2009 TLHE Invited Lecture 3: The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, Research and Research-



it looks like you need to take out a pen and a clean sheet of paper question one write a paragraph describing your most recent holiday using the words epistemology phenomena griffey interdisciplinarity in the paragraph you must also use the definite article well Matthew did warn you you're going to have a test and this is it come on there are other questions but I think not what I'd prefer to talk to you about today are two frontier issues and provide you with two frameworks for you to think about those issues the first of them is to do with the scholarship of teaching and learning and more particularly asking the question that it may not be the same as research and how might they be different and how might they be related so I'd like to address that issue the second one really is research led teaching what is it and and is it a part of the scholarship of teaching and learning and do these questions matter so that's where I'm going to go in this brief presentation the reason I want to talk about this is that when Boyer first talked about the four scholarships of teaching which I'll come to in a moment he advocated four reasons why we should look at the scholarship of teaching and learning actually what all he did was asked to look at the scholarship of teaching learning wasn't in the equation at the time but the main reason for looking at the scholarship of teaching and learning was as a way of raising the status of teaching because research had prominence in most of the sorts of universities at a research led teaching was considered to be a poor relation so he thought by calling all sorts of things scholarship scholarship of teaching scholarship of discovery that this might be a way of raising the status or making them more equal the second reason was a Main Street which teachers may come to teach more knowledgeably the third was a means through which the quality of teaching may be assessed and the fourth and to me the most important way to enhance the students experience of learning now what I'd like you to do is if you think the scholarship of teaching and learning is about research in the University teaching and learning ask yourself whether the purposes of the scholarship of teaching and learning are met by that conjunction in other words if you call the scholarship of teaching and learning research into teaching and learning how does that raise the status of teaching all you're doing is saying research is more important let's apply it to our teaching that doesn't raise the status of teaching in my mind it loses the point a ministry which teachers may come to teach more knowledgeable yes I accept it if you do research into teaching and learning it probably does lead to teaching becoming teachers becoming more knowledgeable but if teaching is about student learning is it really about our students it may be for those further down the track but not for those that we're currently teaching or about to teach next semester not in most cases a ministry which the quality of teaching may be assessed well possibly but would you want to be assessed as a teacher on the basis of your publications in teaching I doubt it there are very few people that are and finally as a way to enhance student experience of learning well yes as I've said it's possible that investigating or doing research into teaching may lead to the enhancement of the experience of learning but probably not immediately when those students are looking for it so I very interesting I'd like to move on to something more interesting so moving right on I'd like to look at something a little bit more different than considering the scholarship of teaching and learning as being research I don't think it is only that I think it's a part of what's going on but it's not the whole lot so in order to get where I want to go I need to define what scholarship is and the first part of that is to pick up some work on a colleague from the University of New South Wales who's long gone now in terms of work but he defying the scholarly work in this way that it was something we engage in with academic rigor integrity honesty and we're open-minded about it we have we looked we're skeptical about what's going on and it has an element of humility about it that scholarly work but that could happen in a garret you know you know you know in a room at the top of a quadrangle they could in a log-cabin retreat it doesn't have to be something that the rest of the world knows about that process can be a private one and for many people it is many of us know wonderful scholars whose work never sees the light of day scholarship takes it a step further scholarship for me is taking that process of the scholarly honest integrity based work into the public arena for scrutiny by our peers it's when it goes through that process that it becomes part of a wider set of knowledge and some of the strange things that people do in their scholarly work in their Gerrits sees the light of day and gets questioned it's the last part of this is to make transparent the processes that we're using when we engage in those scholarly activities now that's a definition of scholarship that for me applies to all of our work it applies to our research but it also applies to our teaching we can engage in teaching in a scholarly way when we take our thinking about teaching into the public arena we're engaged in the scholarship of teaching because our peers are commenting on that but they're not necessarily coming commenting on our scholarship of discovery they're commenting for me on the processes we use to make learning possible and that's what I'm going to get to in a few moments so Boyer's for scholarships what he saw were there's three things that he saw a four things that had equal status and we'll get to there through this process that the these scholarships are all a forms of scholarship but they overlap in their domains and I'm going to focus in this talk just on the teaching domain and the discovery domain the integration is about synthesizing discovery the application is more about consultancy those sorts of things so if we look at just teaching what is the scholarship of teaching well I'm saying and this is one definition of teaching if teaching is about making learning possible then the scholarship of teaching is about is about making transparent how learning is made possible what is it that you draw on from your experience from the literature from your colleagues that enables you to think that when you're engaging in a practice of teaching that you think learning will be possible from that act what is it that