Dr. Fareed Zakaria | Globalization of Higher Education



what you really have is what I describe as the rise of the rest in my book in every part of the world countries are finding that they are able to take advantage of political stability economic convergence technological connectivity and substantially in Korea improve the lives of their citizens we need to acquire skill sets rather than thinking about being cogs in a large machine what is the best way for regular Americans to take advantage of these shifts education education education and it's not an education that stops with a college degree it's learning new skills training yourself giving I think we will have to come up with a new American dream very much the kind you were talking about dynamic mobile flexible entrepreneurial you'll fall down a lot more often than you used to fall down in the old American Dream the key is having the skills to pick yourself up again governor Bush and I welcome you today to of our conference on the globalization of higher education and after yesterday we understand more about what it's about and what the potential is Fareed Zakaria is the host of CNN flagships international affairs program for Reid Zakaria GPS he's editor at large of Time magazine a Washington Post columnist and a New York Times bestselling author and we all watch him and I think we all admire him he's been described as the most influential foreign policy adviser of his generation and in 2010 foreign policy magazine named him as one of the top 100 global thinkers I think I'd make it the top ten dr. Sakaki is in depth interviews and they are in depth with the Dalai Lama heads of state including Barack Obama king abdullah ii and muammar qaddafi as well as countless intellectuals business leaders politicians and journalists have been broadcast in more than 200 million homes around the world while this cover stories and columns on subjects from globalization and emerging markets to the Middle East and America's role in the world reached more than 25 million readers each week dr. Zakaria is the most recent book the post American world has been heralded in the New York Times Book Review as relentlessly intelligent and The Economist called it a powerful guide to forming global challenges I think probably the best thing I can say about this man is what I used to say about David Broder at the Washington Post when I read his column or hear him and watch him on television as I do every time I can and when I find out that his position is different from what mine was I go back and re-examine my position ladies and gentlemen we are honored to have here today dr. Fareed Zakaria did you know David wrote it very good thank you so much governor Thank You governor Bush it is a great great treat and thrilled to be here of course I am somewhat intimidated by the prospect of addressing an audience as distinguished as this one but I will try to I will try to do my best I think of myself in a sense as the guinea pig for the experiments and the issues you are talking about because you're talking about American education higher education its power its reach what it means to the world and I was this kid in India who was in a sense watching the world you were describing and so what I thought I'd do is tell you a little bit about what that will look like from my perspective I was growing up in the 1960s and 70s in India and I was you know fairly interested in the world and and enjoyed reading and understanding what was going on and I knew from a very early age that I wanted to go to the United States for my higher education I'm not sure exactly when and honestly I'm not sure exactly why but I just knew that the future seemed to beckon in the United States and so now I try to think back on what what it was that made me think that way well in the 1960 is the best kids in my school in Bombay used to go to Oxford and Cambridge but by the 1970s when the winter of discontent hit Britain and economic stagnation you remember but this is the time when Britain was put under an IMF program because economy was in such bad shape the money dried up and at the very same time American universities started providing scholarship money for foreign students and so I think that at the the background of what I was experiencing was this realization that there was a possibility to go to the the United States and the possibilities from Britain were being foreclosed so in a sense it's a reminder that culture does follow power to a certain extent that the the fact that the United States was becoming more and more generous was certainly part of the the attraction but more than anything else I think it was you know I know it's going to sound corny but it was the American dream it was the American idea it was the prospect of being able to think broadly and freely and independently I remember vividly thinking about what it would be like to go to Oxford and read one subject and go to an American University and be able to take physics and poetry and engineering and history and thinking about how much more liberating that second prospects seemed and so I'm going through these thoughts and I talked to a friend of mine who was American and I remember well he was a Princeton graduate and he says to me you want to go to the United States this is in the late 1970s and I said yeah he said what why it's hell over there and I said what do you mean he said well we're going through the worst economic crisis since the Great Depression and he explained to me what stagflation meant and what the misery index was unemployment plus inflation which was in those days over 20% he explained to me that the United States had just been through the most humiliating period in his foreign policy a withdrawal from Vietnam the collapse of South Vietnam and he explained to me how deeply distrustful Americans were of politics you know you think that Americans don't like politicians these days remember back to the 1970s after Watergate the depth of the suspicion of Americans had about about the political class and he said you know and and then I started reading more about and realized the Soviet Union was on the march everywhere from Angola to Southeast Asia to Central America the United States was seen to be in decline if not