Education in France | Wikipedia audio article


The French educational system is highly centralized
and organized, with many subdivisions. It is divided into the three stages of enseignement
primaire (primary education), enseignement secondaire (secondary education), and enseignement
supérieur (higher education). In French higher education, the following
degrees are recognized by the Bologna Process (EU recognition): Licence and Licence Professionnelle
(bachelor’s degrees), and the comparably named Master and Doctorat degrees.==History==Napoleon launched the university and secondary
educational systems to Napoleon. Guizot started the elementary system. Intense battles took place over whether the
Catholic Church should play a dominant role. The modern era of French education begins
at the end of the nineteenth century. Jules Ferry, a Minister of Public Instruction
in the 1880s, is widely credited for creating the modern school (l’école républicaine)
by requiring all children between the ages of 6 and 12, both boys and girls, to attend. He also made public instruction mandatory,
free of charge, and secular (laïque). With these laws, known as French Lubbers,
Jules Ferry laws, and several others, the Third Republic repealed most of the Falloux
Laws of 1850–1851, which gave an important role to the clergy.==Governance==
All educational programmes in France are regulated by the Ministry of National Education (officially
called Ministère de l’Éducation nationale, de la Jeunesse et de la Vie associative). The head of the ministry is the Minister of
National Education. The teachers in public primary and secondary
schools are all state civil servants, making the ministère the largest employer in the
country. Professors and researchers in France’s universities
are also employed by the state. At the primary and secondary levels, the curriculum
is the same for all French students in any given grade, which includes public, semi-public
and subsidised institutions. However, there exist specialised sections
and a variety of options that students can choose. The reference for all French educators is
the Bulletin officiel de l’éducation nationale, de l’enseignement supérieur et de la recherche
(B.O.) which lists all current programmes and teaching directives. It is amended many times every year.==School year==
In Metropolitan France, the school year runs from early September to early July. The school calendar is standardised throughout
the country and is the sole domain of the ministry.In May, schools need time to organise
exams (for example, the baccalauréat). Outside Metropolitan France, the school calendar
is set by the local recteur. Major holiday breaks are as follows: All Saints (la Toussaint), two weeks (since
2012) around the end of October and the beginning of November;
Christmas (Noël), two weeks around Christmas Day and New Year’s Day;
winter (hiver), two weeks starting in mid February;
spring (printemps) or Easter (Pâques), two weeks starting in mid April;
summer (été), two months starting in early July. (mid-June for high school students).==Primary school==
Schooling in France is not mandatory (but instruction is). Most parents start sending their children
to preschool (maternelle) when they turn 3. Some even start earlier at age 2 in toute
petite section “TPS”. The first two years of preschool (TPS and
petite section “PS”) are introductions to community living; children learn how to become
students and are introduced to their first notions of arithmetic, begin to recognize
scripture, develop oral language, etc. The last two years of preschool, moyenne section
and grande section, are more school-like; pupils are introduced to reading, writing
and more mathematics. A preschool can have its own school zone (mostly
true in towns) or be affiliated to an elementary school (mostly in villages). As in other educational systems, French primary
school students usually have a single teacher (or two) who teaches the complete curriculum. After kindergarten, the young students move
on to the école élémentaire (elementary school). In the first 3 years of elementary school,
they learn to write, develop their reading skills and get some basics in subjects such
as French, mathematics, science and the arts, to name a few. Note that the French word for a teacher at
the primary school level is professeur or professeure des écoles (previously called
instituteur, or its feminine form institutrice). Children stay in elementary school for 5 years
until they are 10–11 years-old. The grades are named: CP (cours préparatoire),
CE1 (cours élémentaire 1), CE2 (cours élémentaire 2), CM1 (cours moyen 1) and CM2 (cours moyen
2).==Middle school and high school==After primary school, two educational stages
follow: collège (middle school), for children during
their first four years of secondary education from the age of 11 to 15. lycée (high school), which provides a three-year
course of further secondary education for children between the ages of 15 and 18. Pupils are prepared for the baccalauréat
(baccalaureate, colloquially known as le bac) or the CAP (Certificat d’aptitude professionnelle). The baccalauréat can lead to higher education
studies or directly to professional life. CFA (centre de formation des apprentis, apprentice
learning center), which provides vocational degrees: le Certificat d’aptitude professionnelle.==International education==
As of January 2015, the International Schools Consultancy (ISC) listed France as having
105 international schools. ISC defines an ‘international school’ in the
following terms: “ISC includes an international school if the school delivers a curriculum
to any combination of pre-school, primary or secondary students, wholly or partly in
English outside an English-speaking country, or if a school in a country where English
is one of the official languages, offers an English-medium curriculum other than the country’s
