AE Webinar 6.2 – Developing Your Students' Vocabulary and Grammar for Critical Thinking



American English American English American English webinar theory piece and American English where the Nazis you welcome everyone to our second session in American English webinar series 6 brought to you by the American English team at the u.s. Department of State in Washington DC let's start our session today with a great photo submitted by alumna caveats with her viewing group in Uzbekistan these webinar participants are pictured with their East certificate issued by their local US Embassy for their successful completion of the series 5 webinars we love to see teachers learning and exchanging ideas during webinars as well as celebrating their successful completion of a webinar series please share your webinar viewing photos by emailing them to American English webinars at Al Program stato RG we may feature them in the next webinar I'm Katie Subaru part of the American English team also known as moderator KDF Lauren and Heather will also be in the chat box today helping you out and supporting you throughout the webinar series here you can see the exciting schedule for this series our next series six webinar beyond proficiency nurturing critical thinking skills in the ESL classroom will be in two weeks on May 31st and it will be presented by our very own webinar moderator and past presenter Heather Vannucci our webinars are each 60 minutes long webinars are often related to a theme found on the american english website the teachers corner section from the website shown here features resources and lesson ideas related to the month's topic the theme for May is critical thinking next let's look at how you will participate in the webinars during these webinars you will hear but not see the presenter the way for you to participate is by typing in the chat box as many of you are already doing the chat box is where you can ask questions or make comments related to today's topic we may not be able to answer every question during the session and there are often hundreds of teachers participating however there is another place to ask questions after the session is over the Ning community for teachers which we'll look at in more detail momentarily the presenter may also ask you questions in the form of polled these multiple-choice questions will appear on the screen for you to answer some people may experience technical problems during the webinar we will let you know if we are having a global problem however if you do lose found you can follow along with the caption pod at the bottom of the screen if refreshing your internet browser doesn't correct a problem each webinar series consists of six webinars during the series webinars take place every other wednesday participants who attend at least four out of six webinars receive an e certificate from the regional english-language office or local US embassy after the series end to ensure you are eligible for the e certificate we will ask you to submit your attendance at the very end of the webinar at the end of the webinar you will go to the internet link that we provide you so that you can submit the requested attendance information we hope many of you are already Ning community members but if you haven't registered yet please do join us it may take up to 72 hours for your name registration to be approved but here you can find resources and discussion questions related to each webinar as well as all of the webinar recordings and featured materials the Ning is also where you can ask presenter questions after the webinar and live chat with the fellow with your fellow community members before I introduce our webinar for today I'd also like to encourage you to subscribe to our American English youtube channel you can find many useful videos there for both English language teachers and learners perhaps you have already subscribed but have you seen the new conversational English playlist these videos will help your students learn English to use in common conversational situations as the main character and meets new people talks about jobs and hobbies ask favors and more and now for today's webinar developing your students vocabulary and grammar for critical thinking so your students have difficulty practicing their critical thinking skills because they lack familiarity with key words and phrases during this webinar the presenter will identify key vocabulary and grammatical structures that your students can use for critical thinking exercises and he will Model multi-level classroom approaches for introducing and practicing them in critical thinking exercises through the use of visual media and now it is my pleasure to introduce today's presenter Bruce Rubin Bruce Rubin has taught English to international university students and adults immigrants since 1989 since 2001 he has been teaching for the American language program at California State University Fullerton while also training future teachers studying in the TESOL Department and foreign faculty participating in short term programs he is also the author of inside reading level 3 published by Oxford University Press Bruce is currently the interim director of the American language program welcome booth Thank You Katie that was a really nice introduction and welcome everybody I'm so happy to be here today this is developing your students vocabulary and grammar for critical thinking and as Katie mentioned I'm going to model and demonstrate some exercises for critical thinking in class this is our monthly theme here at American English I'm also going to build on a previous webinar about the use of photography in class and show how using photographs can be very interesting and rewarding for critical thinking practice and of course as the title of webinar says I'm going to focus on the language for critical thinking so I'll talk about some key important vocabulary and grammar structures that you can use with your students in class now the first thing I'd actually like to discuss briefly are your lobby poll results for number one about 57% of you say that your students are too low in their language skills to practice critical thinking in English