in geopolitical decline certainly in geo economic decline Japan was was have been growing at that point at 9% a year for almost 20 24 years I think now the funny thing is of course Americans never realize well things might look bad for them at home you know they don't have a real global perspective they were pretty miserable in India at the time as well you know India was going through an emergency which was essentially martial law it had the slowest growth that it had really in its in its history and so I was still interested in going to America I applied I got to the United States pretty much in the middle of the worst recession since the Great Depression the recession of the early 1980s but what was striking to me about going to the United States even in this very difficult time which in you know at the time was regarded as a period of deep deep crisis in every sense was that Americans remained extraordinarily optimistic about the future Americans remained engaged and sure that in some way whatever problems there were they were going to find solutions to them not necessarily the political class not necessarily Washington not necessarily through politics but somehow individuals had this sense of ownership of their lives which was very different from what I had experienced growing up in India and of course a year and a half after I got there the United States was booming the the economy had turned around Ronald Reagan was able to campaign in 1984 on the theme it's morning in America again and far from the Soviet Union being triumphant by 1986 87 the question really was is the Soviet Union on the verge of collapse and the answer was yes and so it was and of course at the time we didn't see it that way at the time you remember the stock market crash of 1987 induced a huge panic of fear about the United States remember at the time John Kenneth Galbraith probably the most famous economist in the world at the time wrote a long piece the day after that black that black stock market crash saying we have just gone through our version of the Great Depression of the crash of 1929 let's hope we don't go through our version of the Great Depression in fact two weeks later everything was back to normal I remember in the real recession of 1991 when there was such deep anxiety economic anxiety it's important to remember just how anxious Americans were at the time to give you a sense and I think Governor Bush will appreciate this George HW Bush Senior was a sitting president who presided over victory in the in the Cold War then presided over victory in the Gulf War you know the war with Iraq that actually went well one year later he was defeated for re-election by a governor from a small state an obscure small state who had a history of marital problems now how likely is that the only two governor's from very small states in American history fly Franklin Pierce Bill Clinton and it tells you the depth of economic anxiety people had in 1991-92 it was there was so much anxiety of course that it produced a third party candidate another rarity in American history and that third party candidate you know the odd thing about America is when you find a third party candidate who is speaking to the needs and and anxieties of the average Joe that guy tends to be a billionaire I don't know why but it almost always happens and so it was with Ross Perot but with all that and I so those of you can remember there were strange antics of that campaign where he actually we drew and then went back in because you know without getting into details a very strange candidacy and still Ross Perot got the largest percentage of a third party vote of anyone since 1912 since Woodrow Wilson William Howard Taft and Theodore Roosevelt ran against each other such was the depth of economic anxiety and of course two years later what economists were trying to figure out is how can the economy produce so many jobs and reduce unemployment so much without triggering inflation this was actually a very interesting academic problem which was for four or five years the economy was producing so many jobs that economists had believed it was impossible to do that without triggering inflation and of course you have the Asian crisis in the midst of all this when people thought the whole world was blowing up you remember Robert Rubin goes out and talks about the worst economic crisis since the Great Depression you had the Russian default long term capital imploding again it seen as a huge systemic crisis you had the stock market crash so I'm going 95 96 98 is the Russian default 2000 as the stock market crash the Nasdaq crashes three trillion dollars wiped off American stock exchanges and then you get to our crunch but what's happening in this whole period in this whole period what is actually happening is the end of the Cold War the convergence of countries to an economic model largely one that was that was established and promoted by the United States the end of any real alternative – Ana kind of an american-led order in the world globalization and an information revolution all of which left the United States really at that on the top of the world and why was this happening well I would argue this was happening because of more than any other thing the diffusion and spread of the American idea and the American idea is one that I think is largely encompassed by what that the very simple idea I was trying to present you at the beginning which was in America people can really think for themselves be themselves act for themselves and take control of their own destiny and all these things go together but at the heart of it is thinking for yourself and that is what I think makes the American higher educational system unique because it infuses America with this this belief this skill and this knowledge that you can think for yourself I remember many years later this is maybe ten years ago I was in Singapore and I was meeting with the Minister of Education of Singapore at the time and as you can imagine the Minister of Education in Singapore is a pretty serious job and a pretty smart guy guy is now currently the Deputy Prime Minister Singapore is you know on the Pisa tests does spectacularly at the time actually it was the number one rated country there are four