Could a Vaccine Prevent Type 1 Diabetes?

[♪ INTRO] Measles, mumps, and polio, these are things
we can prevent with a vaccine. But scientists are looking to add a surprising
entry to that list: Type 1 diabetes. Which, unlike the others, is not an infectious
disease. You can’t share a sugar-free soda with your
diabetic friend and suddenly lose your ability to produce insulin. It just doesn’t work like that. And usually, infectious diseases are the ones
we can target with vaccines. So how would a diabetes vaccine even work? Well, type 1 diabetes, or T1D for short, is
a chronic, irreversible condition, typically diagnosed in children, where certain people’s bodies do not make
the insulin they need to control sugar in their bloodstream. And that’s different from type 2 diabetes, where
patients’ bodies typically become resistant to insulin so it can’t effectively manage
blood sugar levels. In type 1, they just don’t make it in the first place. Their immune system has turned on the rest
of their body and destroyed the cells in their pancreas responsible for making insulin. For a long time, the trigger for this destruction
has been a big question mark. In recent years, scientists have identified genetic risk factors that increase a person’s risk for T1D. But these factors can’t cause
the disease alone. Nor can they explain all the weird things
public health scientists have found when studying T1D. Like the fact that there are certain times
of year where more people get diagnosed with this chronic disease than other times, not something usually chalked up to genetics. So, with genetic factors failing to explain
the full picture, scientists have looked to the environment for additional causes. They have investigated links to vitamin deficiency,
potential dietary causes, and even pancreatic toxins. But one of the most compelling explanations
has to do with viruses. Specifically that a class of viruses called
enteroviruses, which typically infect your GI tract, could induce T1D. It’s thought that they could somehow cause
an immune response that makes the body destroy those
insulin-producing cells. And this could be the key to a T1D vaccine. Because while T1D is not infectious, viruses
are. And if these viruses induce T1D, it could open the door to using vaccines to grant immunity to those viruses, which in turn, could prevent
the development of T1D. Over the last fifty years, several studies
have been able to show a causal connection between enteroviral infections and the induction
of T1D, at least in mice. But this connection has been much harder to
show in humans, partly because human subjects are just more difficult to study. In order to prove that enteroviruses cause
T1D, you have to demonstrate that a group of infants who were genetically predisposed
to T1D were also infected with enterovirus. That’s before they were diagnosed with T1D. And of course we can’t infect human babies
with viruses. So, instead you have to wait until the babies
naturally get infected, which is difficult because most enteroviruses don’t cause symptoms. Parents don’t generally show up at the doctor
when their baby doesn’t seem sick. Neither do doctors usually think to look for
a virus that’s not doing anything. Instead, you have to routinely collect samples from babies’ poop and check them for enterovirus genes. But, as researchers soon discovered, enterovirus
genes can’t always be found during an infection. You need to check a bunch of times to catch
them. So in 2017, after a couple successful studies,
several more failed ones, and a whole lot of baby poop, the largest study to date settled
the score with two important findings. First, it showed that babies who are genetically
susceptible to T1D also have higher rates of enterovirus infection. And second, it found that months after those
infections, the T1D-predisposed babies started producing certain auto-immune cells which are known to attack the pancreas and cause T1D. That’s a pretty strong case. And now that a strong connection has been
shown in multiple studies, it opens the door to vaccine research to prevent these infections. That research has already begun. One vaccine being studied in mice targets
a specific enterovirus called CVB. In a small study published in 2018, researchers
administered the vaccine to 7 mice carrying the genetic risk factors for T1D. And all seven were protected from developing
it. News reports have claimed this CVB vaccine
is set to enter human clinical trials soon, but it could be years before they start the
study or have results. But that said, a group of scientists in Finland
had the idea to try a shortcut. See, polio is an enterovirus, and we already
have a vaccine for it that we know is safe and effective. They published a study in 2018 which looked
at whether the poliovirus vaccine could prevent T1D, but unfortunately, they found it had no protective
effect. So thus far, we don’t have an anti-diabetes
vaccine that works in humans. But the CVB vaccine could work out, and maybe someday we’ll be able to look at type 1 diabetes as a disease of the past. Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow. And we want to thank all of our patrons for making this and every other episode that we make possible. The fact that you guys help us make free videos
for everyone is just super extra rad. If you’re interested in joining this cool
group of people, head over to [♪ OUTRO]

100 thoughts on “Could a Vaccine Prevent Type 1 Diabetes?”

  1. 3:30 – What, are you not saying the virus' name to avoid getting hit with demonetization via the speech-recognition? 😀 🤦
    4:26 – You're breath- super-extra-rad!