I'm going to try to persuade you today that that might not be true and I'll give you some tips for dealing with students who are still kind of low in their language skills and about 43% of you think your students had the language skills to practice critical thinking but maybe they're not accustomed to doing it again I think I hope that some of the techniques we look at today will help your students get more engaged in in critical thinking as well as in your language lesson whatever it happens to be that day and will become more accustomed to doing it and will possibly enjoy doing it about 11% of you say your students have the language goals and the habit so of course one of our goals here today is to get that number up more of you tried and critical thinking even with low level students and see again how that impacts your classroom practices and outcomes now for number four here about 60% of you say that visual materials like pictures are generally more informative than written text and only about 10% of you say that written text is generally more informative than a picture so we'll see how that goes and of course I think most of us would say the combination of visual and written is the ideal but for critical thinking purposes or just in class we don't always have that that combination at hand so let's talk a little bit about the webinar goals again I want to demonstrate a sequence of critical thinking tasks from easily difficult I mean some of these you could do with students who are just learning English but all of them are also great for really advanced students who I think you'll mind will really enjoy these exercises and we're going to highlight vocabulary and grammar that we use specifically in the practice of critical thinking in particular vocabulary and grammar to show that sometimes we're not really certain about what we're seeing especially in a photograph or possibly in a book we're not really certain about the information that's presented there I won't spend too much time defining critical thinking but I just want to say most people look in the dictionary and pick out definition number one or critical judging severely and finding fault sounds so negative I think a lot of people a lot of students just don't want to do it they don't want to find mistakes or criticize people and that's what they think it means but meaning number two this is the one I prefer reflecting careful analysis and judgment this means you can analyze something without judging it just by asking some good questions investigating like a scientist or a detective you're not trying to criticize in fact you might find that you really appreciate an argument even more after doing some critical thinking and you might say oh this the speaker or this writer really really great so we're not necessarily looking for negatives we're looking for to get closer to the truth and that's what we're going to add here we're trying to get closer to the truth and we're also trying to distinguish between knowing and guessing this is particularly important with photographs where people often look at the photograph and think they know everything but when we start to analyze it we often find we have a lot more questions than answers but the fact that the photograph inspire so many questions that's what makes it a really great tool for critical thinking and for inspiring discussion and and even some creative thinking in the classroom here's a simple sequence for critical thinking I'm going to discuss each of these in a little more detail but we begin with observing and here I'm talking about a very close kind of observation looking at details again like a detective understanding and here it's not so hard sometimes to understand what's going on in a picture but sometimes as you'll see it's really hard to understand and I think we'll need to understand the limits of what we can really understand in a photograph we'll analyze it I'll give you some tips for that and we'll do some synthesizing here meaning bringing information together from more than one photo yeah I see something in the tax and the chat box about Bloom's taxonomy that's right this is originally where the sequence came from some of the details will come from from Bloom's taxonomy okay now before we we talk about this first thing let's try a raise your hand so if you've ever led a class discussion about photographs and what they show please raise your hand it's that little icon up in the left our taskbar up at the top it looks like lots of you have done that mm-hmm good all right great now this photo was really meant to be descriptive this is a cat and I thought the cat was observing something very important here of course do we know if the cat is really observing anything or is just getting sleepy now not not really but the details don't reveal a whole lot here maybe the way that chairs are made indicates they're for outdoors maybe the stack of them with the pretty colors indicates they're at a cafe or somebody's patio in fact I took this photo in Amsterdam at a sidewalk cafe several years ago but here for the technique make sure you let your students look closely at the photo before you show them any written text look at the whole picture and ask them I'm sure you've all done this what's it about what's going on just getting a general sense of it and then zoom in on details what do they tell us like the stacked chairs here what do they tell us or understanding again here's a picture by the way from one of the resources that we posted on the Ning this is from the New York Times article about ten intriguing photographs and this is a weekly feature that the New York Times has designed for teachers so you can go there any time and they'll have some really cool photos very suspenseful or but some of them kind of mysterious like this one here we want to know what's missing from this picture well of course we have no idea what some of the people are shielding their eyes from looking up at of course we're wondering how come this guy's not read doing the same thing and we so we don't know what's really happening in this picture at all and then you might also ask why did someone take this picture at all