tests right that's fourth grade math and English and eighth grade math and English so there are four possible boxes Singapore was at that time when I was meeting with him was number one in all four boxes and I said to him clearly you guys do an extraordinary job at these tests tell me something though when you look 20 years later where are the great Singaporean inventors entrepreneurs composers I don't see so many of them and the Americans who do terribly at these tests seem to do all right and that in that you know in that test twenty years out why is that and he had a very very thoughtful response he said absolutely right here's the way we think about it we have an educational system that does one thing very well we teach people to take tests and they take tests very well you have an educational system that does another thing very well you teach people how to think and it may be that that latter task is more important to success in the in the world going forward and I think that really encompasses encapsulate what makes the American system different I grew up in a nation system I went through all those tests and you know there is there are certain virtues to them and I believe me I think that there are virtues in them in the hard subjects and in the soft subjects I had to memorize enormous amounts of poetry growing up and I still think that one of the things that is lost in modern education is that the sense of the rhythm and cadence of language that comes from just memorizing large quantities of it I believe very strongly that a certain very basic understanding of mathematics is is helped enormously by things like rote memorization of multiplication tables and you know being an Asian parent I've tried to make my kids do some of those things which is fighting again you know fighting a very different system but I would never make the trade because the truth of the matter is that the most important thing you can teach children is how to think and the American system does that so much better than any other system as far as I can tell and the most important thing you need to try to figure out how to do in life is to ask yourself how to think and so I look at the American system and I say to myself it is not an accident that those trends I described have taken place the way they have it is not an accident that the American idea has struck triumphed in so many ways around the world and you can see its success in the way in which the American curriculum is being replicated in so many countries around the world you know when you look at new universities or universities being revamped what you notice is that they are taking on many of the attributes of this kind of questioning and by the way the American system of course in some ways encapsulate smen e of the best traditions of Western Europe as well and so I ask myself why did the American system work so well why is the American system of higher education worked so well it seems to me that it encompassed three or four trends which historically have been disaggregated and separate the first is that you had vigorous competition between the public sector and the private sector there are private universities in the United States there are public universities in the United States and they compete they compete for students they compete for faculty they compete for publications they compete in the realm of ideas and of course they compete in sports as well and that level of that kind of competition has produced as it has throughout history a search for excellence of striving for excellence the second piece is that the government does not administer a great deal so if you contrast it to universities in Europe which are very distinguished in their own ways what is striking about many of them is that they are administered largely as state bureaucracies with a bureaucrat in charge as president and it is difficult within there two models one is you have a bureaucrat or you have a member of the faculty who is who's on a rotating basis president for two or three years as a university president friend of mine once said now you have the inmates in charge of the asylum it is never going to work but but the truth of the matter is that in any event you do not have a highly responsive professionalized administrative system and the third has been massive federal funding for particularly research funding but not administration and you put all those things together and you have a really unusual model and this is the modern American model of higher education it has some you know it has it owes something to the 17th and 18th century but it really was developed and invented largely in the 20th century largely in the in the the middle of the 20th century and that model has proved strikingly successful and so when I look around the world ask myself you know where are they the opportunities where the places one should one should be concerned about in many of the cases you still have essentially state bureaucracies running these university system and I think that while you can achieve something and you can see this extraordinarily powerfully in China in terms of achieving scale and achieving a certain kind of roll out it is difficult to imagine that you will get the continuous innovation that you are able to get with the model I just described but I know that you're all here because you've see this model in crisis and it is in crisis I think it's in crisis by the way for reasons of success you have a high quality problem the two great forces that have been propelling the world in the direction I was describing a globalization and technological change and both of them have powerfully benefited American institutions so far they have benefitted American companies they have benefited the United States in the world but they have also benefited American universities you this is one of the great effects of globalization which is the local opera singer perhaps loses some of his appeal because now everyone can listen to Pavarotti right and that same phenomenon has been at work with the United States but not just for the Harvard deals and for instance it is it is it is disseminated widely as well but now you face a new reality where these new forces are beginning to have a leveling effect