national curriculum and is international in its orientation.” This definition is used by publications including
The Economist.France has its own international school regulator, the AEFE (Agence pour l’enseignement
français à l’étranger).==Higher education==Higher education in France is organized in
three levels, which correspond to those of other European countries, facilitating international
mobility: the Licence and Licence Professionnelle (bachelor’s degrees), and the Master’s and
Doctorat degrees. The Licence and the Master are organized in
semesters: 6 for the Licence and 4 for the Master. These levels of study include various “parcours”
or paths based on UE (Unités d’Enseignement or Modules), each worth a defined number of
European credits (ECTS); a student accumulates these credits, which are generally transferable
between paths. A Licence is awarded once 180 ECTS have been
obtained; a Master is awarded once 120 additional credits have been obtained. Licence and master’s degrees are offered within
specific domaines and carry a specific mention. Spécialités which are either research-oriented
or professionally oriented during the second year of the Master. There are also Professional Licences whose
objective is immediate job integration. It is possible to later return to school through
continuing education or to validate professional experience (through VAE, Validation des Acquis
de l’Expérience). Higher education in France is divided between
grandes écoles and public universities. The grandes écoles admit the graduates of
the level Baccalauréat + 2 years of validated study (or sometimes directly after the Baccalauréat)
whereas universities admit all graduates of the Baccalauréat. A striking trait of French higher education,
compared with other countries, is the small size and multiplicity of establishments, each
specialised in a more-or-less broad spectrum of areas. A middle-sized French city, such as Grenoble
or Nancy, may have 2 or 3 universities (focused on science or sociological studies) and also
a number of engineering and other establishments specialised higher education. In Paris and its suburbs there are 13 universities,
none of which is specialised in one area or another, and a large number of smaller institutions
that are highly specialised. It is not uncommon for graduate teaching programmes
(master’s degrees, the course part of PhD programmes etc.) to be operated in common
by several institutions, allowing the institutions to present a larger variety of courses.In
engineering schools and the professional degrees of universities, a large share of the teaching
staff is often made up of non-permanent professors; instead, part-time professors are hired to
teach one only specific subject. The part-time professors are generally hired
from neighbouring universities, research institutes or industries. Another original feature of the French higher
education system is that a large share of the scientific research is carried out by
research establishments such as CNRS or INSERM, which are not formally part of the universities. However, in most cases, the research units
of those establishments are located inside universities (or other higher education establishments)
and jointly operated by the research establishment and the university.===Tuition costs===
Since higher education is funded by the state, the fees are very low; the tuition varies
from €150 to €700 depending on the university and the different levels of education. (licence, master, doctorate). One can therefore get a master’s degree (in
5 years) for about €750–3,500. Additionally, students from low-income families
can apply for scholarships, paying nominal sums for tuition or textbooks, and can receive
a monthly stipend of up to €450 per month. The tuition in public engineering schools
is comparable to universities, albeit a little higher (around €700). However it can reach €7,000 a year for private
engineering schools, and some business schools, which are all private or partially private,
charge up to €15,000 a year. Health insurance for students is free until
the age of 20 so only the costs of living and books have to be added. After the age of 20, the health insurance
for students costs €200 a year and cover most of the medical expenses. Some public schools have other ways of gaining
money. Some do not receive sufficient funds from
the government for class trips and other extra activities and so these schools may ask for
a small (optional) entrance fee for new students.===Universities in France===The public universities in France are named
after the major cities near which they are located, followed by a numeral if there are
several. Paris, for example, has thirteen universities,
labelled Paris I to XIII. Some of these are not in Paris itself, but
in the suburbs. In addition, most of the universities have
taken a more informal name which is usually that of a famous person or a particular place. Sometimes, it is also a way to honor a famous
alumnus, for example the science university in Strasbourg is known as “Université Louis
Pasteur” while its official name is “Université Strasbourg I” (however, since 2009, the three
universities of Strasbourg have been merged).The French system has undergone a reform, the
Bologna process, which aims at creating European standards for university studies, most notably
a similar time-frame everywhere, with three years devoted to the bachelor’s degree (“licence”
in French), two for the Master’s, and three for the doctorate. French universities have also adopted the
ECTS credit system (for example, a licence is worth 180 credits). However the traditional curriculum based on
end of semester examinations still remains in place in most universities. This double standard has added complexity
to a system which also remains quite rigid. It is difficult to change a major during undergraduate
