and have become subject
to caste and communal considerations, there are complaints of favouritism and corruption. The Government of India is aware of the plight
of higher education sector and has been trying to bring reforms, however, 15 bills are still
awaiting discussion and approval in the Parliament. One of the most talked about bill is Foreign
Universities Bill, which is supposed to facilitate entry of foreign universities to establish
campuses in India. The bill is still under discussion and even if it gets passed, its
feasibility and effectiveness is questionable as it misses the context, diversity and segment
of international foreign institutions interested in India. One of the approaches to make internationalisation
of Indian higher education effective is to develop a coherent and comprehensive policy
which aims at infusing excellence, bringing institutional diversity and aids in capacity
building. Three Indian universities were listed in the
Times Higher Education list of the world’s top 200 universities — Indian Institutes
of Technology, Indian Institutes of Management, and Jawaharlal Nehru University in 2005 and
2006. Six Indian Institutes of Technology and the Birla Institute of Technology and
Science—Pilani were listed among the top 20 science and technology schools in Asia
by Asiaweek. The Indian School of Business situated in Hyderabad was ranked number 12
in global MBA rankings by the Financial Times of London in 2010 while the All India Institute
of Medical Sciences has been recognised as a global leader in medical research and treatment.
The University of Mumbai was ranked 41 among the Top 50 Engineering Schools of the world
by America’s news broadcasting firm Business Insider in 2012 and was the only university
in the list from the five emerging BRICS nations viz Brazil, Russia, India, China and South
Africa. It was ranked at 62 in the QS BRICS University rankings for 2013 and was India’s
3rd best Multi-Disciplinary University in the QS University ranking of Indian Universities
after University of Calcutta and Delhi University. Loyola College, Chennai is one of the best
ranked arts and science college in India with the UGC award of College of Excellence tag.===Technical education===From the first Five-year Plan onwards, India’s
emphasis was to develop a pool of scientifically inclined manpower. India’s National Policy
on Education (NPE) provisioned for an apex body for regulation and development of higher
technical education, which came into being as the All India Council for Technical Education
(AICTE) in 1987 through an act of the Indian parliament. At the federal level, the Indian
Institutes of Technology, the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, the National
Institutes of Technology and the Indian Institutes of Information Technology are deemed of national
importance. The Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs)
and National Institutes of Technology (NITs) are among the nation’s premier education facilities.
The UGC has inter-university centres at a number of locations throughout India to promote
common research, e.g. the Nuclear Science Centre at the Jawaharlal Nehru University,
New Delhi. Besides there are some British established colleges such as Harcourt Butler
Technological Institute situated in Kanpur and King George Medical University situated
in Lucknow which are important centre of higher education.
Central Universities such as Banaras Hindu University, Jamia Millia Islamia University,
Delhi University, Mumbai University, University of Calcutta, Jadavpur University etc. too
are pioneers of technical education in the country.
In addition to above institutes, efforts towards the enhancement of technical education are
supplemented by a number of recognised Professional Engineering Societies such as: Institution of Engineers (India)
Institution of Civil Engineers (India) Institution of Mechanical Engineers (India)
Institution of Chemical Engineering (India) Institution of Electronics and Tele-Communication
Engineers (India) Indian Institute of Metals
Institution of Industrial Engineers (India) Institute of Town Planners (India)
Indian Institute of Architectsthat conduct Engineering/Technical Examinations at different
levels (Degree and diploma) for working professionals desirous of improving their technical qualifications.
The number of graduates coming out of technical colleges increased to over 7 lakh in 2011
from 5.5 lakh in FY 2010. However, according to one study, 75% of technical graduates and
more than 85% of general graduates lack the skills needed in India’s most demanding and
high-growth global industries such as Information Technology. These high-tech global information
technologies companies directly or indirectly employ about 23 lakh people, less than 1%
of India’s labour pool. India offers one of the largest pool of technically skilled graduates
in the world. Given the sheer numbers of students seeking education in engineering, science
and mathematics, India faces daunting challenges in scaling up capacity while maintaining quality.==Open and distance learning==
At the school level, National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) provides opportunities
for continuing education to those who missed completing school education. 14 lakh students
are enrolled at the secondary and higher secondary level through open and distance learning.