in various senses of the word you know you can see this this process take place in the in the realm of business as well for the first wave of globalization American businesses were surfing this world of globalization and technology and were able to master it in ways that seemed unimaginable for any other any other businesses certainly coming out of Asia or Europe but now what you are seeing is globalization 2.0 is allowing is allowing these other countries and other in their companies an opportunity to challenge the American companies companies from around the world because they too can take advantage of the reality of a global market the reality of cheap technology and cheap communications and as a result they are moving fast and furiously and that same reality I think applies in the realm of Education and it particularly applies in the realm of education because you are beginning to see a technological transformation that is really quite breathtaking and I'm now borrowing entirely from a wonderful book called the second Machine Age that I really hardly recommend that all of you read by two MIT economists and what it explains to us is why it seems as though technology is moving at warp speed in a way that it didn't in the past and why that seems so challenging to human beings and the simple answer to that is the first Machine Age machines improved incrementally arithmetic alee but in the second Machine Age which is the one we're in now where everything is computerized computers improve geometrically and so he tells the story in this book they tell the story of the invention of chess as a way to remind you of the power of exponential growth and to think about how computers are now increasing in power in exponential terms and it's just a wonderful story to remember because it reminds it's a vivid illustration of what it means for computers to be doubling every 18 months the way Moore's law tells you it does so chess was supposedly invented in India I've you know this is one of those facts that's too good to check because as an Indian American I've I'm going with it I don't know if it's actually true the guy who invents chess goes to the king and says come up with this great board game it's fascinating its strategic that the King loves it he says this is a greatest game I've ever seen ask for your reward and the guy thinks and he says you know just give me a grain of rice on the first square of this board and then just double it as we go and the King says that's all you want sure of course you can have that and he tells this treasurer go work out the details with this guy and now you can imagine what can happen so they go you know 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 and by the time you get to the 32nd square you are at four billion grains of rice but the treasurer says you know that's still grains of rice I think we can manage we in the Treasury we have enough to make this work but of course you're at the 32nd square that's the top half of the chessboard now you get down to the 33rd square and you're starting at four billion by the time you get to two to the power of 64 the 64th square on the chess board you are at 18 quintillion grains of rice which is 18 million billion grains of rice which is a pile of rice larger than Mount Everest and larger than the total production of rice in the world today times a thousand when the king realizes this he kills the inventor of chess but the point of this story of course is to remind us we are now living in the second half of the chessboard that is unlike a machine you know a furnace that can improve its productivity its capacity only incrementally computers are able to do it in this astonishing exponential rate and that is why computers are now able to do things that they have never been a nobody ever thought they would be able to do like play chess you know that the gray great line of the the chess grandmaster when asked what would he do if he what would he bring to the game if he was up against IBM's deep blue he said a hammer you know it actually turns out to be even more complicated to get a computer to play jeopardy than to play chess because there are so many nuances and different in it's difficult to understand for example when when the question is some is about a superstar are you referring to Britney Spears are you referring to a unit or something in the wind up in the sky and then those differences a computer is now able to master seamlessly IBM's Watson as you know has beaten the word jeopardy champion computers are able to now drive cars in ways that are astonishing and the early results from these driverless cars are you know extraordinary because you can imagine the you know the computer driving the car never gets lost never gets drunk never gets tired and as a result you are looking at a future of potentially driverless travel airlines by the way of finding that in in in the last five or seven years the number of times they have had trouble not just crashes but difficulties has been related to pilot error and why has there been pilot error because computers now fly the plane for such a large period of time ninety-eight percent of the flight is literally on an autopilot that the pilots are forgetting how to fly and that the FAA is now beginning to mandate that pilots actually get back into the business of flying and take the controls from the computers I bring this all up because education is facing precisely this new wave of Technology and this new wave of technology appears obviously in the realm of MOOCs and it appears in hundreds of other forms and yet I find that the education establishment is very resistant to embracing an understanding this change and I think this is short-sighted I remembered presiding over a panel about three or four years ago three years ago that Time magazine put together on MOOCs and the president there was one person presenting and ruined the founder of Coursera and uh before or was it five university presidents on the panel and if I can be honest I have never seen a more defensive reaction among a group of intelligent people their response to everything Andrew Young said was yes but and that has generally been the response of traditional universities to MOOCs yes but we do something different