what was the photographer's purpose and here we don't know maybe he just thought this was an unusual looking scene people looking up at the sky and we don't really know what they're looking at for analyzing we'll start by breaking the photo into subject parts you can talk about location time people objects activities and you who are all English teachers I'm sure your mom's are already thinking oh yeah lots of good vocabulary practice there especially for all of them good location we're going to practice both of these a little bit later location and time objects could include count nouns non count nouns activities could include a lot of different verb tenses and then we can also take this another step and compare and contrast the photo with a different photo so we'll practice the grammar for that as well what other kinds of questions might you ask for critical thinking perhaps you could suggest a few in the chat box okay I see lots of people typing here yeah how can you relate to this picture that's nice what is going to happen next yep love it what's missing here mm-hmm what would you do if you were there love it and these these again are they show how what are they going to do after yes and what were they doing before have you ever been in this situation this is great and what you've actually presented here are a lot of great prompts for creative thinking again it's a small jump sometime from critical thinking to creative thinking creative thinkers use a lot of critical thinking skills in writing their stories or making their pictures a lot of great questions still coming up here that's really fantastic and here's a few more again trying to figure out what do we know and what do we we not know exactly we know what's going on in this picture how do we know we're going to generate some alternatives some Kompas abilities is it possible that something else might be happening you have any other ideas any hypotheses like a scientist will talk about this word again in the next slide that's a good critical thinking skill why do you think that some people think why is the most important critical thinking question word but they're all good why do you say that here again you're asking the student to provide some evidence for his or her thinking that's really important for synthesizing we're going to again put parts together to form a big picture and make connections between multiple photos this photo by the way from Yosemite National Park in Northern California not too far from where I live beautiful place okay with a photo in general when you're using these photos in class for critical thinking you want to ask simple questions but questions that do reveal something could be the standard questions who what when where how and yes of course why and you can keep your answers fairly simple depending on the level of your students but we really want to guide the students to show them what we really know about what is happening in the picture and what we're not sure about and when we respond to the picture and when we report about the picture we want to be careful with the language we use we want the language to indicate that we're really sure about something or maybe we're not so sure and we want to generate hypotheses like a scientist or a detective or a journalist or an engineer or a creative artist or writer what is a hypothesis well a possible explanation that needs testing or more evidence before we can say it's true in the photo here you have one of the most famous scientists in history Albert Einstein you'll notice that I'm Stein has his famous formula e equals MC squared up on the board there but it says pixabay equals e equals MC square now pixabay is a great source I put the picture on here partly so that you would be aware of it and feel free to use a lot of three great three photos several photos like this one came from pixabay and this in this webinar the pixabay did not exist during Einsteins lifetime so this is also an indication that sometimes photos can be manipulated to show something that may not have ever really happened we don't want to dwell on this too much in class but we do want to look for photos that we think are more trustworthy and here's our photo number one again I'm not going to tell you anything about it until we're finished discussing and now I'll share everything I know about it and we're going to start just by asking a couple of questions where is this and yes I see that it's in a dining room of some kind but where in the world do you think this is happening where is where in the world is this scene taking place okay I see a u.s. European Union USA clueless Russia Germany do we know well just from looking now we don't know we might say North America South America Europe these appear to be European American people here do we know when this scene is taking place I see some looking at the chat box I see oh it could be anywhere somewhere when yeah I see 1960s 1950s 1980s a little bit before that how do we know we're always we see the black and white photo although here I have to say I live very close to Hollywood and as you know I think Hollywood can recreate any scene Oh Regina and Brazil got the got the 1940s very good Hollywood can recreate anything but this is not a Hollywood scene this is a real scene and actually if you zoom in on this photo you see a calendar on the wall over the older woman's head and it says May 1940 so actually if your students and you're guiding your students to be detectives they'll see that calendar and they'll see the May 1940 and the calendar also indicates that we're in an english-speaking country still don't know which one but Oh you know as soon as we're done here okay now let's go to a poll here and see what you think about some details of this photo so tell me which ones you think are true sentence a these children are all siblings siblings are brothers and sisters beat there are no other children in this family see the father of this family is at work D this is a happy ham i and ii this is a healthy family and good results are coming in and i'm going to ask you how do you know how do you know these children are all siblings well actually i don't think we