In 2012 Various state governments also introduced “STATE OPEN SCHOOL” to provide distance education.At
higher education level, Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) co-ordinates distance
learning. It has a cumulative enrollment of about 15 lakh, serviced through 53 regional
centres and 1,400 study centres with 25,000 counselors. The Distance Education Council
(DEC), an authority of IGNOU is co-coordinating 13 State Open Universities and 119 institutions
of correspondence courses in conventional universities. While distance education institutions
have expanded at a very rapid rate, but most of these institutions need an up gradation
in their standards and performance. There is a large proliferation of courses covered
by distance mode without adequate infrastructure, both human and physical. There is a strong
need to correct these imbalances.Massive open online course are made available for free
by the HRD ministry and various educational institutes.==Extracurricular activities==
Extracurricular activities include sports, arts, National Service Scheme, National Cadet
Corps, The Bharat Scouts and Guides, etc.==Quality=====
Literacy===According to the Census of 2011, “every person
above the age of 7 years who can read and write with understanding in any language is
said to be literate”. According to this criterion, the 2011 survey holds the National Literacy
Rate to be 74.04%. The youth literacy rate, measured within the age group of 15 to 24,
is 81.1% (84.4% among males and 74.4% among females), while 86% of boys and 72% of girls
are literate in the 10-19 age group.Within the Indian states, Tripura has the highest
literacy rate of 94.65% whereas Bihar averaged 61.8% literacy. The 2001 statistics indicated
that the total number of ‘absolute non-literates’ in the country was 304 million. Gender gap
in literacy rate is high, for example in Rajasthan, the state with the lowest female literacy
rate in India, average female literacy rate is 52.66% and average male literacy rate is
80.51%, making a gender gap of 27.85%.===Attainment===
As of 2011, enrollment rates are 58% for pre-primary, 93% for primary, 69% for secondary, and 25%
for tertiary education.Despite the high overall enrollment rate for primary education among
rural children of age 10, half could not read at a basic level, over 60% were unable to
do division, and half dropped out by the age of 14.In 2009, two states in India, Tamil
Nadu and Himachal Pradesh, participated in the international PISA exams which is administered
once every three years to 15-year-old’s. Both states ranked at the bottom of the table,
beating out only Kyrgyzstan in score, and falling 200 points (two standard deviations)
below the average for OECD countries. While in the immediate aftermath there was a short-lived
controversy over the quality of primary education in India, ultimately India decided to not
participate in PISA for 2012, and again not to for 2015.While the quality of free, public
education is in crisis, a majority of the urban poor have turned to private schools.
In some urban cities, it is estimated as high as two-thirds of all students attend private
institutions, many of which charge a modest US$2 per month.===Public school workforce===
Officially, the pupil to teacher ratio within the public school system for primary education
is 35:1. However, teacher absenteeism in India is exorbitant, with 25% never showing up for
work. The World Bank estimates the cost in salaries alone paid to such teachers who have
never attended work is US $2 billion per year. A study on teachers by Kremer etc. found out
that 25% of private sector teachers and 40% of public sector medical workers were absent
during the survey. Among teachers who were paid to teach, absence rates ranged from 14.6%
in Maharashtra to 41.9% in Jharkhand. Only 1 in nearly 3,000 public school head teachers
had ever dismissed a teacher for repeated absence. The same study found “only about
half were teaching, during unannounced visits to a nationally representative sample of government
primary schools in India.”===Higher education===
As per Report of the Higher education in India, Issues Related to Expansion, Inclusiveness,
Quality and Finance, the access to higher education measured in term of gross enrollment
ratio increased from 0.7% in 1950/51 to 1.4% in 1960–61. By 2006/7 the GER increased
to about 11%. Notably, by 2012, it had crossed 20% (as mentioned in an earlier section).===Vocational education===
An optimistic estimate from 2008 was that only one in five job-seekers in India ever
had any sort of vocational training. However it’s expected to grow as the CBSE
has brought changes in its education system which emphasises inclusion of certain number
and types of vocational subjects in classes 9th and 11th. Although it’s not mandatory
for schools to go for it but a good number of schools have voluntarily accepted the suggestion
and incorporated the change in their curriculum.===Technical certification Education===
Demand for technical certification is increasing every year among job seekers and WEBNext Labs
has been imparting free technical education on web technologies and IoT (Internet of Things)==Issues=====Facilities===
As per 2016 Annual Survey of Education Report (ASER), 3.5% schools in India had no toilet