Graham Gibbs said on the first day about assessment that made you think if I applied that then it might enhance learning so if you have those ideas and you link them to the literature and you link them to experience and you link them to your colleagues work then and you make that transparent in a session like this then for me you're engaging in the scholarship of teaching now there are the definitions and you can apply them yourself my code my former colleague said her teaching is about collaborative meaning making well same thing applies then the scholarship of teaching is about making transparent how collaborative meaning making is happening so whatever your definition of it is it's showing that process to others it isn't necessarily showing your discoveries about aspects of teaching to others it's the practice of teaching which is what differs the scholarship of teaching from the scholarship of discovery and for me that's what what's important because that's where the students benefit most so an example making transparent how learning has been made possible for example discussing reflecting describing in an informed and literature based scholarly way what happened and why and an example a departmental discussion how many departmental discussions actually draw on the literature draw on the experience of others if they do and that departmental discussion is minuted that for me constitutes the scholarship of teaching because there's an engagement and a peer review about the processes of making learning possible but we don't tend to call it that I'm not sure why the important thing about all this is that I'm not rejecting research into teaching and learning I'm saying that's the area of overlap between the scholarship of teaching which is mostly not about this and the scholarship of discovery which it mostly is about it's the investigations into teaching where teaching is the focus of the discovery and to make this easier to grasp we've tried to look at three different ways in which this might be done and I've got a table and I'm going to illustrate this table with three videos and all I'll put the videos I'll explain a bit about the videos each time but this first level is what I'm doing at the moment I'm informing myself about your response to what I'm doing in the lecture when I'm seeing three of your four get thought of you nodding up off down the back I'm thinking maybe I'm maybe I'm losing something here maybe I've lost the plot if this is personal knowledge for me it's not something I want to publish it's verified by me it's something we do all the time in our activities we do it every day when we walk across the street we look to see if a car is coming we verify ourselves as to whether we're going to be hit or not this is just good practice everybody does it in their profession but it can get caught up in notions of research and I'll illustrate this with a short video from the film Gosford Park yeah but no cleaner bow and no jet excuse me I'm sorry thank you I did research nobody ever heard of it yeah will you tell youtell she and I'll sign my land but it's ixnay on the under so you can see that's all it takes verified by himself he's convinced he's done research he's convinced about that fact and you move on it's such an important thing we do all the time in our life we'd never consult with our peers but the next level requires us to do that and this is for me at the heart of scholarship and teaching and learning where the purpose of the investigation we're engaged in engaging and I'm not talking about research here but the purpose of the investigation is in a shared context it might be team teaching it might be a departmental context it might be with students with the teacher might be a group of students even that are engaged in this but the point is that the evidence gathered in that process is verified by the group themselves in that context they're the only ones that need to be convinced that what you've found matters and that constitutes local knowledge it may or may not be important for other contexts in many cases it won't be because it's contextually based and the reason that that's important is acting upon that is where we get changes to the student experience we don't have to go through the post processes of publishing peer review and so on it's done in the departmental meeting it's done in the team meeting I'm going to illustrate this with two videos joined up there's no break in between them other than you'll see the difference the first one is setting a context for an educational activity the second part is a person reviewing the process of evaluating that activity and is that evaluation process which constitutes this level of investigation kanya learning is that many people agree the most difficult part of Japanese learning by the alphabet based or European language based people and that's where we have been over the years trying to find a method to let them overcome that that difficulty and then the root of that difficulty we identified as mental transition from sound based writing system which is alphabet to the meaning based writing system precede counted so throughout the project we kept that one in mind how to overcome that difficulty because of simulation runs in a simulation suite we could observe the people participating we use questionnaires so that at the end of the semester we'd ask the students what they thought the strengths and weaknesses of that learning persist with what they liked what they didn't like how their improvement we also use debriefing sessions which we find out how things are going what the issues were we also used individual entities with students same sort of reason and then more recently actually partly that is Cortland we've had independent evaluations once one support process and we'll also have a research fellow at the university how am i doing independent evaluation so we get all that data and then we get together as a group that this far plus the tutors who are often external to universities so they're industry based experts to review that information to say that my family never changes that for me is the sort of inquiry that leads to changes that leads to improvements in student learning almost immediately after that investigation it's a very good example of the scholarship of learning and teaching the context stayed within that group but the focus was the students not on publication the final area and this is where it does this is where the overlap is between the scholarship of teaching and learning and the scholarship of discovery the infant the audience here is an international one it's verified by those in that context it's classic research scholarship of discovery