really know just by looking one of those girls or the boy could be a neighbor could be a friend could be a cousin they do look a little bit alike i see that they do look comfortable and happy together sure again they could be neighbors friends cousins not sure that they're all siblings what about other children in this family maybe other children are out working or visiting their friends we really don't know would there could be another child sleeping in another room maybe sick can come to dinner we don't know answer see the father of this family is at work again i see only about 14% of you are saying that's true good because honestly we don't know in fact how about some hypotheses for the father where else could the father be what other possibilities are there for the father it might be dead might be sleeping might be at the wall or might be taking a shower I'd be working mm-hmm yeah very good it could be divorced I'd be out of the country maybe he's taking the picture yeah those are all great great great great so we really don't know where the father is answer D and E these are little little trickier this is a happy family and yes I see it that 42% of you say this is a happy family it's hard to say no they're not happy they look so happy together write it here at this moment yeah they're all smiling but remember when the photographer takes a picture he omits or excludes or cuts out everything around it in space so yeah we don't know where the father is he might be standing to the side and this is just one moment in time they look very happy right now at this moment but do we know how happy they were before this photo was taken or after this photo was taken we really don't so it's hard to say that this is a happy family or this is a healthy family they look healthy sure but we don't really know what's going on shot on inside so just from looking it's hard to say this is a happy family to be good critical thinkers good responders we should say this looks like a happy family or they look happy this looks like a healthy family they look healthy so that's what we're going to practice just a little bit more here is using that word look when you say they look healthy they look happy you're saying they're not we're not 100% sure about what they're like all the time so let's try poll number three here and practices just a little bit more how about the mother on the left the older woman does she look smart does she look tough does she look mean does she look loving ya bout ninety over ninety percent of you are saying she looks loving we really don't know if she's smart or not she doesn't look tough she doesn't look mean that's for sure yeah she does look loving is she really loving I hope so I hope she was I believe she was but I don't know if she was or she wasn't really let's take a look at one more poll here again now we're going to get into some of the action in the picture here why is the family laughing that's really the center of this picture I think why are they laughing do we know well the mother told a joke maybe the boy told an embarrassing story maybe one of the girls dropped her food on the floor possible or is it statement B we have no idea yeah I think most of you are you've got it 67% saying yeah we really don't know why they're laughing ABC these are all possible hypotheses and could be a great way to start a creative story about this photo but in reality we don't know why they're laughing these are hypotheses okay there are a few other ways to talk about what we're seeing here now you can also say maybe they are happy and healthy probably happy and healthy they might be happy and healthy I think that they are happy and healthy or I feel that they are happy and healthy or I believe that they are happy and healthy notice I'm not saying I know that they are happy and healthy I don't know that but I think it I feel it I believe it means I'm not 100% sure I don't have enough evidence to say I can also say it is possible that they are happy and healthy and for slightly more advanced learners this is so common in academic writing and also in the newspapers and television the photos suggests that they are happy and healthy many many news reports will say something like the research suggests that vegetables are good for your help well what does that mean suggests it means yeah there's some research that's good we have some knowledge but when a scientist hears suggest that he or she thinks well that means we've got to do more research there's much more to learn but we're off to a good start now let's let's practice this one a little bit with a fill-in-the-blank exercise there laughter suggests that please give me a few ways suggest from Lebanon that they might be happy very good now actually with suggest you don't have to add the might be suggest already tells you it's a it's a maybe so to suggest they are happy suggests they are having fun together suggests they are having a great time suggests that they love each other those are all great and for this one their table suggests that okay they have food they're not going hungry they have a nicely set table yeah understood oh yeah they are they are tidy and clean they are middle-class they're not rich perhaps but yeah somebody says here they feel like they're rich it does look that way doesn't it and their house suggests Oh perhaps some of the same that their middle-class that they're comfortable that they're neat and tidy that they're modest that they're ordinary people they're sharing things and talking in a friendly way wonderful other opportunities for language practice of course you can focus on objects and use that construction there is there are and prepositions of location so you could say something like there is a calendar on the wall so I've got my there is and I've got my preposition of location there and for activities I like using practicing the present continuous tense here in this photograph he is surfing this is a common hobby out here in Southern California that's a nice big way and so you could say you could use the present continuous tense for to describe a lot of things in this photo so let's take a look again and and try to fill in the blank