facility while only 68.7% schools had usable toilet facility. 75.5% of the schools surveyed
had library in 2016, a decrease from 78.1% in 2014. Percentage of schools with separate
girls toilet have increased from 32.9% in 2010 to 61.9%in 2016. 74.1% schools had drinking
water facility and 64.5% of the schools had playground.===Curriculum issues===
Modern education in India is often criticised for being based on rote learning rather than
problem solving. New Indian Express says that Indian Education system seems to be producing
zombies since in most of the schools students seemed to be spending majority of their time
in preparing for competitive exams rather than learning or playing. BusinessWeek criticises
the Indian curriculum, saying it revolves around rote learning and ExpressIndia suggests
that students are focused on cramming.Preschool for Child Rights states that almost 99% of
pre-schools do not have any curriculum at all. Also creativity is not encouraged or
is considered as a form of entertainment in most institutions.===Rural education===Following independence, India viewed education
as an effective tool for bringing social change through community development. The administrative
control was effectively initiated in the 1950s, when, in 1952, the government grouped villages
under a Community Development Block—an authority under national programme which could control
education in up to 100 villages. A Block Development Officer oversaw a geographical area of 150
square miles (390 km2) which could contain a population of as many as 70,000 people.Setty
and Ross elaborate on the role of such programmes, themselves divided further into individual-based,
community based, or the Individual-cum-community-based, in which microscopic levels of development
are overseen at village level by an appointed worker: The community development programmes comprise
agriculture, animal husbandry, cooperation, rural industries, rural engineering (consisting
of minor irrigation, roads, buildings), health and sanitation including family welfare, family
planning, women welfare, child care and nutrition, education including adult education, social
education and literacy, youth welfare and community organisation. In each of these areas
of development there are several programmes, schemes and activities which are additive,
expanding and tapering off covering the total community, some segments, or specific target
populations such as small and marginal farmers, artisans, women and in general people below
the poverty line. Despite some setbacks the rural education
programmes continued throughout the 1950s, with support from private institutions. A
sizeable network of rural education had been established by the time the Gandhigram Rural
Institute was established and 5,200 Community Development Blocks were established in India.
Nursery schools, elementary schools, secondary school, and schools for adult education for
women were set up.The government continued to view rural education as an agenda that
could be relatively free from bureaucratic backlog and general stagnation. However, in
some cases lack of financing balanced the gains made by rural education institutes of
India. Some ideas failed to find acceptability among India’s poor and investments made by
the government sometimes yielded little results. Today, government rural schools remain poorly
funded and understaffed. Several foundations, such as the Rural Development Foundation (Hyderabad),
actively build high-quality rural schools, but the number of students served is small.
Education in rural India is valued differently from in an urban setting, with lower rates
of completion. An imbalanced sex ratio exists within schools with 18% of males earning a
high school diploma compared with only 10% of females. The estimated number of children
who have never attended school in India is near 100 million which reflects the low completion
levels. This is the largest concentration in the world of youth who haven’t enrolled
in school.===Women’s education===Women have a much lower literacy rate than
men. Far fewer girls are enrolled in the schools, and many of them drop out. In the patriarchal
setting of the Indian family, girls have lower status and fewer privileges than boys. Conservative
cultural attitudes prevent some girls from attending school.The number of literate women
among the female population of India was between 2–6% from the British Raj onwards to the
formation of the Republic of India in 1947. Concerted efforts led to improvement from
15.3% in 1961 to 28.5% in 1981. By 2001 literacy for women had exceeded 50% of the overall
female population, though these statistics were still very low compared to world standards
and even male literacy within India. Recently the Indian government has launched Saakshar
Bharat Mission for Female Literacy. This mission aims to bring down female illiteracy by half
of its present level. Sita Anantha Raman outlines the progress of
women’s education in India: Since 1947 the Indian government has tried
to provide incentives for girls’ school attendance through programmes for midday meals, free
books, and uniforms. This welfare thrust raised primary enrollment between 1951 and 1981.