  2. When I was three I came down with T1d. I came down with while visiting Jamaica. While visiting there due to the terrible power grid and therefore spotty refrigeration I developed a stomach bug that put me in hospital. Once over the stomach issue I ended up back in hospital due to extreme thrust and was diagnosed with T1D.

  3. So, I was diagnosed with Type 1 Diabetes just before I turned 7 years old, and around that same time, I was getting pumped full of vaccines so I could go into 1st grade. My mom is 100% certain I got type 1 diabetes from the vaccines and she's now an anti-vaxxer and my sister is afraid of the same thing happening to her children so she's not vaccinated my nephews and niece either. (But that's besides the point) So… what I wanna know is that can certain vaccines cause type 1 diabetes? Is there any recorded cases of this happening? I feel like the only person in the world to have this happen to.

  4. Hahahahaha hahaha 🤣🤣🤣 sorry the world doesn’t need a vaccine for diabetes we all just need to stop eating crap food that gives us diabetes. Problem solved

  5. We have had a method to prevent the autoimmune type diabetes and well all autoimmune diseases. AIDS. Not joking, not trolling . Diabetes will kill you MUCH faster than AIDS. Just something to think about.

  6. Partial takeaway: enteroviruses are awful in new and surprising ways. Like, aside from polio and hand foot and mouth disease. Huh. Interesting.

  7. I'm a stem cell researcher and there are actually some promising clinical trials in curing type 1 diabetes through stem cell transplants. The main idea is to take skin cells from the patient and convert them into induced pluripotent stem cells (I explain in one of my videos how to do that). Afterwards, these patient-derived stem cells are converted into insulin-secreting beta-cells and cultivated in a small device, which is then transplanted back into the patient (through the device, the immune system should not be able to attack these beta-cells). One of the most fascinating trials is from a company called Viacyte (I'm just waiting for them to publish more results – but other studies already show some slight effects (which of course means that we need to conduct further research)). If you are interested, I also covered the whole procedure in another video!

  8. As this one goes through trials, for all other illnesses:
    Vaccinate 💉
    Vaccinate 💉
    Vaccinate 💉

    It's the the right thing for your health and that of everyone around you.

  9. My boyfriend is a research scientist working on the genetic causes of type 1 diabetes! It's a really complex and interesting condition, thanks for making a video about it. 😀

  10. Well that's good news. Kind of bad news for existing T1D patients as you'll have way less research into how to handle the disease and its complications but still good news overall.

  11. My best friend world have benefited from a vaccine for type 1. He actually didn't become type 1 until his mid-twenties. It was like one day his pancreas just decided to peace out, and he almost died twice before they figured everything out.

  12. doubtful, at best enteroviri are one of many possible triggers of autoimmune response resulting in dm1. smells like good money grab tho, especially since dm1 with proper diet management is completely harmless condition that dosnt require any medication (well, technically dm2 as well, but its pretty obvious that getting someone who got dm2 in the first place to control their diet is futile endeavour) yet was turned cash cow

  13. The Natural Cure: STOP TAKING -> Vaccines & Synthetic Drugs & Over Processed Foods &&
    EAT -> Citrus & Garlic/Onion & Cilantro Seeds & Apple Seeds & Ginger Powder (seasoning)
    And see for yourselves after a couple of months!

  14. It's crazy to think in 20 years that kids born might not have any knowledge of tons of diseases we have today like millennials now don''t have any memory of things like polio.

  15. Fourth year med student reaching out to any microbiologists out there:
    Wouldn't immunizing against coxacie B (assuming it's a live attenuated form) essentially produce the same immunological response as an infection? Like the antibodies will still cross react with the beta cells of pancreas?
    Would really appreciate an expert opinion !

  16. T1d here, i like that you taught about it as there is such a big polulation of people that confuse type 1 and type 2. Please make a follow up video talking about the disease in more detail for people.

  17. Do you think they might be able to do something similar to prevent cardiomyopathy? Autoimmune diseases are frickin scary. My sister has cardiomyopathy and my mom has t1d, but she developed it as an adult, which isn't super common, and we didn't know until she went into DKA.

    The ER doctors treated her as a type 2 at first and just brought sugar down, gave her some fluids and sent her home, but her symptoms wouldn't go away, so we came back and a different ER doc on that shift admitted her to the ICU after he read her ketone levels. He was super pissed, which was refreshing, because we were too.

  18. Imagine your mom telling you your baby poop was used for a vaccine . And that you have a virus that can cause you to get diabetes .

  19. Which season is the most common for diagnoses? Because I received my hypoglycemia diagnosis in Winter, so I wonder if there's a connection there, too.