one more time give me one sentence with there is or there are there is delicious food on the table I thank you Azerbaijan okay that's very done and there is a table there are people very simple any beginning language class could be making sentences like that in fact there is there are is usually in the first level of grammar instruction there's milk on the table there are some pancakes there is a cupboard there there's a window lots of things to notice in this room alright great job so far how about please give me a sentence using they are or the boy is use present continuous tense they are eating they are having dinner they are drinking well it says drinking tea actually I see them drinking milk they are having a nice moment they are laughing yep the boy is sitting the boy is eating the boy is wearing a white t-shirt thank you from Libya the boy is drinking milk the boy is telling a joke so yeah a lot of good things a lot of good sentences you can generate if you guide your students now at the end after you've done all the language practice you feel like doing with these photos then you can reveal what you really know and here's what I know about this picture May 1940 mrs. Hanson wife of a farmer in Utah that's in the western United States has dinner with her three children so they are siblings they are her children she's the mom on the table our home produced milk homemade bread home canned peaches home-churned butter and this my home turned turned I got they got a turn the butter stir it over and over and over again to to make it thick like butter and fish caught by the three children the day this picture was taken nice detail homemade dill pickles provided a relish a little extra flavor pickles come from a vegetable called the cumber so now we have quite a bit of information here let's try poll number five and see what do we what can we say we know now about this family whole number by alright what do we know now answer a they are a farm family answer B they have cows answer see they grow fruit and vegetables answer D there's a river or a lake nearby answer e the boy is a college student all right well 96% of you are saying they are a farm family yes we know this it said so in the written text she's the wife of a farmer they have cows I think we do we do know this because they have home made milk home produced milk on the table there they grow fruit and vegetables well the text says they have home canned peaches and homemade pickles which come from vegetables so I think they do grow fruit and vegetables there is a river or a lake nearby well the written text said the children caught the fish that day so the river or the lake where the fish live can't be too far away the boy is a college student yeah very good only 4% of you chose this one because we really don't know I don't know how old the boy is or what kind of school he may or may not go to we really have no idea so I think a B C and D are all good ones to select answer e not so good we just don't know okay so what other kinds of things could you do with this picture in class could you give me a suggestion or two what else could you do with this picture in class I'll share one yep you could make up a story you could do some peer work about what's going on in the story and you could create a news story uh-huh you could create dialogue oh I love that imagine a dialogue between the people sitting there at the table it's great you could write a play out of that and then students could perform it really nice building vocabulary yes have somebody narrate the story make up a short story dramatize it Wow yeah a lot a lot of great things you can do these are all great great ideas here's one that I've done many many times and I've I posted this on the min so you could use it if you feel like it I've also posted another workshop on other ways to analyze a photograph and the title of that one is called reading a photograph I really think people have to take photographs more seriously like the way they take a written text seriously but in my assignment I have each student in the class choose a photograph not an advertisement but a real photograph and I ask the student to lead a class discussion about the photo just like we've been doing today without revealing any information any written information until the very end and then I ask the student to write a brief report about the photo using the same approach telling me what they knew just by looking and what they knew from some other written information like the photo title or the caption and you want to make sure if you do this assignment or any assignment with photos make sure the student includes a copy of the photo so that you can refer to it you can't just assume you can figure out whether the student is right or not you've got to be able to see it yourself but my students have found some really amazing photos very interesting often we end up saying the photo is better at inspiring questions than it is for revealing exact information but it's it's really great okay now here's um another photo so we'll we're going to do a little compare and contrast with this one but just to start out what kind of questions would you suggest for your students on this one there is a little information on this when it come it comes from a site called photos for class another great great website for free photos it does yeah where are they eating what are they eating where are they it does say family restaurant at the bottom but what are they celebrating where they prom you could talk about ordering food yeah that's a great suggestion their restaurant conversation restaurant English is it a holiday under the field yep these are all great questions and you can ask the usual when where who are these people what kind of objects that are there there do we know where this one is well there is a sign on the table it says did you know so again it appears to be the english-speaking world the food I see macaroni and cheese I'm thinking that's a kind of American food I'm not actually 100% sure about that but we know it's again somewhere in the english-speaking world it says 2011 on it so not not so long ago there's some good questions you could