In 1986 the National Policy on Education decided to restructure education in tune with the
social framework of each state, and with larger national goals. It emphasised that education
was necessary for democracy, and central to the improvement of women’s condition. The
new policy aimed at social change through revised texts, curricula, increased funding
for schools, expansion in the numbers of schools, and policy improvements. Emphasis was placed
on expanding girls’ occupational centres and primary education; secondary and higher education;
and rural and urban institutions. The report tried to connect problems like low school
attendance with poverty, and the dependence on girls for housework and sibling day care.
The National Literacy Mission also worked through female tutors in villages. Although
the minimum marriage age is now eighteen for girls, many continue to be married much earlier.
Therefore, at the secondary level, female drop-out rates are high.
Sita Anantha Raman also mentions that while the educated Indian women workforce maintains
professionalism, the men outnumber them in most fields and, in some cases, receive higher
income for the same positions.The education of women in India plays a significant role
in improving livings standards in the country. A higher female literacy rate improves the
quality of life both at home and outside the home, by encouraging and promoting education
of children, especially female children, and in reducing the infant mortality rate. Several
studies have shown that a lower level of women literacy rates results in higher levels of
fertility and infant mortality, poorer nutrition, lower earning potential and the lack of an
ability to make decisions within a household. Women’s lower educational levels is also shown
to adversely affect the health and living conditions of children. A survey that was
conducted in India showed results which support the fact that infant mortality rate was inversely
related to female literacy rate and educational level. The survey also suggests a correlation
between education and economic growth. In India, there is a large disparity between
female literacy rates in different states. State of Kerala has the highest female literacy
rate of 91.98% while Rajasthan has the lowest female literacy rate of 52.66. This correlates
to the health levels of states, Kerala has average life expectancy at birth of 74.9 while
Rajasthan’s average life expectancy at birth is 67.7 years.In India, higher education is
defined as the education of an age group between 18 and 24, and is largely funded by the government.
Despite women making up 24–50% of higher education enrollment, there is still a gender
imbalance within higher education. Only one third of science students and 7% of engineering
students, are women. In comparison, however, over half the students studying Education
are women.===Accreditation===
In January 2010, the Government of India decided to withdraw Deemed university status from
as many as 44 institutions. The Government claimed in its affidavit that academic considerations
were not being kept in mind by the management of these institutions and that “they were
being run as family fiefdoms”.In February 2009,the University Grant Commission found
39 fake institutions operating in India.===Employer training===
Only 10% of manufacturers in India offer in-service training to their employees, compared with
over 90% in China.===Teacher Careers===
In the Indian education system, a teacher’s success is loosely defined. It is either based
on a student’s success or based on the years of teaching experience, both of which do not
necessarily correlate to a teacher’s skill set or competencies. The management of an
institution could thereby be forced to promote teachers based on the grade level they teach
or their seniority, both of which are often not an indicator of a good teacher. This means
that either a primary school teacher is promoted to a higher grade, or a teacher is promoted
to take up other roles within the institution such as Head of Department, coordinator, Vice
Principal or Principal. However, the skills and competencies that are required for each
of them vary and a great teacher may not be a great manager. Since teachers do not see
their own growth and success in their own hands, they often do not take up any professional
development. Thus, there is a need to identify a framework to help a teacher chart a career
path based on his/her own competency and help him/her understand his/her own development.===Coaching===Increased competition to get seats into reputed
colleges has given rise to private coaching institutes in India. They prepare students
for not only engineering, medical, MBA, SAT, GRE, banking jobs’ entrance tests, but also
teach subjects like English for employment in India and abroad.
