Creating Citations Using Elements in the ERIC Record


ERIC is an online library of education research sponsored by the Institute
of Education Sciences, or IES. The ERIC database has more than 1.7 million
records of journal articles and grey literature. Materials located in ERIC are often used for
writing research papers, journal articles, reports, conference papers, or other works. This video demonstrates how to identify the
elements of an ERIC record that can be used to build a citation for a reference
list or bibliography. As you put together your list of citations,
keep in mind the most important objective which is to follow a
clear and consistent style. The ERIC record contains the information
you need to create accurate citations. Before we discuss how to manually build citations,
note that the ERIC website provides an Export feature that works with a
variety of citation management tools. Citation tools support the automated creation
of citations in a variety of preferred styles. To use ERIC’s Export feature, click the
Export link at the top of the search page, which creates a file of your search results
in a MEDLINE/PubMed-style, or .nbib, format. This file can then be imported into a citation
management tool for creation of a formatted bibliography or reference list. First, consult your chosen
style guide or manual. The most frequently referenced guides in the
field of education include The Chicago Manual of Style; The Publication Manual of the American
Psychological Association, known as APA Style; and MLA Handbook
from the Modern Language Association. You should start by identifying the type of
material you are citing since many style guides base reference formats on material type. If you are unsure, check the publication type field to see how the ERIC record
describes the material. In this example, you can see that this is
a research report containing numerical or quantitative data from the National
Center for Education Statistics. Now we’ll look at sample citations for three
commonly cited types of material in ERIC: a journal article, report, and conference
paper and we’ll show where to find the citation elements in the ERIC record. Let’s begin by building a
journal article citation in MLA style. The first element is the author, formatted
last name first. ERIC also shows an author’s
name in inverted form. An author’s name may appear differently
on other works, such as using first or middle initials instead of the full name. Following the author is the title, which is
always shown at the top of the ERIC record. Next comes the name of the
journal that published the article. In ERIC, this element comes
from the “source” field. This field shows the name of the journal or
authoring organization for non-journal items. You should be aware that ERIC usually drops
the initial article such as “The” or “A” from the name. Some style guides require the article so it
is good practice to check the source name on the article or document. The volume, issue, and page numbers pertain
to journal articles and are found following the journal name in the record. Records for journal articles include the publication
date on the same line as the journal name. Note that the MLA format places the publication
date before the page numbers in the citation, which varies from the format in the ERIC record. If you are citing a non-journal resource,
use the Publication Date field found in all ERIC records. This field will always have a year and it
may or may not include a month. Some style guides require inclusion of a URL,
permalink, or digital object identifier (DOI) when citing materials
found in a database like ERIC. Our journal article example demonstrates where
to find the DOI when there is a Direct Link to the resource in the ERIC record. Click the “Direct Link” and copy the DOI
from the resulting message. Alternatively, if there is a URL to the publisher’s
website instead of a DOI, or your style guide does not require a DOI, you could include
a permalink to the ERIC record. Now we will look at a sample report citation
in APA style using a non-journal report in ERIC as an example. Note that there are no volume, issue, or page
numbers in this non-journal citation because these are not pertinent to this type of material. Like journal article citations, non-journal
citations include authors, the publication date, and title. There is no Direct Link leading to a DOI in
this record so we will add a type of URL known as a permanent link, or permalink. This link never changes so it will always
lead to the correct resource in ERIC. To add the permalink, copy the URL for the
record found in the browser following the words “Retrieved from” in the citation. You must then format the link by deleting
any elements that appear between the “?q=“ and the final ERIC number. The permalink format is shown here. Finally, here is a sample citation in Chicago
style for a conference paper in ERIC. Conference information for non-journal papers
is found on a separate line in the record, and includes the title of the conference,
where it was held, and the inclusive dates as shown here. For conference papers published in a journal,
the conference information appears at the end of the abstract. This video has shown various types of research
materials and where to find the necessary elements for citations in the ERIC record. No matter which style guide you use, consulting
the ERIC record as you follow the formats presented in the guide can assist you in constructing
complete and accurate reference lists and bibliographies. For more information, check out these links.

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