studies without losing a semester or even a whole year. Students usually also have few course selection
options once they enroll in a particular diploma. France also hosts various branch colleges
of foreign universities. These include Baruch College, the University
of London Institute in Paris, Parsons Paris School of Art and Design and the American
University of Paris.===Grandes écoles===The grandes écoles of France are elite higher-education
establishments. They are generally focused on a single subject
area (e.g., engineering or business), have a small size (typically between 100 and 300
graduates per year), and are highly selective. They are widely regarded as prestigious, and
most of France’s scientists and executives have graduated from a grande école. National rankings are published every year
by various magazines. While these rankings slightly vary from year
to year, the top grandes écoles have been very stable for decades: science and engineering: Écoles Normales
Supérieures, Ecole Polytechnique, Mines ParisTech, ISAE-Supaéro and CentraleSupélec;
humanities: three Écoles Normales Supérieures and Ecole des Chartes;
business: HEC Paris, ESSEC Business School, ESCP Europe, INSEAD, EMLyon, Audencia and
EDHEC; administration and political sciences: ENA
and Sciences Po.===Preparatory classes (CPGEs)===The Preparatory classes (in French “classes
préparatoires aux grandes écoles” or CPGE), widely known as prépas, is a prep course
with the main goal of training students for enrollment in a grande école. Admission to CPGEs is based on performance
during the last two years of high school, called Première and Terminale. Only 5% of a generation is admitted to a prépa. CPGEs are usually located within high schools
but pertain to tertiary education, which means that each student must have successfully passed
their Baccalauréat (or equivalent) to be admitted in a CPGE. Each CPGE receives applications from hundreds
of applicants worldwide every year in April and May, and selects students based on its
own criteria. A few CPGEs, mainly the private ones (which
account for 10% of CPGEs), also have an interview process or look at a student’s involvement
in the community. The ratio of CPGE students who fail to enter
any grande école is lower in scientific and business CPGEs than in humanities CPGEs.====Scientific CPGEs====
The oldest CPGEs are the scientific ones, which can only be accessed by scientific Bacheliers. Scientific CPGE are called TSI (“Technology
and Engineering Science”), MPSI (“Mathematics, Physics and Engineering Science”), PCSI (“Physics,
Chemistry, and Engineering Science”) or PTSI (“Physics, Technology, and Engineering Science”)
in the first year, MP (“Mathematics and Physics”), PSI (“Physics and Engineering Science”), PC
(“Physics and Chemistry”) or PT (“Physics and Technology”) in the second year and BCPST
(“Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Life and Earth Sciences”). First year CPGE students are called the “Math
Sup”—or Hypotaupe—(Sup for “Classe de Mathématiques Supérieures”, superior in
French, meaning post-high school), and second years “Math Spé”—or Taupe—(Spés standing
for “Classe de Mathématiques Spéciales”, special in French). The students of these classes are called Taupins. Both the first and second year programmes
include as much as twelve hours of mathematics teaching per week, ten hours of physics, two
hours of philosophy, two to four hours of (one or two) foreign languages teaching and
four to six hours of options: either chemistry, SI (Engineering Industrial Science) or Theoretical
Computer Science (including some programming using the Pascal or CaML programming languages,
as a practical work). With this is added several hours of homework,
which can rise as much as the official hours of class. A known joke among those students is that
they are becoming moles for two years, sometimes three. This is actually the origin of the nicknames
taupe and taupin (taupe being the French word for a mole).====Business CPGEs====
There are also CPGE which are focused on economics (who prepare the admission in business schools). These are known as “Prépa EC” (short for
Economiques et Commerciales) and are divided into two parts : prépa ECS, which focuses
more on mathematics, generally for those who graduated the scientific baccalaureat and
prépa ECE, which focuses more on economics, for those who were in the economics section
in high school.====Humanities CPGEs (Hypokhâgne and Khâgne)
====The literary and humanities CPGEs have also
their own nicknames, Hypokhâgne for the first year and Khâgne for the second year. The students are called the khâgneux. These classes prepare for schools such as
the three Écoles Normales Supérieures, the Ecole des Chartes, and sometimes Sciences
Po. There are two kinds of Khâgnes. The Khâgne de Lettres is the most common,
and focuses on philosophy, French literature, history and languages. The Khâgne de Lettres et Sciences Sociales
(Literature and Social Sciences), otherwise called Khâgne B/L, also includes mathematics
and socio-economic sciences in addition to those literary subjects. The students of Hypokhâgne and Khâgne (the
humanities CPGE) are simultaneously enrolled in universities, and can go back to university
in case of failure or if they feel unable to pass the highly competitive entrance examinations
for the Écoles Normales Supérieures.====Colles====
The amount of work required of the students is exceptionally high. In addition to class time and homework, students
spend several hours each week completing oral exams called colles (sometimes written ‘khôlles’
to look like a Greek word, this way of writing being initially a khâgneux’s joke, since
khâgneux study Ancient Greek). The colles are unique to French academic education
in CPGEs. In scientific and business CPGEs, colles consist