A 2013 survey by ASSOCHAM predicted the size of private coaching industry to be $40 billion,
or Rs 23.9 lakh million in 2015.Kota in Rajasthan is the called the capital of engineering and
medical colleges’ entrance’s coaching sector. In Punjab English language is taught by coaching
institutes for foreign visa aspirants to get the right IELTS score for their applications.
Mukherjee Nagar and Old Rajinder Nagar in Delhi are considered the hub for UPSC Civil
Services Examination coaching. To compete in these exams, Center and some state governments
also provide free coaching to students, especially to students from minority communities.Coaching
classes are blamed for the neglect of school education by students.===Corruption in education===Corruption in Indian education system has
been eroding the quality of education and has been creating long-term negative consequences
for the society. Educational corruption in India is considered as one of the major contributors
to domestic black money.===Grade inflation===
Grade inflation has become an issue in Indian secondary education. In CBSE, a 95 percent
aggregate is 21 times as prevalent today as it was in 2004, and a 90 percent close to
nine times as prevalent. In the ISC Board, a 95 percent is almost twice as prevalent
today as it was in 2012. CBSE called a meeting of all 40 school boards early in 2017 to urge
them to discontinue “artificial spiking of marks”. CBSE decided to lead by example
and promised not to inflate its results. But although the 2017 results have seen a small
correction, the board has clearly not discarded the practice completely. Almost 6.5 percent
of mathematics examinees in 2017 scored 95 or more — 10 times higher than in 2004 — and
almost 6 percent of physics examinees scored 95 or more, 35 times more than in 2004.==Initiatives=====
Central government involvement===Following India’s independence a number of
rules were formulated for the backward Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes of India,
and in 1960 a list identifying 405 Scheduled Castes and 225 Scheduled Tribes was published
by the central government. An amendment was made to the list in 1975, which identified
841 Scheduled Castes and 510 Scheduled Tribes. The total percentage of Scheduled Castes and
Scheduled Tribes combined was found to be 22.5% with the Scheduled Castes accounting
for 17% and the Scheduled Tribes accounting for the remaining 7.5%. Following the report
many Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes increasingly referred to themselves as Dalit,
a Marathi language terminology used by B R Ambedkar which literally means “oppressed”.The
Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes are provided for in many of India’s educational
programmes. Special reservations are also provided for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled
Tribes in India, e.g. a reservation of 15% in Kendriya Vidyalaya for Scheduled Castes
and another reservation of 7.5% in Kendriya Vidyalaya for Scheduled Tribes. Similar reservations
are held by the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in many schemes and educational facilities
in India. The remote and far-flung regions of North-East India are provided for under
the Non-Lapsible Central pool of Resources (NLCPR) since 1998–1999. The NLCPR aims
to provide funds for infrastructure development in these remote areas.Women from remote, underdeveloped
areas or from weaker social groups in Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand, Karnataka,
Kerala, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, and Uttarakhand, fall under the Mahila Samakhya Scheme, initiated
in 1989. Apart from provisions for education this programme also aims to raise awareness
by holding meetings and seminars at rural levels. The government allowed ₹34 crore
(US$4.7 million) during 2007–08 to carry out this scheme over 83 districts including
more than 21,000 villages.Currently there are 68 Bal Bhavans and 10 Bal Kendra affiliated
to the National Bal Bhavan. The scheme involves educational and social activities and recognising
children with a marked talent for a particular educational stream. A number of programmes
and activities are held under this scheme, which also involves cultural exchanges and
participation in several international forums.India’s minorities, especially the ones considered
‘educationally backward’ by the government, are provided for in the 1992 amendment of
the Indian National Policy on Education (NPE). The government initiated the Scheme of Area
Intensive Programme for Educationally Backward Minorities and Scheme of Financial Assistance
or Modernisation of Madarsa Education as part of its revised Programme of Action (1992).
Both these schemes were started nationwide by 1994. In 2004 the Indian parliament passed
an act which enabled minority education establishments to seek university affiliations if they passed
the required norms.===Legislative framework===
Article 45, of the Constitution of India originally stated: The State shall endeavour to provide, within
a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory
education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.
