Continuing education | Wikipedia audio article


Continuing education (similar to further education
in the United Kingdom and Ireland) is an all-encompassing term within a broad list of post-secondary
learning activities and programs. The term is used mainly in the United States
and Canada. Recognized forms of post-secondary learning
activities within the domain include: degree credit courses by non-traditional students,
non-degree career training, college remediation, workforce training, and formal personal enrichment
courses (both on-campus and online).General continuing education is similar to adult education,
at least in being intended for adult learners, especially those beyond traditional undergraduate
college or university age. Frequently, in the United States and Canada
continuing education courses are delivered through a division or school of continuing
education of a college or university known sometimes as the university extension or extension
school. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation
and Development argued, however, that continuing education should be “‘fully integrated into
institutional life rather than being often regarded as a separate and distinctive operation
employing different staff’ if it is to feed into mainstream programmes and be given the
due recognition deserved by this type of provision”.Georgetown University, Michigan State University, and
the University of Denver have benefited from non-credit programs as it relates to strengthening
partnerships with corporations and government agencies, helping to inform and shape the
curriculum for degree programs, and generating revenue to support the academic enterprise.==History==
The Chautauqua Institution, originally the Chautauqua Lake Sunday School Assembly, was
founded in 1874 “as an educational experiment in out-of-school, vacation learning. It was successful and broadened almost immediately
beyond courses for Sunday school teachers to include academic subjects, music, art and
physical education.”Cornell University was among higher education institutions that began
offering university-based continuing education, primarily to teachers, through extension courses
in the 1870s. As noted in the Cornell Era of February 16,
1877, the university offered a “Tour of the Great Lakes” program for “teachers and others”
under the direction of Professor Theodore B. Comstock, head of Cornell’s department
of geology.The University of Wisconsin–Madison began its continuing education program in
1907. The New School for Social Research, founded
in 1919, was initially devoted to adult education. In 1969, Empire State College, a unit of the
State University of New York, was the first institution in the US to exclusively focus
on providing higher education to adult learners. In 1976 the University of Florida created
its own Division of Continuing Education and most courses were offered on evenings or weekends
to accommodate the schedules of working students.==For professionals==Within the domain of continuing education,
professional continuing education is a specific learning activity generally characterized
by the issuance of a certificate or continuing education units (CEU) for the purpose of documenting
attendance at a designated seminar or course of instruction. Licensing bodies in a number of fields (such
as teaching and healthcare) impose continuing education requirements on members who hold
licenses to continue practicing a particular profession. These requirements are intended to encourage
professionals to expand their foundations of knowledge and stay up-to-date on new developments. Depending on the field, these requirements
may be satisfied through college or university coursework, extension courses or conferences
and seminars attendance. Although individual professions may have different
standards, the most widely accepted standard, developed by the International Association
for Continuing Education & Training, is that ten contact hours equals one Continuing Education
Unit. Not all professionals use the CEU convention. For example, the American Psychological Association
accredits sponsors of continuing education and uses simply a CE approach. In contrast to the CEU, the CE credit is typically
one CE credit for each hour of contact. In the spring of 2009, Eduventures, a higher
education consulting firm, released the results of a study that illustrated that the recession
had made a significant impact on the views of prospective continuing education students. A survey of 1,500 adults who planned to enroll
in a course or program within the next two years determined that while nearly half of
respondents believed that the value of education had risen due to the recession, over two-thirds
said the state of the economy had affected their plans to pursue continuing education.The
World Bank’s 2019 World Development Report on the future of work explains that flexible
learning opportunities at universities and adult learning programs that allow workers
to retrain and retool are vital in order for labor markets to adjust to the future of work.==Method and format==
The method of delivery of continuing education can include traditional types of classroom
lectures and laboratories. However, many continuing education programs
make heavy use of distance education, which not only includes independent study, but can
also include videotaped material, broadcast programming or online education which has
more recently dominated the distance learning community.==See also==Continuing education unit
Continuing legal education Continuing medical education
Community education Dual enrollment
E-learning Independent scholar
Lifelong learning National Council of Labour Colleges
Workers’ Educational Association in Australia and the UK

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