of oral examinations twice a week, in French, foreign languages (usually English, German,
or Spanish), maths, physics, philosophy, or geopolitics—depending on the type of CPGE. Students, usually in groups of three or four,
spend an hour facing a professor alone in a room, answering questions and solving problems. In humanities CPGEs, colles are usually taken
every quarter in every subject. Students have one hour to prepare a short
presentation that takes the form of a French-style dissertation (a methodologically codified
essay, typically structured in 3 parts: thesis, counter-thesis, and synthesis) in history,
philosophy, etc. on a given topic, or the form of a commentaire composé (a methodologically
codified commentary) in literature and foreign languages. In Ancient Greek or Latin, they involve a
translation and a commentary. The student then has 20 minutes to present
his/her work to the teacher, who finally asks some questions on the presentation and on
the corresponding topic. Colles are regarded as very stressful, particularly
due to the high standards expected by the teachers, and the subsequent harshness that
may be directed at students who do not perform adequately. But they are important insofar as they prepare
the students, from the very first year, for the oral part of the highly competitive examinations,
which are reserved for the happy few who successfully pass the written part.===Recruitment of teachers===
Decades ago, primary school teachers were educated in Ecoles Normales and secondary
teachers recruited through the “Agrégation” examination. The situation has been diversified by the
introduction in the 1950s of the CAPES examination for secondary teachers and in the 1990s by
the institution of “Instituts Universitaires de Formation des Maîtres” (IUFM), which have
recently been renamed Écoles Supérieures du Professorat et de l’Éducation (ESPE). University teachers are recruited by special
commissions, and are divided between: “teachers-researchers” (enseignants-chercheurs),
with at least a doctorate: they teach classes and conduct research in their field of expertise
with a full tenure. They are either Maître de Conférences (Senior
lecturers), or Professeurs (Professors). Only a Professor can be the director of studies
for a PhD student. The net pay is from 2,300 to 8,800 (with extra
duties) euros per month. Net salaries of over 4,000 euros per month
(2011 level) are however very unusual, and limited to the small minority of teacher-researchers
who have held the grade of first class full professor for at least seven years, which
is rare. The maximum possible net salary for second-class
full professors and chief senior lecturers (maître de conférence hors classe)—the
end of career status for most full-time teacher-researchers in French universities—is 3,760 euros a
month (2011)—and only a minority of this group ever reach this level. Secondary school teachers who have been permanently
assigned away from their original school position to teach in a university. They are not required to conduct any research
but teach twice as many hours as the “teachers-researchers”. They are called PRAG (professeurs agrégés)
and PRCE (professeurs certifiés). Their weekly service is 15 or 18 hours. The net pay is from 1,400 to 3,900 euros per
month. CPGE teachers are usually “agrégés” or “chaire
sup”, assigned by the Inspection Général according to their qualifications and competitive
exam rank as well as other factors. Their weekly service is about 9 hours a week,
25 or 33 weeks a year. Net pay : from 2,000 to 7,500 euro (extra
hours) Primary school and kindergarten teachers (Professeurs
des écoles), educated in “Instituts Universitaires de Formation des Maîtres” (IUFM), have usually
a “master” (Bac+5). Their weekly service is about 28 hours a week.==Religion==
Religious instruction is not given by public schools (except for 6- to 18-year-old students
in Alsace-Moselle under the Concordat of 1801). Laïcité (secularism) is one of the main
precepts of the French republic. In a March 2004 ruling, the French government
banned all “conspicuous religious symbols” from schools and other public institutions
with the intent of preventing proselytisation and to foster a sense of tolerance among ethnic
groups. Some religious groups showed their opposition,
saying the law hindered the freedom of religion as protected by the French constitution.==Statistics==
The French Republic has 67 million inhabitants, living in the 13 regions of metropolitan France
and four overseas departments (2.7 million). Despite the fact that the population is growing
(up 0.4% a year), the proportion of young people under 25 is falling. There are now fewer than 19 million young
people in metropolitan France, or 32% of the total population, compared with 40% in the
1970s and 35% at the time of the 1990 census. France is seeing a slow aging of the population—less
marked however than in other neighbouring countries (such as Germany and Italy), especially
as the annual number of births is currently increasing slightly. Eighteen million pupils and students, i.e.
a quarter of the population, are in the education system. Of these, over 2.4 million are in higher education. The French Education Minister reported in
2000 that 39 out of 75,000 state schools were “seriously violent” and 300 were “somewhat
violent”.==See also==
Academic grading in France Agency for French Teaching Abroad (Agence
pour l’enseignement français à l’étranger) Campus France (Agency for the promotion of
French Higher Education) Conférence des Grandes Écoles (CGE)
Commission des Titres d’Ingénieur Comité d’études sur les formations d’ingénieurs
Conference of the Directors of French Engineering Schools (Conférence des directeurs des écoles
françaises d’ingénieurs (CDEFI)) Homeschooling in France
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