  20. I wonder if it can cure Type 1 once someone already has it — there's some evidence that even after someone develops Type 1, the pancreas continues to try and recover, but the immune system keeps knocking it down. Maybe if the immune system can be made to stand down, the pancreas can recover even in people who already have it.

  21. Great – now extrapolate this research to 100+ other autoimmune diseases out there. It has become an epidemic. We don’t have time for them to figure this out before they start working on everything else.
    #autoimmmuneepidemic #fightforacure

  22. I find this video much more compelling,

  23. I think the real question that should be asked should be would banning bleached flour stop alloxan from inducing diabetes?

  24. While it can't undo the damage already done, could it prevent further progression of type 1 diabetes?
    It gets worse over time, so would a vaccine prevent further deterioration?
    Or is it a case of once you have the underlying trigger infection, no matter what, your pancreas is stuffed and will produce less and less insulin.

    Type 1 doesn't just kick in fully blown, it's a slow progression disease – otherwise as soon as you got it you would fall into a diabetic coma and be dead. At first sufferers can control it by monitoring diet and blood sugar levels, but eventually they will need insulin, and in higher doses, till eventually they have to totally rely on store bought insulin as the natural is no longer available.
    Could this vaccine be administered to someone in the early stages and leave them in that state, which is manageable by diet?

  25. It's hard to listen to anything about diabetes when you ignore the true culprits. Consider nature and balance to find your scientific answer. Are there any diabetic vegetarians out there? No, there aren't. Let's vaccinate so we dont have to get to the basics, To the roots. There's only one right frequency to be on. There's only one way to get there. (I'm referring to type 2)

  26. Most type 1 are created by poor health practices. Don't allow doctors to give you insulin. If you're type 2, fasting and short term keto diet have been shown to increase insulin sensitivity. Taking insulin is akin to taking steroids; it overwhelms the organ to the point it's incapable of producing the hormone ever again.

  27. Thank you for cover T1D, my brother passed away from it earlier this year and the general public has no idea how difficult, expensive, and sometimes hopeless living with T1D is.

  28. Diabetes is already curable with a small amount of exercise and a proper diet. Same with type 2.
    They're both choices.

  29. Anti-Vaxer's Mom: My child is "Perfectly Healthy!"

    Her child:
    Weakness 25
    Mining Fatigue 15
    Nausea 50
    Blindness 255
    Wither 10

  30. This is awesome! If this works, it'll be like the way cervical cancer is prevented using the HPV vaccine. Crossing my fingers!

  31. Nice to see you’re getting your money’s worth on that lab mouse clip, SciShow. On topic, I remember when stomach ulcers were found to be caused by a bacteria. Here’s hoping the insight into T1D moves it into the preventable column.

  32. Long before the days of "anti-vaxxers", my brother was given his pre K shots, which included a vaccine for measles. Unfortunately, he must have been exposed to the disease before the vaccine took effect because he caught measles as well. Shortly after, he developed Type I Diabetes. This was 1963. His endocrinologist told our family that the vaccine, or the combination of the vaccine and measles could have possibly triggered his already predisposition to "Juvenile Diabetes", which is what it was called at the time. I am NOT an anti-vaxxer, but I've always wondered if there was some truth to what the doctor said of the vaccine for measles of that era. Now I wonder if he caught several viruses having begun school and being around other children…perhaps Enterovirus. Unfortunately, he went on the be a very brittle diabetic, despite excellent care, and died young. You mentioned the mystery of the onset of T1D being at certain times of year. I wonder if it corresponds to when children are exposed to other kids when school starts?

  33. There may be another group of T1Ds to study. namely, adults whose immune systems have been damaged by such things as steroids. I developed type One at the tender age of forty seven, because of a toxic dosing of steroids due to a false diagnosis.
    The doctor that saved me from the first doctor told me that if I had the right genes, I might develop diabetes in a few years. Six year later I developed type one diabetes. My islet of langhorne cells were eaten by my immune system as was my thyroid.
    I had the genes for it but did not develop it in childhood.
    So, people whose immune systems have been wracked by steroids, might be another group to study.

  34. My boyfriend has type 1 and he’s always depressed about it but it wouldn’t help him now but it will help others in the future to not feel the same way he does.

  35. I think we need to be a little more agressive when it comes to clinical trials when it is something as important as this. We might have a few deaths a year but the information could save millions. We force people to go to war so why not clinical trials that would probably still be much safer even if we took away some of the more time consuming precautions

  36. Can we please stop. There will NEVER be a cure. I’m tired of the same bs being thrown my and other type 1 diabetics’ way. It’s false hope.

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