Department of Education (Philippines) | Wikipedia audio article

The Department of Education (abbreviated as
DepEd; Filipino: Kagawaran ng Edukasyon) is the executive department of the Philippine
government responsible for ensuring access to, promoting equity in, and improving the
quality of basic education. It is the main agency tasked to manage and
govern the Philippine system of basic education. It is the chief formulator of Philippine education
policy and responsible for the Philippine primary and secondary school systems. It has its headquarters at the DepEd Complex
in Meralco Avenue, Pasig City. The department is currently led by the Secretary
of Education, nominated by the President of the Philippines and confirmed by the Commission
on Appointments. The Secretary is a member of the Cabinet. The current Secretary of Education is Leonor
Briones. Presently, its mission is to provide quality
basic education that is equitably accessible to all and lay the foundation for lifelong
learning and service for the common good. It has changed its vision statement, removing
a phrase that some groups deem to be “too sectarian” for a government institution.==History==
During the early Spanish period, education in the Philippines was religion-oriented and
was primarily for the elite, especially in the first years of Spanish colonization. Access to education by Filipinos was later
liberalized through the enactment of the Educational Decree of 1863, which provided for the establishment
of at least one primary school for boys and girls in each town under the responsibility
of the municipal government, and the establishment of a normal school for male teachers under
the supervision of the Jesuits. Primary instruction was secularized and free,
and the teaching of Spanish was compulsory. It was also through this decree that the ‘Superior
Commission of Primary Instruction’ was established, the seminal agency of the Department of Education.The
defeat of Spain by United States forces in 1898 paved the way for Aguinaldo’s Republic
under a Revolutionary Government. The schools maintained by Spain for more than
three centuries were closed temporarily but were reopened on August 29, 1898 by the Secretary
of the Interior. A system of free and compulsory elementary
education was established by the Malolos Constitution, under Article 23. However, this first sovereign education system
was interrupted in 1899 with the start of the Philippine–American War, and was finally
dismantled. A secularized and free public school system
during the first decade of American rule was established upon the recommendation of the
Schurman Commission in 1900. Free primary instruction that trained the
people for the duties of citizenship was enforced by the Taft Commission as per instructions
of US President William McKinley. Chaplains and non-commissioned officers were
assigned to teach using English as the medium of instruction.A highly centralized public
school system was instituted in January 1901 by the Taft Commission, by virtue of Act No.
74. This act also established the Department of
Public Instruction, headed by a General Superintendent. The implementation of this Act created a heavy
shortage of teachers so the Philippine Commission authorized the Superintendent of Public Instruction
to brin 500 teachers from the United States to the Philippines. They would later be popularly known as the
Thomasites. In 1908, the Philippine Legislature approved
Act No. 1870, creating the University of the Philippines. The Organic Act of 1916 reorganized the Department
of Public Instruction, mandating that it be headed by a Secretary. This act also mandated the Filpinization of
department secretaries, except that of the Secretary of Public Instruction. During World War II, the department was reorganized
once again through the Japanese’s Military Order No. 2 in February 1942, splitting the
department into the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Health, Labor and Public
Instruction. Under the Japanese, the teaching of Tagalog,
Philippine history, and character education was given priority. Love for work and the dignity of labor were
also emphasized. In October 1944, months after Pres. Manuel
L. Quezon’s death, the department was renamed as the Department of Public Instruction and
Information, with Carlos P. Romulo at the helm. Upon the return and resumption of the Commonwealth
Government in February 1945, its name was changed to the Department of Instruction. In 1947, by virtue of Executive Order No.
94 by Pres. Manuel Roxas, the department was reorganized to the Department of Education. During this period, the regulation and supervision
of public and private schools belonged to the Bureau of Public and Private Schools. Upon the start of Martial Law in September
1972, it became the Department of Education and Culture and subsequently reorganized into
the Ministry of Education and Culture in June 1978 by virtue of Presidential Decree No.
1397, due to the shift to a parliamentary system of government. Thirteen regional offices were created and
major organizational changes were implemented in the educational system. The Education Act of 1982 created the Ministry
of Education, Culture and Sports, which became the Department of Education, Culture and Sports
(DECS) in 1987 via Executive Order No. 117 by President Corazon C. Aquino. The structure of DECS as embodied in EO 117
has practically remained unchanged until 1994, when the Commission on Higher Education (CHED)
was established, and in August 25, 1994, when the Technical Education and Skills Development
Authority (TESDA) was established to supervise tertiary degree programs and non-degree technical-vocational
programs, respectively. The trifocal education system refocused the
department’s mandate to basic education which covers elementary, secondary and non-formal
education, including culture and sports. CHED is responsible for tertiary education,
while TESDA now administers the post-secondary, middle-level manpower training and development.In
August 2001, the Governance of Basic Education Act was passed, renaming the DECS to the Department
of Education (DepEd) and redefining the role of field offices, which include regional offices,
division offices, district offices, and schools. The Act removed the administration of cultural
and sports activities from the department. The National Historical Institute, Records
Management and Archives Office, and the National Library are now administratively attached
to the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA). All previous functions, programs, and activities
related to sports competition were transferred to the Philippine Sports Commission (PSC). In addition, the Bureau of Physical Education
and School Sports was abolished.==List of Secretaries of Education====Organizational structure==
At present, the Department is headed by the Secretary of Education, with the following
undersecretaries and assistant secretaries: Undersecretary for Accounting
Undersecretary for Administration Undersecretary for Curriculum and Instruction
Undersecretary for Legal Affairs Undersecretary for Finance
Undersecretary for Planning and Field Operations Assistant Secretary/Chief of Staff
Assistant Secretary for Procurement Assistant Secretary for Liaison and Partnerships
Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs and Alternative Learning SystemUnder the Office
of the Secretary are the following offices and services: Teacher Education Council
Literacy Coordinating Council Internal Audit ServiceA director is assigned
to each of the 17 regions of the Philippines; the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao is
governed by a regional secretary. A division superintendent is assigned to each
of the school divisions defined by the department.===Bureaus and services===
DepEd is composed of 18 bureaus and services: Administrative Service (AS)
Bureau of Curriculum Development (BCD) Bureau of Education Assessment (BEA)
Bureau of Human Resources and Organizational Development (BHROD)
Bureau of Learning Delivery (BLD) Bureau of Learning Resources (BLR)
Bureau of Learner Support Service (BLSS) Bureau of Secondary Education (BSE)
Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Service (DRRMS)
External Partnerships Service (EPS) Finance Service (FS)
Information and Communications Technology Service (ICTS)
Legal Service (LS) National Educators’ Academy of the Philippines
(NEAP) Planning Service (PS)
Procurement Service (PROCS) Project Management Service (PMS)
Public Affairs Service (PAS)==Attached agencies==
The following agencies, councils and schools are attached to DepEd for policy and program
coordination: Department of Education in the ARMM (DepEd
ARMM) Instructional Materials Council (IMC)
National Book Development Board (NBDB) National Council for Children’s Television
(NCCT) National Museum of the Philippines
National Science Teaching Instrumentation Center (NSTIC)
Philippine High School for the Arts (PHSA)The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) is now
attached to the Office of the President, while the Technical Education and Skills Development
Authority (TESDA) is now attached to the Department of Labor and Employment.==References==

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