we do something special and I'm not here to tell you that MOOCs are going to transform education in general but I will tell you this technology has to transform education and I tell you this because I I remember thinking about this vividly because I am in an industry that has been utterly transformed by information technology in a way that would have been unrecognizable even ten years ago you know if you look at the extraordinary profitability of magazines like Time and Newsweek only twenty years ago and then think about the fact that the day that panel was taking place by the way in New York three years ago was the day that Newsweek magazine announced it would no longer publish I said that to me is is a powerful reminder that you can you can sometimes think these trends are not going to affect you you can think that you're doing something special and then suddenly they do and the great challenge or opportunity here is that these are these are technologies that could be powerfully beneficial to universities I think you are beginning to achieve something that is almost unheard of in education which is it's always believed that scale worked against customization if you think about education it hasn't been transformed really since the time of you know say Socrates and Plato guy stands in front of the the classroom tells a bunch of students what he thinks about about life the world the meaning of life those people imbibe it in some way or the other the big difference is now you have women in both places as well but other than that that's really what education has done and we have always believed that the large the number of students the poorer the quality of education so scale has always worked against customization which is why in the 18th century even in much of the 19th century the richest people always have private tutors rather than sending their kids to school what MOOCs are beginning to achieve is to actually make these two things positively correlated not inversely correlated so that when you listen to what people who are at Coursera and edex are able to do it's really quite astonishing you realize that when you have a hundred thousand students taking a course you also are developing data and that data tells you that when some kid in the first quiz is getting the third question wrong we now know because of the data that probably he needs to take a quick remedial fire watch a quick remedial five minute video that explains one key concept and if he's getting the fourth question wrong he needs to watch another video or do another set of interactive lessons now think about that if you're teaching a class with 500 kids a big lecture hall you have no idea who is absorbing what material and it is very difficult for you to customize at any level but when you have 50,000 kids you are able to customize to each person who is going astray at one moment and can be corrected that ability to bring together scale and customization is really extraordinary and that strikes me as the opportunity that that all of you have the second one of course is one that you are already exploiting and it is globalization it is this extraordinary ability for American universities to speak to the world this is I've said it many times but there's no question that if you ask yourself what industry is the United States truly dominant in in a way that really there is no competition it would be higher education you know 18 of the top 20 universities in the world are American about 30 of the top 50 or American and these numbers come from a Shanghai ranking so they paid their probably fairly quantitative I think that the more important thing to think about here is that the United States has this extraordinary opportunity to lead and to show how to create these new interactive models of learning and to show how to create a new global model of learning one of the things I'm most proud of from the time I was a member of the Yale corporation is that Yale has tried to is set up a liberal arts college in Singapore where what we are trying to do is to create a new model of a core curriculum that is truly global so that people will will read Aristotle as they would at Columbia or Chicago a Yale but they will simultaneously read Confucius who was Aristotle's exact contemporary and they will ask themselves why were Aristotle's concerns thus and Confucius it's a concern so different when they study Charles v the Habsburg Emperor they will also study Akbar the Great of India and ask why did one guy run his his empire in this way and why did another guy run it another way and by the way what you will notice is Charles v was an extraordinarily intolerant religiously intolerant Emperor and Akbar was an extremely religiously tolerant Empire and Brenda will remind you that these trends have worked various ways in history those are the kinds of things that I think we have this extraordinary opportunity to provide people with a sense of now I don't want to in any way minimize the challenges you face and I do think that some of these challenges are very traditional challenges and I don't mean I really don't minimize them and I look at what made the Abuna the American dream what made your places flourish I always think of California because when I was growing up the thing you always looked at to figure out what was what the future was was California you know you always knew that whatever wacky trend was taking place in California at the time like vegetarianism or gay rights was going to in some way infuse the rest of society in the rest of the world and and California and that sense was always inventing the future and Silicon Valley of course is the ultimate expression of that but why did that happen it happened because California was away from the old structures of power it was geographically separated it had beautiful weather it had wonderful landscapes but it also happened because in the 1950s he who had vast number of engineers who went to California and why did they go there they went there because California had the greatest public education system in the world you could go from kindergarten through University of Berkeley PhD programs and you could legitimately believe you were getting the finest education at every stage that that money