Contendo’s SAGD Oil Sands Online Training Course


welcome to Contendo training solutions
fundamentals of steam assisted gravity drainage training course for bitumen
processing Contendo also offers fundamentals of SAGD courses covering SAGD well pads produced water De-Oiling and water treatment our unique
presentation of learning material our unique presentation of learning material provides something for all types of students whether their strong suits are listening reading or watching. we combine narrated discussions with animations and other visuals to clarify each concept
presented straight forward learning objectives are presented at the beginning of each chapter while review sections reinforce what we
have discussed the steam assisted gravity drainage process is a leading
in-situ bitumen recovery technique. we discuss all aspects of bitumen
processing in a SAGD facility from recovered emulsions to sales oil we describe the technologies and processes used to safely produce saleable oil from
reserves of bitumen recovered from the oil sands. the purpose of a sag D facility is to safely and economically produce sales
oil with specific vapor pressure water content API gravity and viscosity. You will follow the bitumen as it flows through a model SAGD central processing
facility and learn how it is processed from a high pressure mixed emulsion of
bitumen water and the hydrocarbon gas to oil
meeting all sales oil specifications. We use a combination of narrated animations text and other visuals to demonstrate how a process operates. We start with diluent heating and injection into the produced emulsion for density
adjustment of the bitumen. note that several downstream process vessels produce hydrocarbon condensate which can often be recycled and used as diluent. We follow the produced emulsion through
the bitumen Inlet section of a SAGD central processing facility where bulk
separation of oil and water occurs in a free water knockout. The resulting produced emulsion diluent mixture then has most of the remaining
water removed in an electrostatic treater to produce dehydrated dilbit The dilbit flows through the sales oil stabilisation system gas boot where
it is reduced in pressure to bring it to sales specification. The separated hydrocarbon vapors are processed through the gas handling section of the
stabilization system to produce fuel gas and hydrocarbon condensate. The sales oil is then stored until it can be transferred to the sales pipeline we
also follow the separation and recovery of produced gas from the produced gas
separator as it is processed for use as fuel gas in steam generation oilie produced water and hydrocarbon liquids are removed and directed to their
respective processed trains the produced gas joins other gas streams
in the mixed fuel gas separator for liquid removal before being burned in
the steam generators. accumulated unbroken emulsions called rag layers are removed from separation vessels and tanks and processed through the flash
treater to vaporize any remaining water from the Dilbit so that it can rejoin
the dehydrated Dilbit flowing to the stabilization section hydrocarbon vapors from the flash
treater are processed through the flash gas system to produce fuel gas and
hydrocarbon condensate a vapor recovery unit collects and
processes various usable gas streams to produce fuel gas and hydrocarbon
condensate. we include appropriate pressure safety valves throughout the
entire process and include a gas flare system to accept and burn relief vapors
and purge gases. detailed descriptions of process control systems show how certain
parameters up or downstream can affect local conditions control logic set points and commands explain how out of range process conditions can be dealt
with and comprehensive shutdown responses are demonstrated to show the
relationships between various system components here we show a vibration
transmitter on the VRU compressor and how a high vibration will alarm tripping
the compressor motor off to avoid damage and simultaneously closing a gas recycle
valve the PV and opening a compressor ring water bypass valve the X V in this course we discuss safety points relating to protection of personnel equipment and
the environment how gas vapors are removed and processed
for use as fuel gas so that the bitumen meets sales oil specifications for vapor
pressure how water and water vapors are removed so that the bitumen meets sales
oil specifications for water content and how Diluent is added so that the
bitumen meets sales oil specifications for API gravity and viscosity here is an excerpt from our free water
knockout chapter that demonstrates our presentation heated diluent reversed demulsifier and demulsifier are added to the produced
emulsion to enhance the oil water separation process the diluent and chemicals are completely blended into the emulsion in an inline mixer slop oil may also be routed to the free
water knock out inlet stream on a batch basis this is done to recycle the
hydrocarbon liquids from the slop tank as required chemicals are added to the inlet stream to enhance oil water separation
throughout the process these include demulsifier and reversed demulsifier this is