This article was a directive principle of state policy within India, effectively meaning
that it was within a set of rules that were meant to be followed in spirit and the government
could not be held to court if the actual letter was not followed. However, the enforcement
of this directive principle became a matter of debate since this principle held obvious
emotive and practical value, and was legally the only directive principle within the Indian
constitution to have a time limit.Following initiatives by the Supreme Court of India
during the 1990s the 93rd amendment bill suggested three separate amendments to the Indian constitution:The
constitution of India was amended to include a new article, 21A, which read: The State shall provide free and compulsory
education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in a such manner as the
State may, by law, determine. Article 45 was proposed to be substituted
by the article which read: Provision for early childhood care and education
to children below the age of six years: The State shall endeavour to provide early childhood
care and education for all children until they complete the age of sixteen years.
Another article, 51A, was to additionally have the clause: …a parent or guardian [shall] provide opportunities
for education to his child or, as the case may be, [a] ward between the age of six to
fourteen years. The bill was passed unanimously in the Lok
Sabha, the lower house of the Indian parliament, on 28 November 2001. It was later passed by
the upper house—the Rajya Sabha—on 14 May 2002. After being signed by the President
of India the Indian constitution was amended formally for the eighty sixth time and the
bill came into effect. Since then those between the age of 6–14 have a fundamental right
to education.Article 46 of the Constitution of India holds that: The State shall promote, with special care,
the education and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people, and in particular
of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, and shall protect them from social injustice
and all forms of social exploitation’. Other provisions for the Scheduled Castes
and Scheduled Tribes can be found in Articles 330, 332, 335, 338–342. Both the 5th and
the 6th Schedules of the Constitution also make special provisions for the Scheduled
Castes and Scheduled Tribes.===Central Government expenditure on education
===As a part of the tenth Five-year Plan (2002–2007),
the central government of India outlined an expenditure of 65.6% of its total education
budget of ₹43,800 crore (US$6.1 billion) i.e. ₹28,800 crore (US$4.0 billion) on elementary
education; 9.9% i.e. ₹4,325 crore (US$600 million) on secondary education; 2.9% i.e.
₹1,250 crore (US$170 million) on adult education; 9.5% i.e. ₹4,176.5 crore (US$580 million)
on higher education; 10.7% i.e. ₹4,700 crore (US$650 million) on technical education; and
the remaining 1.4% i.e. ₹623.5 crore (US$87 million) on miscellaneous education schemes.During
the Financial Year 2011-12, the Central Government of India has allocated ₹ 38,957 crore for
the Department of School Education and Literacy which is the main department dealing with
primary education in India. Within this allocation, major share of ₹ 21,000 crore, is for the
flagship programme ‘Sarva Siksha Abhiyan’. However, budgetary allocation of ₹ 210,000
million is considered very low in view of the officially appointed Anil Bordia Committee
recommendation of ₹ 35,659 crore for the year 2011-12. This higher allocation was required
to implement the recent legislation ‘Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education
Act, 2009. In recent times, several major announcements were made for developing the
poor state of affairs in education sector in India, the most notable ones being the
National Common Minimum Programme (NCMP) of the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government.
The announcements are; (a) To progressively increase expenditure
on education to around 6% of GDP. (b) To support this increase in expenditure
on education, and to increase the quality of education, there would be an imposition
of an education cess over all central government taxes.
(c) To ensure that no one is denied of education due to economic backwardness and poverty.