this video is taken from the film Copenhagen where two physicists meet and talk about their experience first time I ever set eyes on you one of those lectures I was getting in getting him what are you talking about you stood up and laid into me I offered a few comments beautiful summer's day in from the garden rows of eminent physicists and mathematicians all with my benevolence wisdom suddenly up jumps a cheeky on pop and tells me my mathematics are wrong they were wrong 20 but the movie buffs among you may recognize a very young James Bond they're also known as Schrodinger Heisenberg I can't mean but it was the physicist doesn't know Bohr is one of them trolling is the other one I think but you can get the point there this is this is about peer review this is about the public display to check the credibility of the thinking was was there transparency in in Bohr's mathematics so I what I've done is talk here about overlapping scholarships I'm running out of time rapidly so I'm going to move through this but what you've seen my definition of the scholarship of teaching and learning is illustrated more with level two and the overlap there comes with level three and then there are all sorts of other forms of scholarship of discovery as well so my main points here really are that scholarship is not the same as research it was never intended to be by Boyer and I don't see it as being that personal investigation is a part of being scholarly making it public is the scholarship perp investigation at level two is a defining element of the scholarship of teaching always but investigation at level three can be both it's sorry it's always a part of the scholarship of discovery but it can be a part of the scholarship of teaching and learning as well so moving on to the second half rather rapidly now that we know where we are I'm going to address the second question research led teaching and what is it and I'm going to do this through the eyes of my own University's attempt to introduce research led teaching it has a policy and the policy is that its responsibility of the university to ensure that students work in an environment that has a number of elements the contents of the programs of study have research in them the development of inquiry based learning the process has got research in it and there is proactive engagement of staff and students in research into university teaching and learning what does that mean well if you look at the content first I'd like you to describe this to you in terms of the how and the watt of teaching the the watt of teaching in theory is the same as learning that's what teachers set out to do that what they're teaching they're hoping their students will learn well for me that subject-matter research is the content programs of study and you've all experienced that the development of inquiry based learning is the how of learning how our students are going about about their learning is that involving inquiry methods well if it is then that's where research relates to learning the third area is the how of teaching investigations into the way teaching is conducted and that's pedagogical research what most people call it so expanding on these quite quickly we get to the point where subject matter research is a research outcome and therefore the link between research and teaching is through that subject matter research it can be the research that others have done such as Einstein Darwin and we introduce that into our curricula our own research could also be introduced into our curricula as research led teaching and learning this is what always has happened over the years we've built on research but this is what's happening more that our own research is becoming part of undergraduate programs in some cases in many cases in fact so that's the what and that's the link between research and teaching and learning if we go to inquiry based learning well we're really talking here about a research process research involves a high level a high quality way of thinking why not let our students go down that path what I'd encourage them to engage in those sorts of processes and we can use our own research processes here or the research of others the processes that they use I would suggest both an example of that would be problem-based learning if we zip over to the other side now we're talking about the how dimension of teaching here we're talking about pedagogue research as a research outcome it can be the research of others for example John Biggs work on constructive alignment graham gibbs work on assessment bringing that into our curriculum is one way of doing it another way is to use our own pedagogical research to engage in John Biggs work I've mentioned our own might be analyzing the student feedback results we get and changing our teaching as a result of that well I've almost come to the end but I think what I said before was that what most people think of as research led teaching is in that middle column it's usually now what the REIT what the teachers do in their own research and bringing that into the curriculum but what I've circled there on the right-hand side is that I think inquiry based learning using the teachers own research in other words having the students working with the teacher on his or her own her own research is now the way that many universities are going and many meaning about between five and ten from my experience but for example whole first-year chemistry departments at Michigan involving the students in the original research of the academic staff in some way getting them getting them to feel what the environment is for research and so on so that's my message all those those key diagrams are in the paper that you've got in in summary that I think pedagogical research one's own and others is the scholarship of teaching and learning that form of inquiry I talked about but subject matter research and inquiry led teaching and not but it doesn't matter I mean these are just names for me what's important is all three approaches to teaching a desireable as they're designed to enhance student learning so in conclusion I haven't finished it I've only summarized a part of it all those things of one's teaching is a part but only a part of the scholarship of teaching that what I'm trying to get at is that the scholarship of teaching needs to be about the act of teaching it's through the act of teaching that student learning happens so the scholarship of teaching has got to be about the act of teaching in some way and that's what I've tried to together and it's just one dimension of research-led teaching but it's a vital one for student learning so

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