an important chemical process that accelerates oil water separation reversed emulsifiers will cause the oil droplets suspended in the produced water
to coalesce so they will rise to the surface as they are water-soluble they
will more readily mix with the produced water contained in the inlet stream demulsifiers promote coalescence of the water droplets in the dilbit to
form larger droplets that fall out of suspension heated diluent is injected downstream of
these chemical injection points to reduce the density and viscosity of the
emulsions bitumen components this aids in separating the bitumen from the produced water by increasing the density difference between the two and allows
shipping of the bitumen via pipeline by meeting the sales oil density
specification remember if diluent is not added to
the bitumen the sales oil at the end of the process would stop flowing as soon
as it’s cooled below its pour point temperature where a liquid becomes semi
solid and loses its flow characteristics generally the diluent to free water
knock out flow control scheme will take into account the production flow rate
downstream of the free water knock out after removal of produced water to
determine the diluent injection rate the mix feed stream it’s introduced into
the free water knockout through an inlet diffuser a series of internals within the vessel
promote the gravity separation of the dilbit and water the internals include
various deflectors baffles and packing to direct the flow and enhance
coalescence note that each installation will differ the produced emulsion separates into a
layer of wet dilbit in the upper section and oily produced water in the lower section with a rag layer between them the wet dilbit overflows a weir and
collects in an oil box located in the outlet end of the vessel from the oil box the wet Dilbert is
routed to the tree to feed coolers for cooling before proceeding to the
electrostatic treater for further processing this dilbit flow
is controlled to maintain the oil box level produced water is drawn off the bottom of the vessel under interface level
control the produced water is sent to the produced water system this process
is discussed in the produced water de-oiling course a rag layer of unbroken emulsion accumulates over time and will impair
separation at the oil water interface this is inherent in the process and
requires management to minimize its effect on the process to minimize the accumulation of a rag layer a portion of it is drawn off at
the interface level and recycled back to the inlet stream of the free water
knockout for further processing if the rag layer continues to accumulate
despite recycling the rag layer may have to be drawn off to the slop tank for
further processing this gives you an idea of how we discuss
process through system vessels as you progress through the course you
will see various warnings and safety points associated with the topic being
discussed these can be represented as safety
points to denote specific safety hazards and/or equipment used to mitigate the
hazards cautions to bring attention to possible
hazards or reminders to review material safety
data sheets we use various graphs and charts to
explain hazards such as hydrogen sulfide concentrations here is an excerpt h2s is colorless and flammable with
specific odor characteristics depending on the concentration at low concentrations less than one part
per million it has a very identifiable rotten egg smell this odor gets stronger in concentrations up to approximately 30
parts per million between 30 and 100 parts per million the
odor becomes sweeter above 100 parts per million the concentration
paralyzes nerves causing a loss of the sense of smell at this point you can be easily overcome
by the h2s without smelling anything at h2s concentrations above 200 parts
per million even a few breaths can cause collapse and death due to respiratory
failure formulas are used occasionally to prove
concepts such as this excerpt explaining gravity separation rates here is the modified Stokes law as a formula the modified Stokes law states
that the velocity of separation V is equal to
the density difference of the two phases represented by D 1 minus D 2 times the square of the size of the dispersed particles R squared times the gravitational constant C all divided by the viscosity of the continuous phase
and 1 all of the variables in the formula
influence separation to make the phases separate faster we can increase the difference in density decrease the viscosity of the continuous phase or increase the size of the droplets to be separated however the greatest impact is the size of the particles or droplets to be
separated because the relationship is not one-to-one but instead is the square
of the size this means that as the droplet size
doubles the separation velocity is increased by four times as size triples
the separation time is nine times faster as size quadruples the droplet
separates 16 times as fast and so on chapters include printable worksheets
for students to complete as they learn and individual tests that can be
attempted after viewing each chapter try the contend Oh fundamentals of sag d
bitumen processing course and you will receive the best comprehensive process
training available come on and see for yourself

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