could buy except that it was free that reality combined with extraordinary public investments in parks and highways is part of what attracted all those engineers there and let's not forget of course vast government contracts the reason you had all those engineers in California was because of Lockheed and Grumman and all the defense department business 50% of all Silicon ships in the United States in the 1950s were bought by the Department of Defense and that was what drove the cost curve down to the point where it became commercially viable so the reality here was that the Californian Dream was based on a number of of different factors great universities great great opportunities but at the heart of it lay an enormous amount of public investment when we look at American universities and compare them to European universities we're very proud of the extraordinary structures and I talked about them but don't forget we spend a full percent of GDP more than Europe does on higher education and so you cannot do this for free and I do urge all of you I know I'm preaching to the choir here to petition to organize and to articulate the importance of public education because it seems to me you know this is one of the great tragedies that is befallen the United States right now I remember when when watching from the Yale corporation over the last few years when every time we had a science position in particular we were able to I'm sorry to say identify state universities we're incredibly talented scientists were frustrated and were more likely than not amenable to leaving almost none of those cases by the way were they asking for more money themselves they just wanted good labs they wanted the ability to attract graduate students they wanted the ability to work in a receptive environment where they didn't worry you're the year that their lab funding would be cut off that reality is so powerful and I think it is so important that we preserve and enhance that commitment to public education because it really is at the heart of American access the mhmm nobility that the United States has provided people with with state universities are really the gateways for the American dream and to the extent that they are now being forced to turn themselves in to private universities to create you know a track for people who are who are paying and then treat those people like customers rather than students these are all trends that look inevitable but frankly with with it with a different commitment of public resources would be would be ones that could be tempered extraordinarily I feel as though you have a few challenges on both these dimensions but I think that they are huge opportunities have properly seen the United States is at the forefront of both the trends I've described technology and globalization and if you don't fight the trends and instead embrace them and ask yourselves one way to think about this mind experiment I know there are other universities here from the rest of the world and I think you appreciate this perhaps more than many of the American universities would imagine that you're in the India in the others position imagine that you are a foreign University non American and think about how much easier it is to be in the position of being an American universities in this in this ecosystem with the brand name you have with the the brand that comes with being an American University with the access and ease of technology that everyone has and with this global perch and try to take advantage of all those all those realities I think that if we do it right you will be able to see this process as one of a force multiplier rather than a set of challenges and it will mean you'll have to change the way you do business of course but everyone's going to have to change the way they do business as I say trust me is somebody who comes out of the media business this is the world that I went into 25 years ago it's completely transformed completely transformed and yet it remains vibrant viable and vibrant I want to close just with this thought that when you think about what it is that really changed the world as I described it you know from the world of the 1970s with the Soviet Union in intense geopolitical competition with the United States with communism as a viable alternative around the world with Western countries mired in in depression with civil wars taking place all over to a world with which all its problems we have had extraordinary levels of peace stability economic growth globalization and technological innovation I would say at the heart of it actually has been the diffusion of knowledge the diffusion of knowledge about politics economics standards of living life I give you a sense of this when I when I was visiting countries when I was a kid my father's a politician I got a chance just to meet some government officials what I was always struck by is that what you would find with two kinds of people in the third world particularly there were the really smart people who were in ministries and places like that and they were all Marxist or you had the political hacks and they were in it for themselves and what has traveled that the see change I have noticed is that if you go to finance ministries central banks around the world now what you will find is extraordinarily smart people often trained at American universities so look at Mexico as a perfect example look at the people who have run Mexico's economy over the last 15 years and you will be able to find on almost one-to-one correlation PhDs from University of Chicago Harvard MIT and what that is is it has been a diffusion of knowledge of best practices that has taken place from the United States around the world and it's taking place in politics it's taking place in history it's taking place most easy to quantify and measure is of course economics and you see everyone trying to measure up to these best practices but there has been that process taking place in other elements of government that has taken place in companies that has taken place in nonprofits I've been to museums now around the world which try to model themselves around some of the best practices that they have witnessed in the United States which itself of course has been able to absorb some