ask her about who's missing I actually see 1 2 3 4 5 si got eight trays out there and six people so there could be one or two people missing unless unless the one missing person I only see one empty chair so maybe he's just going to eat eat enough for two people I don't know but you could ask your students who's missing and again if you look carefully like a detective you'll see three generations here we think three children the two parents mom and dad sitting under the window and across from them an older lady could be might be possibly is grandma so maybe the missing person is the grandfather and where is he maybe he went to get a fork or maybe he went to the restroom but I think it's quite possible that he's taking the picture I don't know why they would take a picture of grandpa's not there so I'm thinking maybe grandpa is taking the picture but do we know nope we really don't know for sure okay let's do a little more practice with the grammar for making comparisons and then we'll do a few comparisons with those pictures here's the standard form take the adjective add er include the word then so X is cheaper than Y or Y is more expensive than X now when there's a similarity you could say something like X is cheaper than Y but both are expensive and we'll talk a bit about some similarities as we go here today but first let's try another poll in poll number 6 let's read these statements and mark the ones you think are true first one family a is healthier than family B because family a it's homemade food and family B each restaurant food each family a is happier than family be because family a eats at home C family B is bigger than family a because family B eats more varied food in restaurants okay very interesting full results a lot of you are going for answer a family is healthier because family Amy eats homemade food well I don't know which Valley is healthier to me they both look healthy and we don't know for sure who's healthy and who's not they look healthy so I don't think we can really say for sure I don't think it's necessarily true that family a is healthier I think this is a common assumption a common belief around the world today that homemade food is healthier than restaurant food sometimes it might be but sometimes it might not be depends on the cook answer B and C nobody really went for those that's great we don't really know which family is happier and for C I'm not really sure which family is bigger there are three generations in family B that doesn't mean there aren't three generations four family a but they're not all in the picture so I don't know which ones which family is truly bigger family B looks bigger but I don't think it's because of the food they eat we really don't know similarities for these pictures well we could say they both have both families have three children assuming those are all the children both families have one boy and two girls they both like eating dinner together so they do have some similarities okay let's do let's do one more poll mark the statements that you think are true but notice the language on this one family B looks bigger than family a yeah I think it does family B definitely looks bigger family B might be bigger mm-hmm it might be I think family B is bigger pink is good here you're not certain about it maybe family B is bigger maybe is a good word to use here family B is probably bigger again shows were we're not certain so that uh that's a true statement good statement it's possible that family B is bigger that's even better than the one before and lastly the photos suggest that family B is bigger than family a very good these are all good I think these are all truthful statements they don't say that we know everything they don't say that we know for sure but they're truthful in the way they say we don't know for sure but this is what we're thinking like a detective like a scientist okay let's do a little bit of synthesis practice really quickly but as we do we're actually going to look at a little more language and grammar here both these quantifiers often come in either vocabulary or grammar books you want to be careful about saying things like all families always get together no no or it's better to say many families eat together or most families eat together sometimes so using most many some or a few is more careful and more accurate than using all-or-none and then with the frequency adverbs you want to be careful with always or never again to say all families always eat in a restaurant or no families ever even a restaurant neither are true better to use usually often sometimes occasionally rarely these world these words will really help your students be persuasive when they argue and they'll help others believe what your students had to say when they are more accurate with their language I'm not trying to say they know more than they really do so again let's let's package this quickly all families have children no not all all families eat together at a table no not all all families live in a house No most families have children actually when I wrote this I thought oh yeah that that is true in the United States today I'm not sure it's actually a most it might be about 40 percent or so depends on how you define the word family family for the US government a family as a husband and wife in the same house so they might not have children but many families eat together at a table I think that's a good statement some families live in a house sure nobody will argue with that this is part of what you're doing is saying things that people won't argue with so that they'll agree with what your you're talking about and you're more likely to convince them now when sometimes the writer or the speaker will tell you something but not everything they'll say some something like a equals B and then they might say e equals C you might recognize this from geometry in your in a mathematics class or and if any of you are philosophy majors this comes from symbolic logic now if you somebody says number one and somebody says number two therefore there's a step three a must equal C and this is what we call an inference yes this is logic and I've seen a few of you in the