(d) To make right to education a fundamental right for all children in the age group 6–14
years. (e) To universalise education through its
flagship programmes such as Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan and Midday Meal Scheme
However, even after five years of implementation of NCMP, not much progress has been seen on
this front. Although the country targeted towards devoting 6% share of the GDP towards
the educational sector, the performance has definitely fallen short of expectations. Expenditure
on education has steadily risen from 0.64% of GDP in 1951–52 to 2.31% in 1970–71
and thereafter reached the peak of 4.26% in 2000–01. However, it declined to 3.49% in
2004–05. There is a definite need to step-up again. As a proportion of total government
expenditure, it has declined from around 11.1% in 2000–2001 to around 9.98% during UPA
rule, even though ideally it should be around 20% of the total budget. A policy brief issued
by [Network for Social Accountability (NSA)] titled “[NSA Response to Education Sector
Interventions in Union Budget: UPA Rule and the Education Sector] ” provides significant
revelation to this fact. Due to a declining priority of education in the public policy
paradigm in India, there has been an exponential growth in the private expenditure on education
also. [As per the available information, the private out of pocket expenditure by the working
class population for the education of their children in India has increased by around
1150 percent or around 12.5 times over the last decade].==History==Takshasila (in modern-day Pakistan) was the
earliest recorded centre of higher learning in India from possibly 8th Century BCE, and
it is debatable whether it could be regarded a university or not in modern sense, since
teachers living there may not have had official membership of particular colleges, and there
did not seem to have existed purpose-built lecture halls and residential quarters in
Taxila, in contrast to the later Nalanda university in eastern India. Nalanda was the oldest university-system
of education in the world in the modern sense of university. There all subjects were taught
in Ariano -páli Language.Secular institutions cropped up along Buddhist monasteries. These
institutions imparted practical education, e.g. medicine. A number of urban learning
centres became increasingly visible from the period between 500 BCE to 400 CE. The important
urban centres of learning were Nalanda (in modern-day Bihar) and Manassa in Nagpur, among
others. These institutions systematically imparted knowledge and attracted a number
of foreign students to study topics such as Buddhist Páli literature, logic, páli grammar,
etc. Chanakya, a Brahmin teacher, was among the most famous teachers, associated with
founding of Mauryan Empire. Sammanas and Brahmin gurus historically offered
education by means of donations, rather than charging fees or the procurement of funds
from students or their guardians. Later, stupas, temples also became centres of education;
religious education was compulsory, but secular subjects were also taught. Students were required
to be brahmacaris or celibates. The knowledge in these orders was often related to the tasks
a section of the society had to perform. The priest class, the Sammanas, were imparted
knowledge of religion, philosophy, and other ancillary branches while the warrior class,
the Kshatriya, were trained in the various aspects of warfare. The business class, the
Vaishya, were taught their trade and the working class of the Shudras was generally deprived
of educational advantages.==See also==
Gender inequality in India==References=====Citations======Bibliography===
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Inc., ISBN 1-57607-348-3. Elder, Joseph W. (2006), “Caste System”, Encyclopedia
of India (vol. 1) edited by Stanley Wolpert, 223–229, Thomson Gale: ISBN 0-684-31350-2.
Ellis, Catriona. “Education for All: Reassessing the Historiography of Education in Colonial
India.” History Compass (2009) 7#2 pp 363–375 Dharampal, . (2000). The beautiful tree: Indigenous
Indian education in the eighteenth century. Biblia Impex Private Limited, New Delhi 1983;
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New Delhi: Additional Director General (ADG), Publications Division, Ministry of Information
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Prabhu, Joseph (2006), “Educational Institutions and Philosophies, Traditional and Modern”,
Encyclopedia of India (vol. 2) edited by Stanley Wolpert, 23–28, Thomson Gale: ISBN 0-684-31351-0.
Raman, S.A. (2006). “Women’s Education”, Encyclopedia of India (vol. 4), edited by Stanley Wolpert,
235–239, Thomson Gale: ISBN 0-684-31353-7. Rosser, Yvette Claire (2003). Curriculum as
Destiny: Forging National Identity in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh (PDF) (Dissertation).
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11 September 2008. Setty, E.D. and Ross, E.L. (1987), “A Case
Study in Applied Education in Rural India”, Community Development Journal, 22 (2): 120–129,
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Journal of Constitutional Law, 2 (1): 148–158, Oxford University Press.
Vrat, Prem (2006), “Indian Institutes of Technology”, Encyclopedia of India (vol. 2) edited by Stanley
Wolpert, 229–231, Thomson Gale: ISBN 0-684-31351-0. Desai, Sonalde, Amaresh Dubey, B.L. Joshi,
Mitali Sen, Abusaleh Shariff and Reeve Vanneman. 2010. India Human Development in India: Challenges
for a Society in Transition. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Official website
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Server Indian Education System After Independence

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