of the best practices so that reality of the globalization of knowledge and so much of it M&A emanating from the United States has been an extraordinary element of American power you know when you look back when we look back a hundred years from now and people talk about how how did America change the world I don't think they're going to spend a lot of time talking about what we did in Afghanistan with 150,000 troops and a trillion dollars over ten years I think what they're going to stock a great deal about is the way in which graduates from Harvard Yale Princeton the University of Chicago Georgetown all over went to these countries and quietly and systematically changed the outlook of those countries so that they were thinking about the future they were thinking about raising standards of living they were asking themselves how they could manage the economy and they were conceiving of national power in a very different way than save Vladimir Putin does they were conceiving of national power is not the acquisition of territory but the inculcation of knowledge the raising of standards of living the you know the creation of a better quality of life that is something that is at the heart of what America has exported to the world and in that sense you have all been part of this extraordinary diffusion of soft power that has taken place around the world and if you do it right you will continue to innovate and to be at the cutting edges of that process and the with the simplest way to get a sense of whether or not you are able to continue do that will be whether twenty years from now 30 years from now you still have the ability in the United States to send a signal of some kind or the other to that 15 or 16 year old kid in India that I was in the 1960s and 70s and suggest and and seduced that kid to believe that the most powerful way for him or her to expand themselves would be to come to the United States and to get the greatest education in the world I still believe that if we do everything right 30 years from now the kid who looks like me growing up in a place like India will still look at the United States and say that's the place that is inventing the future thank you very much

15 thoughts on “Dr. Fareed Zakaria | Globalization of Higher Education”

  1. Acquiring skills, going to school for undergraduation is expensive in US as compared to many other countries!even a moderate school charges as much as 60k to better schools charging as high as 100-150k.thats precisely why American youth do not get into universities as their parents do not support after schooling unlike in India where parents take care till they graduate!

  2. The trouble is that today, too many American universities are getting political thus are not making a priority of giving their students an education or an ability to think independently – the very essence of creativity and growth. After a very illustrious past for the American educational system, this is now threatening to become an absolute disgrace.

  3. As a Business Marketing graduate, as well as a student of Business Administration, and being a Bangladeshi Canadian I think most of the folks who made comments on Farid Zakaria's addressing in the video here may not have received good score on their university case analysis projects, because as the way it stands with most of the comments, they have failed to hone in on the substance of his lecture. In fact there is no substance to it; so, there is not much to talk about his lecture here. He is jumping from one topic to another without having them being segued into each other; furthermore, he not only fails to articulate a convincing story, but also fails to weave together all those different strands into a story that bear any correlations between them. He is regurgitating some of the things of dubious origins that he memorized in the run up to this lecture event. A 7th grade student in America can do a better job of making up a story and telling that before an audience. The Jewish political clout in America hired him for a specific purpose in mind. They hired Farid Zakaria to play him out as a pawn to be a credible fierce critique of Muslim countries for contributing to the Jewish peoples' master plan for marginalizing the entire Muslim community in the US, Canada, as well as in Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. He got Henry Kissinger, (one of the hardened criminals for committing crimes against human rights around the world) to mentor him. Despite the fact that he is an inveterate and a shameless liar with his poor English speaking ability, he got hired by CNN to host a show 'GPS', where he more often speaks poor English (incorrect English) as a host to undermine the credibility of CNN TV network. Even you could see his poor English quality in this very video too. Can you imagine! How a moron like him can make it to CNN's GPS host! I lived in the USA for about 12 years, I find it no longer shocking to see surreal things of this nature, because of the fact that the Jewish political clout has seized the control of America.

  4. Farid Zakaria believes there are rivers of milk and honey flowing in paradise. How can he foretell? It's written in the Koran.

  5. According to CNN 65% of the GOP or republicans held the belief in Creationism when 98% of the scientific community rejected completely do to factual evidence of evolution. Nonetheless, the estimates are only on the GOP we do not know how many democrats held the same beliefs but judging by the levels of ignorance it is worse an off.

  6. How stupid is the GOP when they still believing in Creationism when 98% of the scientists agree on evolution they still living in the platonic cave.

  7. He talks about the diffusion of American-trained professionals to other countries. Don't forget the brain drains in the opposite directions were and are still storm drains. One of the main reasons American universities rank high in the world is that the best scholars and researchers of almost every countries in the world are actually in America. Why did they go? There is money to create the job and to do research. Take away the money, the talks about freedom, creativity, and all that would be pointless.

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