chat box already use this word in and you're right now here in English we say the writer or speaker implies a equal C means he doesn't actually ever say it and the reader or the listener in version now let's practice this just a little bit more so what can you infer I haven't eaten all day you could infer you must be hungry she didn't sleep last night what could we infer they didn't have an idea here you must be tired she must be tired very good or he finally passed the test you must be happy good I'm seeing a lot of great responses there very good must be happy and this restaurant is always crowded what could we infer must be good must have good food or must be good value in some well so this is a good word to know for critical thinking and this one says yeah it must be popular very good this one says you really are certain about something now we've done a lot of good work here with photographs I did want to present one example of something that would be a little bit more complex in the grammar mainly this is the kind of sentence that your students either now or someday will see on a difficult test like the TOEFL or IELTS or the SAT sometimes the grammar is a little hard to understand but look at this statement nine out of ten doctors responding to a survey said they recommend our product to their patients if they recommend anything let's set a poll on this one I think we're going to pull nine can we say which of the following statements are true can we say that nine out of ten doctors recommend the product well it said nine out of ten doctors responding to a survey so that doesn't mean nine out of ten doctors of all the doctors in the world it just means the ones who responded to a survey and even the ones who responded to a survey says at the end if they recommend anything this means maybe they didn't recommend anything so answer a to general we don't know how many doctors recommend the product we don't know how many doctors responded to the survey and we don't know how many recommended anything so therefore answer be also a problem we just don't know if most doctors recommend the product we don't know what they recommended anything or if they responded so answer C is the one true statement here this is the only good one we don't know how many doctors recommend the product and just going to highlight the the grammar there for you briefly on the next slide again the goal of this type of item is to avoid over generalizing you have to look specifically at the grammar and nine out of ten doctors responding this is what we call in grammar an adjective clause reduced to the ing form it really means doctors who respond it and then there's a key word there if there's from the grammar books a conditional they might recommend something and they might not recommend anything at all okay a few minutes left here I'd like to review a few other sentences and that I think are good to use for critical thinking we believe that the data will prove we are right we think that the data will prove we are right we feel the data will prove rewrite again all of these showing we're not really certain about it we had data that probably proves we are right also we're not certain data that might prove we are right and it's possible that the data will prove we are right or we have data that suggests we are right these are really nice phrases nice constructions nice structures to use for critical thinking okay before I summarize the webinar I'd like to try one more poll let's go to poll number 10 it's got a few of the same questions we had in the lobby before the webinar started and I'm curious how you feel now at the end of the webinar okay number one my students are too low in their language skills to practice critical clicking okay great I see this number going going down down down that's good and for the webinar this is at about a fifty seven percent response rate not only about twenty five percent of you agree with it I'm so glad and number two visual materials like pictures are generally more informative okay then that hasn't changed too much and written text is generally more informative okay that hasn't changed too much either and I think again will we all agree that a combination of visual material and written text is the strongest and most persuasive combination to summarize the webinar here I would like to say that sure critical thinking I think we all know this is so much harder in a second language because there's so much unclear language in the reading and listening that our students are encounter and yet when they speak we accept expect them to be clear and exact in their writing and their speaking so it's a big challenge to be a good critical thinker in a second language I really admired those of you who can do it well I'm really impressed by it and number two whether critical thinking is the main focus of a lesson or maybe it's just a side story a couple of extra questions in a grammar or vocabulary lesson it can really deepen student engagement in the material and I think your students will really appreciate it it will be something more than just a language class for them it would be something more meaningful and it will help them throughout their lives not only as students but as people as consumers and finally critical thinking can be practiced at all English proficiency levels so I hope you'll try this even with students who are just just learning so thank you so much for participating today I hope you enjoyed it I hope you found it useful I hope you'll give some of these techniques a try in class thank you very much yes for developing our students critical thinking practice to the use of visual media you provided some great strategies for introducing key vocabulary and grammatical errors while guiding students to complete critical thinking tasks we look forward to the post webinar discussion and to exploring your Ning resource page and we'd also like to thank you our audience for your active participation today we look forward to learning with you again in two weeks on may 31st when Heather bernucci will help us to better understand what it means to think critically

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